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Results 201 - 250 of 1470
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Wakayama Akemi - - 2011
To assess how target size and eccentricity affect binocular summation (BS) of reaction time (RT) at suprathreshold level, we measured RT using targets of 0.108° and 0.216° at four eccentricities (0°, 5°, 15°, 25°) in six normal volunteers. The difference between the monocular/binocular RT differentials for both sizes significantly increased ...
Brewer Cameron - - 2010
This study examined differences in movement patterns between AFL (elite) and WAFL (sub-elite) players using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. Maximum speed data and totals of high intensity efforts (>15 km h⁻¹), sprint efforts (>20 km h⁻¹) and distance covered were collected on 41 players during the 2008 season. Data ...
Goyret Joaquín - - 2010
A crucial stage in the interaction between pollinators and plants is the moment of physical contact between them, known as flower inspection, or handling. Floral guides - conspicuous colour markings, or structural features of flower corollas - have been shown to be important in the inspecting behaviour of many insects, ...
Krüger M - - 2011
Investigating motor control processes is of primary interest in a number of scientific and practical fields. Movement variability is of increasing interest in this context. However, until now little has been known about the time course of variability during movement execution. The objective of this study was to investigate the ...
Ronsse Renaud - - 2011
We propose a novel method for movement assistance that is based on adaptive oscillators, i.e., mathematical tools that are capable of extracting the high-level features (amplitude, frequency, and offset) of a periodic signal. Such an oscillator acts like a filter on these features, but keeps its output in phase with ...
Casadio Maura M Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 345 E. Superior Street, Suite 1406, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2010
Survivors of spinal cord injury need to reorganize their residual body movements for interacting with assistive devices and performing activities that used to be easy and natural. To investigate movement reorganization, we asked subjects with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) and unimpaired subjects to control a cursor on a screen ...
Stevick Peter T - - 2011
Fidelity of individual animals to breeding sites is a primary determinant of population structure. The degree and scale of philopatry in a population reflect the fitness effects of social facilitation, ecological adaptation and optimal inbreeding. Patterns of breeding-site movement and fidelity are functions of social structure and are frequently sex ...
Koerte Inga - - 2010
mirror movements are a transient phenomenon during childhood, which decrease in intensity with motor development. An increasing inhibitory competence resulting in the ability of movement lateralization is thought to be the underlying mechanism. We aimed to quantify unintended mirror movements systematically across the lifespan and to investigate the influences of ...
Rand Miya K MK Motor Control Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Arizona State University, Box 870404, Tempe, AZ 85287-0404, USA. - - 2010
Based on an assumption of movement control optimality in reach-to-grasp movements, we have recently developed a mathematical model of transport-aperture coordination (TAC), according to which the hand-target distance is a function of hand velocity and acceleration, aperture magnitude, and aperture velocity and acceleration (Rand et al. in Exp Brain Res ...
Cheng Shyh-Yueh - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various levels of alcohol consumption on human response to auditory and visual stimuli in terms of reaction time, movement time, total reaction time, and error rate. Placebo level and three low-level alcohol doses were randomly assigned to 20 male ...
Schwerdtfeger Andreas - - 2010
There is converging evidence that physical activity influences affective states. It has been found that aerobic exercise programs can significantly diminish negative affect. Moreover, among healthy individuals, moderate levels of physical activity seem to increase energetic arousal and positive affect. However, the predictive utility of affective states for bodily movement ...
Joiner Wilsaan M - - 2011
The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined ...
López-Moliner Joan J Department of Basic Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (IR3C), University of Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 171, 08035, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. - - 2010
Several studies have shown that people can catch a ball even if it is visible only during part of its flight. Here, we examine how well they can do so. We measured the movements of a ball and of the hands of both the thrower and the catcher during one-handed ...
Wei Kunlin - - 2010
We constantly make small errors during movement and use them to adapt our future movements. Movement experiments often probe this error-driven learning by perturbing movements and analyzing the after-effects. Past studies have applied perturbations of varying nature such as visual disturbances, position- or velocity-dependent forces and modified inertia properties of ...
Baydal-Bertomeu José M - - 2011
whiplash-associated disorders have usually been explored by analyzing changes in the cervical motor system function by means of static variables such as the range of motion, whereas other behavioural features such as speed, variability or smoothness of movement have aroused less interest. whiplash patients (n=30), control subjects (n=29) and a ...
Sim Mikyong - - 2010
In this study, golf-putting movements were examined under three goal distances (short, 1.7m; middle, 3.25m; long, 6m), two different putter weights (500g, 750g), and two levels of expertise (5 experts, 5 novices). The study's aim was to identify differences in kinematics and accuracy between expert and novice golfers. The results ...
Apker Gregory A - - 2010
Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and ...
Gritsenko V - - 2010
Reaching movements to visual targets are under fast feedback control, which can rapidly correct an ongoing movement for errors. This study investigates how this online correction is affected by the application of a new visuomotor transformation. Thirty-two subjects made planar pointing movements to visual targets. Vision of the arm was ...
Alt Murphy Margit - - 2011
Three-dimensional kinematic analysis provides quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper-limb motion and is used as an outcome measure to evaluate impaired movement after stroke. The number of kinematic variables used, however, is diverse, and models for upper-extremity motion analysis vary. The authors aim to identify a set of clinically useful ...
Bertucco M - - 2010
We wanted to determine whether movement planning followed Fitts' law by investigating the relationship between movement planning and movement performance in experienced dancers executing a typical classical ballet step in which the big toe was pointed to targets at different distances and of different widths so as to obtain several ...
Neave Nick - - 2011
Male movements serve as courtship signals in many animal species, and may honestly reflect the genotypic and/or phenotypic quality of the individual. Attractive human dance moves, particularly those of males, have been reported to show associations with measures of physical strength, prenatal androgenization and symmetry. Here we use advanced three-dimensional ...
Keeley David W - - 2010
This study examined forearm pronation in relation to both the vertical and horizontal ball movement measured for 2 variations of the fastball pitch. Ten healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in the study (age: 19.4 +/- 0.7 yr, height: 1.90 +/- 0.06 m, mass: 88.50 +/- 9.05 kg). Reflective markers were ...
Kim K Han - - 2010
Controlled laboratory study. Statistical regression and between-group comparisons. To characterize functional limitation and adaptive strategies in seated manual transport tasks for spinal cord injury (SCI), low back pain (LBP), and control participants. People with SCI are known to have adapted electromyographic activities and slow hand movement velocity, while those with ...
Sauvageau Anny - - 2010
It has been proposed that filmed hangings may hold the key to a better understanding of human asphyxia, and The Working Group on Human Asphyxia was formed to systematically review and compare these video recordings. This study analyzed eight filmed hangings. Considering time 0 to represent the onset of the ...
Sherwood David E - - 2010
According to closed-loop accounts of motor control, movement errors are detected by comparing sensory feedback to an acquired reference state. Differences between the reference state and the movement-produced feedback results in an error signal that serves as a basis for a correction. The main question addressed in the current study ...
Medée Béatrice - - 2010
Many studies have demonstrated that constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) improves upper limb motor impairment following stroke. This rehabilitation method combines constraint of the less-affected upperlimb with intensive training of the paretic limb. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in a single case study, the respective effects ...
Robinson Mark A MA Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, L3 3AF, Liverpool, - - 2010
Cervical spinal lesions at C6 result in paralysis of the triceps brachii while leaving deltoid and elbow flexor function intact. We examined the spatial-temporal characteristics of goal-directed aiming movements performed by C6 tetraplegics who had undergone musculotendinous transfer surgery in which the posterior deltoid replaces the triceps as the elbow ...
Niu C Minos - - 2010
Reaching movements to a target usually have stereotypical kinematics. Although this suggests that the desired kinematics of a movement might be planned, does it also mean that deviations from the planned kinematics are corrected by proprioceptive feedback control? To answer this question, we designed a task in which the subjects ...
Cressman Erin K EK School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that both young and older subjects adapt their reaches in response to a visuomotor distortion. It has been suggested that one's continued ability to adapt to a visuomotor distortion with advancing age is due to the preservation of implicit learning mechanisms, where implicit learning mechanisms include ...
Hughes Barry - - 2011
Recordings of the dominant finger during the reading of braille sentences by experienced readers reveal that the velocity of the finger changes frequently during the traverse of a line of text. These changes, not previously reported, involve a multitude of accelerations and decelerations, as well as reversals of direction. We ...
Rustighi Emiliano - - 2010
This study concerns the influence of visuomotor rotating disturbance on motion dynamics and brain activity. It involves using a PC-mouse and introducing a predefined bias angle between the direction of motion of the mouse pointer and that of the screen cursor. Subjects were asked to execute three different tasks, designed ...
Kaiser Martha D - - 2010
Successful social behavior requires the accurate detection of other people's movements. Consistent with this, typical observers demonstrate enhanced visual sensitivity to human movement relative to equally complex, nonhuman movement [e.g., Pinto & Shiffrar, 2009]. A psychophysical study investigated visual sensitivity to human motion relative to object motion in observers with ...
Sakabe R - - 2010
Movement patterns and habitat utilization by black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae), an estuarine resident species, were investigated using acoustic telemetry in a small estuary on the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Thirty-four adult A. butcheri were tracked for periods of up to 187 days between August 2005 and January 2006. ...
Oka Kenji - - 2010
In brachiating gibbons, it is thought that there is little movement in the hindlimb joints and that lateral body movement is quite limited. These hypotheses are based on naked-eye observations, and no quantitative motion analyses of the hindlimbs have been reported. This study quantitatively describes the three-dimensional movements of the ...
Hoffmann Errol R - - 2010
Data for ballistic and visually controlled movement times of different arm components are presented. Ballistic movement times gave strong support to the theoretical model that movement time is linearly related to the square-root of movement amplitude, for all arm components. It was found that there was a significant effect on ...
Owen-Smith N - - 2010
We outline how principles of optimal foraging developed for diet and food patch selection might be applied to movement behaviour expressed over larger spatial and temporal scales. Our focus is on large mammalian herbivores, capable of carrying global positioning system (GPS) collars operating through the seasonal cycle and dependent on ...
Lemmin T - - 2010
Behavioral analysis of multi-joint arm reaching has allowed important advances in understanding the control of voluntary movements. Complementing this analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) would give insight into the neural mechanisms behind this control. However, fMRI is very sensitive to artifacts created by head motion and magnetic field ...
Giromini Luciano - - 2010
The mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered the best explanation for the neural basis of embodied simulation. To date no study has investigated if it may be activated not only by actual but by the "feeling of movement". The Rorschach test cards were used to investigate evidence of EEG mu ...
Ryerson William G - - 2010
Biotic factors such as body size and shape have long been known to influence kinematics in vertebrates. Movement in aquatic organisms can also be strongly affected by abiotic factors such as the viscosity of the medium. We examined the effects of both biotic factors and abiotic factors on buccal pumping ...
Gillet Eric - - 2010
The present case study fell within the framework of the "absolute approach of expertise" because it assesses a "truly exceptional individual" (Chi, MTH, Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, London, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 121-130). This technique analysis examined the movement-production strategy used by a professional ...
Fleishman Leo J - - 2010
Anolis lizards communicate with displays consisting of motion of the head and body. Early portions of long-distance displays require movements that are effective at eliciting the attention of potential receivers. We studied signal-motion efficacy using a two-dimensional visual-motion detection (2DMD) model consisting of a grid of correlation-type elementary motion detectors. ...
Stegemöller Elizabeth L - - 2010
Performance of repetitive finger movements is an important clinical measure of disease severity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with a dramatic deterioration in performance at movement rates near 2 Hz and above. The mechanisms contributing to this rate-dependent movement impairment are poorly understood. Since clinical and ...
Crevecoeur F - - 2010
Sensory noise and feedback delay are potential sources of instability and variability for the on-line control of movement. It is commonly assumed that predictions based on internal models allow the CNS to anticipate the consequences of motor actions and protect the movements from uncertainty and instability. However, during motor learning ...
Lametti Daniel R - - 2010
Movements are inherently variable. When we move to a particular point in space, a cloud of final limb positions is observed around the target. Previously we noted that patterns of variability at the end of movement to a circular target were not circular, but instead reflected patterns of limb stiffness-in ...
Jonas Melanie - - 2010
Echophenomena in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) may relate to deficient processing of observed biological movements. This would be reflected in altered effects of movement observation on motor responses in these patients. We studied reaction times in 11 unmedicated GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidity and healthy subjects. In experiment ...
Burgess-Limerick R - - 2010
A variety of directional control-response relationships are currently found in mining equipment. Two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment to determine optimal direction control-response relationships in a wide variety of circumstances. Direction errors were measured as a function of control orientation (horizontal or vertical), location (left, front, right) and ...
Figueroa C Alberto - - 2010
Endograft migration is usually described as a downward displacement of the endograft with respect to the renal arteries. However, change in endograft position is actually a complex process in three-dimensional (3D) space. Currently, there are no established techniques to define such positional changes over time. The purpose of this study ...
Zwickel Jan - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated specific interference effects between concurrent perception and action. In the following we address the possible causes of such effects by employing a continuous paradigm in which participants were asked to produce movements in a specified direction and to judge the direction of a concurrently presented stimulus ...
Preston Catherine - - 2010
The ability to distinguish between our own actions and those of an external agent is a fundamental component of normal human social interaction. Both low- and high-level mechanisms are thought to contribute to the sense of movement agency, but the contribution of each is yet to be fully understood. By ...
Hampson B A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) ...
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