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Results 251 - 300 of 1495
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Sakabe R - - 2010
Movement patterns and habitat utilization by black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae), an estuarine resident species, were investigated using acoustic telemetry in a small estuary on the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Thirty-four adult A. butcheri were tracked for periods of up to 187 days between August 2005 and January 2006. ...
Oka Kenji - - 2010
In brachiating gibbons, it is thought that there is little movement in the hindlimb joints and that lateral body movement is quite limited. These hypotheses are based on naked-eye observations, and no quantitative motion analyses of the hindlimbs have been reported. This study quantitatively describes the three-dimensional movements of the ...
Hoffmann Errol R - - 2010
Data for ballistic and visually controlled movement times of different arm components are presented. Ballistic movement times gave strong support to the theoretical model that movement time is linearly related to the square-root of movement amplitude, for all arm components. It was found that there was a significant effect on ...
Owen-Smith N - - 2010
We outline how principles of optimal foraging developed for diet and food patch selection might be applied to movement behaviour expressed over larger spatial and temporal scales. Our focus is on large mammalian herbivores, capable of carrying global positioning system (GPS) collars operating through the seasonal cycle and dependent on ...
Lemmin T - - 2010
Behavioral analysis of multi-joint arm reaching has allowed important advances in understanding the control of voluntary movements. Complementing this analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) would give insight into the neural mechanisms behind this control. However, fMRI is very sensitive to artifacts created by head motion and magnetic field ...
Giromini Luciano - - 2010
The mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered the best explanation for the neural basis of embodied simulation. To date no study has investigated if it may be activated not only by actual but by the "feeling of movement". The Rorschach test cards were used to investigate evidence of EEG mu ...
Ryerson William G - - 2010
Biotic factors such as body size and shape have long been known to influence kinematics in vertebrates. Movement in aquatic organisms can also be strongly affected by abiotic factors such as the viscosity of the medium. We examined the effects of both biotic factors and abiotic factors on buccal pumping ...
Gillet Eric - - 2010
The present case study fell within the framework of the "absolute approach of expertise" because it assesses a "truly exceptional individual" (Chi, MTH, Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, London, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 121-130). This technique analysis examined the movement-production strategy used by a professional ...
Fleishman Leo J - - 2010
Anolis lizards communicate with displays consisting of motion of the head and body. Early portions of long-distance displays require movements that are effective at eliciting the attention of potential receivers. We studied signal-motion efficacy using a two-dimensional visual-motion detection (2DMD) model consisting of a grid of correlation-type elementary motion detectors. ...
Stegemöller Elizabeth L - - 2010
Performance of repetitive finger movements is an important clinical measure of disease severity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with a dramatic deterioration in performance at movement rates near 2 Hz and above. The mechanisms contributing to this rate-dependent movement impairment are poorly understood. Since clinical and ...
Crevecoeur F - - 2010
Sensory noise and feedback delay are potential sources of instability and variability for the on-line control of movement. It is commonly assumed that predictions based on internal models allow the CNS to anticipate the consequences of motor actions and protect the movements from uncertainty and instability. However, during motor learning ...
Lametti Daniel R - - 2010
Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in ...
Jonas Melanie - - 2010
Echophenomena in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) may relate to deficient processing of observed biological movements. This would be reflected in altered effects of movement observation on motor responses in these patients. We studied reaction times in 11 unmedicated GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidity and healthy subjects. In experiment ...
Burgess-Limerick R - - 2010
A variety of directional control-response relationships are currently found in mining equipment. Two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment to determine optimal direction control-response relationships in a wide variety of circumstances. Direction errors were measured as a function of control orientation (horizontal or vertical), location (left, front, right) and ...
Figueroa C Alberto - - 2010
Endograft migration is usually described as a downward displacement of the endograft with respect to the renal arteries. However, change in endograft position is actually a complex process in three-dimensional (3D) space. Currently, there are no established techniques to define such positional changes over time. The purpose of this study ...
Zwickel Jan - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated specific interference effects between concurrent perception and action. In the following we address the possible causes of such effects by employing a continuous paradigm in which participants were asked to produce movements in a specified direction and to judge the direction of a concurrently presented stimulus ...
Preston Catherine - - 2010
The ability to distinguish between our own actions and those of an external agent is a fundamental component of normal human social interaction. Both low- and high-level mechanisms are thought to contribute to the sense of movement agency, but the contribution of each is yet to be fully understood. By ...
Hampson B A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) ...
How Yee-Fatt - - 2010
This study examined the effects of different life stages (first, second, third, fourth, and five instars; adult females and adult males) and feeding regimes (starved and blood fed) on the active movement activity of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), under mixed-stage conditions. We used an extended arena made ...
Avoaka Marie-Chantal - - 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the axial movement and the angle of curve (in degrees) on fatigue of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) ProFile rotary endodontic instruments. Ni-Ti ProFile rotary instruments (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland), 25 mm long in the range of ISO size 15 to 40 ...
Ichikawa Makoto - - 2010
In the present study, we investigated how observers' control of stimulus change affects temporal and spatial aspects of visual perception. We compared the illusory flash-lag effects for automatic movement of the stimulus with stimulus movement that was controlled by the observers' active manipulation of a computer mouse (Experiments 1, 2, ...
Krasovsky Tal - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Auditory cues are known to alter movement kinematics in healthy people as well as in people with neurological conditions (e.g., Parkinson's disease or stroke). Pacing movement to rhythmical constraints is known to change both the spatial and temporal features of movement. However, the effect of complexity of pacing on ...
Bronner S - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To establish the reliability, accuracy and concurrent validity of electrogoniometers for measuring extreme lower extremity movements. STUDY DESIGN: Reliability, accuracy and validity study. Methods: This project employed two experiments. Investigation I determined electrogoniometer accuracy compared to a digital protractor. Investigation II compared electrogoniometers to a criterion measure, motion analysis, ...
Corr?a Umberto Cesar - - 2010
The adaptive process in motor learning was examined in terms of effects of varying amounts of constant practice performed before random practice. Participants pressed five response keys sequentially, the last one coincident with the lighting of a final visual stimulus provided by a complex coincident timing apparatus. Different visual stimulus ...
Meister Ingo G - - 2010
Whereas the cerebral representation of bimanual spatial coordination has been subject to prior research, the networks mediating bimanual temporal coordination are still unclear. The present study used functional imaging to investigate cerebral networks mediating temporally uncoupled bimanual finger movements. Three bimanual tasks were designed for the execution of movements with ...
Binetti Nicola - - 2010
The ability of effectively representing time ensures the efficiency and accuracy of sensory and motor processing. It is well documented that in still observers, subjective time varies in response to variations of external sensory inputs. However, it is still poorly understood how inertial inputs, which enable coding of body displacements ...
Stenekes M W - - 2010
Current treatment protocols for flexor tendon injuries of the hand generally result in an acceptable function, which can be quantified by objective parameters such as range of motion. The latter does not always match the patients' subjective experiences of persisting dysfunction. This raises the question whether changes in the cerebral ...
Matsuo Koichiro - - 2010
Tongue movement is temporo-spatially coordinated with jaw and hyoid movements during eating and speech. As such, we evaluated: (1) the correlation between the tongue with jaw and hyoid movements during eating and speech and (2) the relative influence of the jaw and hyoid on determining tongue movement. Lateral projection videofluorography ...
Kirsch Waldemar - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the sensitivity of event-related cortical potentials (ERPs) preceding and accompanying goal-directed hand movements to the variation of movement distance. METHODS: Participants performed linear hand movements to memorized target locations, which were arranged in distances between 10 and 31cm from the starting position of the hand. EPRs ...
Korstanje Jan-Wiebe H - - 2010
PURPOSE: Cadaver and in vivo studies report variable results for tendon excursion during active and passive hand movements. The purpose of this study was to measure long finger flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon excursion during active and passive movement using high-resolution ultrasound images. METHODS: The FDP tendon excursion was measured ...
Pillot M-H - - 2010
The environment of animals is often heterogeneous, containing zones that may be dedicated specifically to resting, drinking or feeding. These functional zones may spread over a more or a less extensive area. Thus, mobile animals may have to move from one patch to another when resources are locally depleted or ...
Hansen Steve - - 2010
The author examined the minimum amount of time needed for vision to increase aiming accuracy and decrease movement duration. Participants selected when they would receive a visual sample during aiming movements by pressing a switch held with the left hand. The sample was one of the following durations: 40 ms, ...
Bohan Michael - - 2010
Modern tools often separate the visual and physical aspects of operation, requiring users to manipulate an instrument while viewing the results indirectly on a display. This can pose usability challenges particularly in applications, such as laparoscopic surgery, that require a high degree of movement precision. Magnification used to augment the ...
Walsh Lee D - - 2010
The senses of limb movement and position are critical for accurate control of movement. Recent studies show that central signals of motor command contribute to the sense of limb position but it is not clear whether such signals influence the distinctly different sense of limb movement. Nine subjects participated in ...
Houweling Sanne - - 2010
Bimanual coordination requires the functional integration of the activity in various cortical, subcortical, spinal, and peripheral neural structures. We challenged this functional integration by destabilizing bimanual 5:8 tapping through an increase in movement tempo, while measuring brain and muscle activity using magnetoencephalography and electromyography. Movement instabilities were characterized by a ...
Casadio Maura M Department of Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Italian Institute of Technology, Genoa, Italy. - - 2010
Skillful manipulation of objects often requires the spatio-temporal coordination of both hands and, at the same time, the compensation of environmental forces. In bimanual coordination, movements of the two hands may be coupled because each hand needs to compensate the forces generated by the other hand or by an object ...
Zusman Max - - 2010
The recognised (funded) stand-alone clinical status for therapeutic methods of passive movement has become increasingly threatened in recent times as the preference for active treatment (specific exercise) gains hold. This is in part due to the equivocal results for clinical trials of passive movement, queries regarding its cost-benefit and negative ...
Levy-Tzedek S S Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts, Ave office 3-137, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2010
We tested 23 healthy participants who performed rhythmic horizontal movements of the elbow. The required amplitude and frequency ranges of the movements were specified to the participants using a closed shape on a phase-plane display, showing angular velocity versus angular position, such that participants had to continuously control both the ...
Wang Joseph - - 2010
Synthetic nanoscale motors represent a major step in the development of practical nanomachines. This Review summarizes recent progress towards controlling the movement of fuel-driven nanomotors and discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with the achievement of such nanoscale motion control. Regulating the movement of artificial nanomotors often follows nature's elegant ...
Cressman Erin K - - 2010
Motor adaptation in response to a visuomotor distortion arises when the usual motor command no longer results in the predicted sensory output. In this study, we examined if exposure to a sensory discrepancy was sufficient on its own to produce changes in reaches and recalibrate the sense of felt hand ...
Gohau Gabriel - - 2010
Upon returning from his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin prepared reports of his geological observations. Together, these reveal Darwin's approach to reasoning about geology. Darwin argued that successive terraces prove a very gradual elevation of the coast that lagoon islands show a reciprocal sinking of the oceanic floor. Hence, Darwin ...
Tokiwa H - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine anatomical locations of the hinge axis point, kinematic axis point and reference point for the palpated lateral condylar pole on lateral cephalograms. Subjects comprised 18 Japanese women selected according to following criteria: normal occlusion; and absence of signs and symptoms of stomatognathic ...
Kovacs Attila J AJ Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, - - 2010
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the influence of Lissajous feedback on 1:1 bimanual coordination patterns (0 degrees , 90 degrees , and 180 degrees phase lags) when the movement amplitudes of the two limbs were different (30 degrees , 60 degrees ). The present data supports the ...
Liebermann Dario G - - 2010
Arm motion in healthy humans is characterized by smooth and relatively short paths. The current study focused on 3D reaching in stroke patients. Sixteen right-hemiparetic stroke patients and 8 healthy adults performed 42 reaching movements towards 3 visual targets located at an extended arm distance. Performance was assessed in terms ...
Yonetsu Ryo - - 2010
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess sit-to-stand (STS) movements of a child with cerebral palsy before and after physiotherapy (PT), based on objective kinematic data. METHODS: A child with cerebral spastic diplegia, aged 4 years and 6 months, and had no prior surgery, was the subject. In ...
Benvenuti Cinzia - - 2010
Agility is the player's capability to perform rapid whole-body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to assess the reliability of a reactive visual stimuli agility field test (RVS-T); and 2) to evaluate differences in RVS-T ...
Torres Elizabeth B - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand ...
Kwok Ka-Wai - - 2010
Flexible, ergonomically enhanced surgical robots have important applications to transluminal endoscopic surgery, for which path-following and dynamic shape conformance are essential. In this paper, kinematic control of a snake robot for motion stabilisation under dynamic active constraints is addressed. The main objective is to enable the robot to track the ...
Petersen Carl J - - 2010
We compared the movement patterns of cricketers in different playing positions across three formats of cricket (Twenty20, One Day, multi-day matches). Cricket Australia Centre of Excellence cricketers (n = 42) from five positions (batting, fast bowling, spin bowling, wicketkeeping, and fielding) had their movement patterns (walk, jog, run, stride, and ...
Shafir Tal - - 2010
Accurate timing of limb displacement is crucial for effective motor control. The authors examined the effects of movement velocity, duration, direction, added mass, and auditory cueing on timing, spatial, and trajectory variability of single- and multijoint rhythmic movements. During single-joint movements, increased velocity decreased timing and spatial variability, whereas increased ...
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