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Results 301 - 350 of 1506
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Cressman Erin K - - 2010
Motor adaptation in response to a visuomotor distortion arises when the usual motor command no longer results in the predicted sensory output. In this study, we examined if exposure to a sensory discrepancy was sufficient on its own to produce changes in reaches and recalibrate the sense of felt hand ...
Gohau Gabriel - - 2010
Upon returning from his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin prepared reports of his geological observations. Together, these reveal Darwin's approach to reasoning about geology. Darwin argued that successive terraces prove a very gradual elevation of the coast that lagoon islands show a reciprocal sinking of the oceanic floor. Hence, Darwin ...
Tokiwa H - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine anatomical locations of the hinge axis point, kinematic axis point and reference point for the palpated lateral condylar pole on lateral cephalograms. Subjects comprised 18 Japanese women selected according to following criteria: normal occlusion; and absence of signs and symptoms of stomatognathic ...
Kovacs Attila J AJ Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, - - 2010
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the influence of Lissajous feedback on 1:1 bimanual coordination patterns (0 degrees , 90 degrees , and 180 degrees phase lags) when the movement amplitudes of the two limbs were different (30 degrees , 60 degrees ). The present data supports the ...
Yonetsu Ryo - - 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess sit-to-stand (STS) movements of a child with cerebral palsy before and after physiotherapy (PT), based on objective kinematic data. METHODS: A child with cerebral spastic diplegia, aged 4 years and 6 months, and had no prior surgery, was the subject. In ...
Benvenuti Cinzia - - 2010
Agility is the player's capability to perform rapid whole-body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to assess the reliability of a reactive visual stimuli agility field test (RVS-T); and 2) to evaluate differences in RVS-T ...
Torres Elizabeth B - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand ...
Kwok Ka-Wai - - 2010
Flexible, ergonomically enhanced surgical robots have important applications to transluminal endoscopic surgery, for which path-following and dynamic shape conformance are essential. In this paper, kinematic control of a snake robot for motion stabilisation under dynamic active constraints is addressed. The main objective is to enable the robot to track the ...
Petersen Carl J - - 2010
We compared the movement patterns of cricketers in different playing positions across three formats of cricket (Twenty20, One Day, multi-day matches). Cricket Australia Centre of Excellence cricketers (n = 42) from five positions (batting, fast bowling, spin bowling, wicketkeeping, and fielding) had their movement patterns (walk, jog, run, stride, and ...
Shafir Tal - - 2010
Accurate timing of limb displacement is crucial for effective motor control. The authors examined the effects of movement velocity, duration, direction, added mass, and auditory cueing on timing, spatial, and trajectory variability of single- and multijoint rhythmic movements. During single-joint movements, increased velocity decreased timing and spatial variability, whereas increased ...
Sarlegna Fabrice R - - 2010
Most reaching arm movements have amplitude and direction constraints. Here we investigated the interdependence of these movement parameters in terms of visual control. To do so, we asked human adults to look and reach toward targets such that, in a first experiment, both movement amplitude and direction had to be ...
Maki Hiromichi - - 2010
We have developed a non-intrusive safety monitoring system which can measure respiration and body movements of solitary-living elderly people while they are in their home bathroom. These physiological variables are monitored with a 40 kHz ultrasonic transmitter and four receivers. The ultrasonic transmitter diffuses an ultrasonic wave throughout the room. ...
Harrison Neil R - - 2010
For moving targets, bimodal facilitation of reaction time has been observed for motion in the depth plane (C. Cappe, G. Thut, B. Romei, & M. M. Murray, 2009), but it is unclear whether analogous RT facilitation is observed for auditory-visual motion stimuli in the horizontal plane, as perception of horizontal ...
Li Renjie - - 2010
Action video game play enhances basic visual skills such as crowding acuity and contrast sensitivity (C. S. Green & D. Bavelier, 2007; R. Li, U. Polat, W. Makous, & D. Bavelier, 2009). Here, we ask whether the dynamics of perception may also be altered as a result of playing action ...
Sarlegna Fabrice R - - 2010
Most reaching arm movements have amplitude and direction constraints. Here we investigated the interdependence of these movement parameters in terms of visual control. To do so, we asked human adults to look and reach toward targets such that, in a first experiment, both movement amplitude and direction had to be ...
Troje Nikolaus F - - 2010
The silhouette illusion published online a number of years ago by the Japanese Flash designer Nobuyuki Kayahara has received substantial attention from the online community. One feature that seems to make it interesting is an apparent rotational bias: Observers see it spinning more often clockwise than counter-clockwise. Here, we show ...
Koopman Bart H F J M - - 2010
The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads acting on the ...
Zawadzki Jerzy - - 2010
The present work deals with those properties of the human motor system that characterize cyclic movements of maximum (expected to be maximum) intensity. It presents the results of an experiment carried out on 11 subjects and aimed at measuring the kinematic characteristics of cyclic movements of the elbow joint executed ...
Cañal-Bruland Rouwen - - 2010
It is not clear whether the critical features used to discriminate movements are identical to those involved in predicting the same movement's effects and consequently, whether the mechanisms underlying recognition and anticipation differ. We examined whether people rely on different kinematic information when required to recognize differences in the movement ...
Imada Haruka - - 2010
In animal groups such as herds, schools, and flocks, a certain distance is maintained between adjacent individuals, allowing them to move as a cohesive unit. Proximate causations of the cohesive and coordinated movement under dynamic conditions, however, have been poorly understood. We established a novel and simple behavioral assay using ...
Iftime Nielsen Simona Denisia - - 2010
The focus of this study was to test a novel tool for the analysis of motor coordination with an altered visual input. The altered visual input was created using special glasses that presented the view as recorded by a video camera placed at various positions around the subject. The camera ...
de los Reyes-Guzmán Ana - - 2010
Three-dimensional kinematic analysis equipment is a valuable instrument for studying the execution of movement during functional activities of the upper limbs. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinematic differences in the execution of a daily activity such as drinking from a glass between two groups of patients ...
Grigos Maria I - - 2010
Jaw movement patterns were examined longitudinally in a 3-year-old male with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and compared with a typically developing control group. The child with CAS was followed for 8 months, until he began accurately and consistently producing the bilabial phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/. A movement tracking ...
Bisio Ambra - - 2010
Automatic imitation is the tendency to reproduce observed actions involuntarily. Though this topic has been widely treated, at present little is known about the automatic imitation of the kinematic features of an observed movement. The present study was designed to understand if the kinematics of a previously seen stimulus primes ...
Dessing Joost C JC Center for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. - - 2010
As bending free-kicks becomes the norm in modern day soccer, implications for goalkeepers have largely been ignored. Although it has been reported that poor sensitivity to visual acceleration makes it harder for expert goalkeepers to perceptually judge where the curved free-kicks will cross the goal line, it is unknown how ...
Blasi Anna A Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2010
A key advantage of optical topography (OT) for cognitive neurodevelopmental studies over other imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) is that it is less intrusive in the experimental set up. This is, in part, because in OT there is no need to impose strict ...
Godfrey Sasha Blue SB Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 USA. - - 2010
After a stroke, many survivors have impaired motor function. Robotic rehabilitation techniques have emerged to provide a repetitive, activity-based therapy at potentially lower cost than conventional methods. Many patients exhibit intrinsic resistance to hand extension in the form of spasticity and/or hypertonia. We have developed a therapy program using the ...
Liebermann Dario G DG Physical Therapy Dept., Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Israel. - - 2010
Arm motion in healthy humans is characterized by smooth and relatively short paths. The current study focused on 3D reaching in stroke patients. Sixteen right-hemiparetic stroke patients and 8 healthy adults performed 42 reaching movements towards 3 visual targets located at an extended arm distance. Performance was assessed in terms ...
Watanabe Tatsuya T Gifu Univ., - - 2010
Many people of all ages have sustained cervical cord injury in traffic accidents or sport accidents, and consequently suffered physical impairment. Among these individuals dysfunction of the upper limbs is a concern, although recovery from dysfunction is possible through rehabilitation. In this study, we developed an assistive robot for upper ...
Gr?ner Ulrike - - 2010
To investigate whether a period of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over M1 preconditioned by tDCS improves bradykinesia of the upper limb in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD performed index finger, hand tapping and horizontal pointing movements as well as reach-to-grasp movements with either hand before ...
Lanatà Antonio - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the performance of different wearable systems based on indirect breathing monitoring in terms of susceptibility to motion artifacts. These performances are compared with direct respiratory measurements using a spirometer, which is accurate, reliable, and less sensitive to movement artifacts, but cannot ...
Narazaki T - - 2009
Air-breathing marine animals, including sea turtles, utilise two fundamentally different environments (i.e. sea surface and underwater) during migration. Many satellite telemetry studies have shown travel paths at relatively large spatio-temporal scales, discussing the orientation and navigation mechanisms that guide turtles. However, as travel paths obtained by satellite telemetry only reflect ...
Plank Michael J - - 2009
A large number of empirical studies have attributed L?vy search patterns to the foraging movements of animals. Typically, this is done by fitting a power-law distribution with an exponent of 1 < mu < or = 3 to the observed step lengths. Most studies record the animal's location at equally ...
Amano Tatsuya - - 2009
Animal movements in heterogeneous environments play a crucial role in a variety of ecological processes. Although a hierarchical structure to the scale of movements has been observed in many animal species, few studies to date have revealed what causes such multi-spatial scale movements within the framework of optimal theories. Using ...
Tijtgat Pieter P Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. - - 2010
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of advance knowledge on the kinematics of one-handed catching. Balls were launched from a distance of 8.4 m by a ball-projection machine with adjustable launching speed. Fifteen skilled ball catchers caught 160 balls with their preferred hand under blocked-order (4 ...
Sing Gary C - - 2009
The motor commands required to control voluntary movements under various environmental conditions may be formed by adaptively combining a fixed set of motor primitives. Since this motor output must contend with state-dependent physical dynamics during movement, these primitives are thought to depend on the position and velocity of motion. Using ...
van der Wel Robrecht P R D - - 2009
Qualitative and quantitative changes characterize locomotion and rhythmic interlimb coordination at different speeds. Legs and hands do not move more or less quickly; they also adopt different relative coordination patterns. In the present article, the authors asked whether similar transitions occur for unimanual hand movements when speed is slowed below ...
Allen David P - - 2010
During dynamic voluntary movements, power in the alpha- and beta-bands resulting from synchronized neuronal activity is modulated in a manner that is time-locked to movement onset. These signals can be readily recorded from the scalp surface using electroencephalography. Abnormalities in the magnitude and timing of these oscillations are present in ...
Sülzenbrück Sandra S IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Ardeystrasse 67, 44139, Dortmund, Germany. - - 2010
We studied adaptation to the visuo-motor transformation of a virtual and a real two-sided sliding lever. In a previous study (Sülzenbrück and Heuer in Exp Brain Res 195:153-165, 2009) we had found essentially no differences. However, adaptation had been restricted to a simplified symmetry approximation of the transformation. In the ...
Wisbey Ben - - 2010
Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical ...
Amrhein Valentin - - 2010
1. In territorial contests, not only acoustic or other signals, but also the movements of a territorial intruder are likely to influence the response of a resident. 2. We tested this movement hypothesis by simulating moving vs. stationary intruders into the territories of winter wrens Troglodytes troglodytes, using the same ...
Page Alvaro - - 2010
This paper presents a model for determining the path of the instantaneous helical axis (IHA) that optimally represents human planar motions with one functional degree of freedom (fDOF). A human movement is said to have one fDOF when all degrees of freedom (DOFs) are coordinated such that all the kinematic ...
Jastorff Jan - - 2009
Recognition of actions and complex movements is fundamental for social interactions and action understanding. While the relationship between motor expertise and visual recognition of body movements has received a vast amount of interest, the role of visual learning remains largely unexplored. Combining psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, ...
Volkov Alexander G - - 2010
Thigmonastic movements in the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica L., associated with fast responses to environmental stimuli, appear to be regulated through electrical and chemical signal transductions. The thigmonastic responses of M. pudica can be considered in three stages: stimulus perception, electrical signal transmission and induction of mechanical, hydrodynamical and biochemical ...
Hogan Neville - - 2009
Studies of sensory-motor performance, including those concerned with changes because of age, disease, or therapeutic intervention, often use measures based on jerk, the time derivative of acceleration, to quantify smoothness and coordination. However, results have been mixed: some researchers report sensitive discrimination of subtle differences, whereas others fail to find ...
Fiebig Lena - - 2009
Ongoing economic losses by and exposure of humans to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry flocks across Asia and parts of Africa and Europe motivate also outbreak-free countries such as Switzerland to invest in preparedness planning. Country-specific population data on between-farm contacts are required to anticipate probable patterns of ...
Buckingham Gavin G Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A-5C2, Canada. - - 2010
It is far more difficult to detect a small tactile stimulation on a finger that is moving compared to when it is static. This suppression of tactile information during motion, known as tactile gating, has been examined in some detail during single-joint movements. However, the existence and time course of ...
Duffield Rob - - 2010
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) measures of distance and speed, compared to a high-resolution motion analysis system, for confined movement patterns used in many court-based sports. A single male participant performed 10 repetitions of four respective drills replicating ...
Shimada Sotaro S Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 214-8571, Japan. - - 2010
Temporal congruency between the efference copy of a motor command and the reafferent sensory feedback is crucial for identifying self-generated body movements. We investigated how temporal discrepancy between the efference copy and visual feedback affects the self-body movement recognition process. Subjects experienced active and passive hand movements under conditions of ...
Cressman Erin K - - 2009
Goal-directed reaches are rapidly adapted following exposure to misaligned visual feedback of the hand. It has been suggested that these changes in reaches result in sensory recalibration (i.e., realigning proprioceptive estimates of hand position to match the visual estimates). In the current study we tested whether visuomotor adaptation results in ...
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