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Results 201 - 250 of 1499
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Liu Jianbo - - 2011
The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of veterinary clinical assessments of lameness to probability estimates of lameness predicted from vertical kinetic measures. We hypothesized that algorithm-derived probability estimates of lameness would accurately reflect vertical measures in lame limbs even though vertical changes may not inevitably occur ...
Keren Nir - - 2011
"Why do we always come here?" "I guess we'll never know." Waldorf and Statler Photoinhibition is defined as the light induced loss of photosynthetic activity and is an unavoidable consequence of the light reactions. Photoinhibitory damages are repaired by dedicated mechanisms and as long as the rate of repair matches ...
Doğramac Sera N - - 2011
Doğramacı, SN, Watsford, ML, and Murphy, AJ. The reliability and validity of subjective notational analysis in comparison to GPS tracking to assess athlete movement patterns. J Strength Cond Res 25(3): 852-859, 2011-Subjective notational analysis can be used to track players and analyse movement patterns during match-play of team sports such ...
Dai Zhendong - - 2011
Measuring the interaction between each foot of an animal and the substrate is one of the most effective ways to understand the dynamics of legged locomotion. Here, a new facility - the force-measuring array (FMA) - was developed and applied to measure 3D reaction forces of geckos on different slope ...
Na Seokhee - - 2011
Prolonged work in upright postures (standing and walking) is common in industry and in daily living activities, and is one possible risk factor for low back pain and leg problems. This study compared the reaction forces of four different floor surface conditions (three inner-room floor mats and no-mat) during gait. ...
Gray Rob - - 2011
A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although ...
Hubbard Timothy L - - 2011
The effects of line length and of spatial or temporal distance on illusory line motion (i.e., on the perception that a stationary line unfolds or expands away from a previously presented stationary cue) were examined in five experiments. Ratings of relative velocity decreased with increases in stimulus onset asynchrony between ...
Stuck B A BA Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany. - - 2011
An interaction of the intranasal chemical trigeminal and the olfactory system has previously been described. Intranasal chemical trigeminal stimulation during sleep leads to a dose-dependent increase in arousal reactions while pure olfactory stimuli are not able to trigger arousals or awakenings during sleep, regardless of the concentration used. The aim ...
Varechova S - - 2011
The aim of the study was to characterise mechanically induced cough threshold and reactivity by exposing the trachea to stimuli of variable duration in rabbit. Long lasting mechanical stimulation is widely used in experimental protocols studying cough reflex. The cough threshold and reactivity to chemical agents is known to change ...
Dijkstra Arie - - 2011
According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: ...
Barnier Amanda J - - 2011
This article describes a study that used hypnosis to temporarily re-create mirrored-self misidentification, which is the delusional belief that the person one sees in the mirror is a stranger. Following a hypnotic suggestion to see a stranger in the mirror, high hypnotizable subjects described seeing a stranger with physical characteristics ...
Kastelein Ronald A - - 2011
Equal-loudness functions describe relationships between the frequencies of sounds and their perceived loudness. This pilot study investigated the possibility of deriving equal-loudness contours based on the assumption that sounds of equal perceived loudness elicit equal reaction times (RTs). During a psychoacoustic underwater hearing study, the responses of two young female ...
Kalisvaart Joke P - - 2011
Speed and accuracy of visual motion discrimination depend systematically on motion strength. This behavior is traditionally explained by diffusion models that assume accumulation of sensory evidence over time to a decision bound. However, how does the brain decide when sensory evidence is ambiguous, such as in binocular rivalry? Theories on ...
Brönmark Christer - - 2011
The expression of anti-predator adaptations may vary on a spatial scale, favouring traits that are advantageous in a given predation regime. Besides, evolution of different developmental strategies depends to a large extent on the grain of the environment and may result in locally canalized adaptations or, alternatively, the evolution of ...
Tia Banty - - 2011
Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. We recorded ...
Net Sopheak - - 2010
The pseudo-first-order loss of coniferyl aldehyde, adsorbed on silicon dioxide particles, upon heterogeneous ozonolysis was monitored at various ozone mixing ratios in the absence and presence of simulated sunlight. For the first time we investigated the effect of light on the heterogeneous ozonolysis of coniferyl aldehyde adsorbed on silica particles. ...
Calvin Sarah - - 2010
Simultaneously executed limb movements interfere with each other. Whereas the interference between discrete movements is examined mostly from a cognitive perspective, that between rhythmic movements is studied mainly from a dynamical systems perspective. As the tools and concepts developed by both communities are limited in their applicability to the other ...
Hughes Gerwyn - - 2010
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump ...
Balasubramanian Sivakumar - - 2010
Initial work on robot-assisted neurorehabilitation for the upper extremity aimed primarily at training, reaching movements with the proximal sections of the upper extremity. However, recent years have seen a surge in devices dedicated to hand function. This review describes the state of the art and the promises of this novel ...
Plessa E I - - 2010
The take-off is probably the most important phase of the pole vault. The kinematics of pole vault take-off is often described in comparison to the long jump take-off. If a kinetic similarity were also evidenced, the extra loading of carrying the pole could be avoided by using the long jump ...
Shadmehr Reza R Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, USA. - - 2010
Let us assume that the purpose of any movement is to position our body in a more rewarding state. People and other animals discount future reward as a function of time. Recent results suggest that there is a correlation between changes in this reward temporal discount function and changes in ...
Sande de Souza Luciane Aparecida Pascucci - - 2011
Subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) presented difficulties in the performance of multi-joint movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the slowness of such movements was caused by the generation of non-linear trajectories and/or by a reduction or a deficit in the modulation of EMG activity. Nine healthy ...
Wakayama Akemi - - 2011
To assess how target size and eccentricity affect binocular summation (BS) of reaction time (RT) at suprathreshold level, we measured RT using targets of 0.108° and 0.216° at four eccentricities (0°, 5°, 15°, 25°) in six normal volunteers. The difference between the monocular/binocular RT differentials for both sizes significantly increased ...
Brewer Cameron - - 2010
This study examined differences in movement patterns between AFL (elite) and WAFL (sub-elite) players using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. Maximum speed data and totals of high intensity efforts (>15 km h⁻¹), sprint efforts (>20 km h⁻¹) and distance covered were collected on 41 players during the 2008 season. Data ...
Goyret Joaquín - - 2010
A crucial stage in the interaction between pollinators and plants is the moment of physical contact between them, known as flower inspection, or handling. Floral guides - conspicuous colour markings, or structural features of flower corollas - have been shown to be important in the inspecting behaviour of many insects, ...
Krüger M - - 2011
Investigating motor control processes is of primary interest in a number of scientific and practical fields. Movement variability is of increasing interest in this context. However, until now little has been known about the time course of variability during movement execution. The objective of this study was to investigate the ...
Ronsse Renaud - - 2011
We propose a novel method for movement assistance that is based on adaptive oscillators, i.e., mathematical tools that are capable of extracting the high-level features (amplitude, frequency, and offset) of a periodic signal. Such an oscillator acts like a filter on these features, but keeps its output in phase with ...
Casadio Maura M Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 345 E. Superior Street, Suite 1406, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2010
Survivors of spinal cord injury need to reorganize their residual body movements for interacting with assistive devices and performing activities that used to be easy and natural. To investigate movement reorganization, we asked subjects with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) and unimpaired subjects to control a cursor on a screen ...
Stevick Peter T - - 2011
Fidelity of individual animals to breeding sites is a primary determinant of population structure. The degree and scale of philopatry in a population reflect the fitness effects of social facilitation, ecological adaptation and optimal inbreeding. Patterns of breeding-site movement and fidelity are functions of social structure and are frequently sex ...
Koerte Inga - - 2010
mirror movements are a transient phenomenon during childhood, which decrease in intensity with motor development. An increasing inhibitory competence resulting in the ability of movement lateralization is thought to be the underlying mechanism. We aimed to quantify unintended mirror movements systematically across the lifespan and to investigate the influences of ...
Rand Miya K MK Motor Control Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Arizona State University, Box 870404, Tempe, AZ 85287-0404, USA. - - 2010
Based on an assumption of movement control optimality in reach-to-grasp movements, we have recently developed a mathematical model of transport-aperture coordination (TAC), according to which the hand-target distance is a function of hand velocity and acceleration, aperture magnitude, and aperture velocity and acceleration (Rand et al. in Exp Brain Res ...
Cheng Shyh-Yueh - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various levels of alcohol consumption on human response to auditory and visual stimuli in terms of reaction time, movement time, total reaction time, and error rate. Placebo level and three low-level alcohol doses were randomly assigned to 20 male ...
Schwerdtfeger Andreas - - 2010
There is converging evidence that physical activity influences affective states. It has been found that aerobic exercise programs can significantly diminish negative affect. Moreover, among healthy individuals, moderate levels of physical activity seem to increase energetic arousal and positive affect. However, the predictive utility of affective states for bodily movement ...
Joiner Wilsaan M - - 2011
The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined ...
López-Moliner Joan J Department of Basic Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (IR3C), University of Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 171, 08035, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. - - 2010
Several studies have shown that people can catch a ball even if it is visible only during part of its flight. Here, we examine how well they can do so. We measured the movements of a ball and of the hands of both the thrower and the catcher during one-handed ...
Wei Kunlin - - 2010
We constantly make small errors during movement and use them to adapt our future movements. Movement experiments often probe this error-driven learning by perturbing movements and analyzing the after-effects. Past studies have applied perturbations of varying nature such as visual disturbances, position- or velocity-dependent forces and modified inertia properties of ...
Baydal-Bertomeu José M - - 2011
whiplash-associated disorders have usually been explored by analyzing changes in the cervical motor system function by means of static variables such as the range of motion, whereas other behavioural features such as speed, variability or smoothness of movement have aroused less interest. whiplash patients (n=30), control subjects (n=29) and a ...
Sim Mikyong - - 2010
In this study, golf-putting movements were examined under three goal distances (short, 1.7m; middle, 3.25m; long, 6m), two different putter weights (500g, 750g), and two levels of expertise (5 experts, 5 novices). The study's aim was to identify differences in kinematics and accuracy between expert and novice golfers. The results ...
Apker Gregory A - - 2010
Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and ...
Gritsenko V - - 2010
Reaching movements to visual targets are under fast feedback control, which can rapidly correct an ongoing movement for errors. This study investigates how this online correction is affected by the application of a new visuomotor transformation. Thirty-two subjects made planar pointing movements to visual targets. Vision of the arm was ...
Alt Murphy Margit - - 2011
Three-dimensional kinematic analysis provides quantitative and qualitative assessment of upper-limb motion and is used as an outcome measure to evaluate impaired movement after stroke. The number of kinematic variables used, however, is diverse, and models for upper-extremity motion analysis vary. The authors aim to identify a set of clinically useful ...
Bertucco M - - 2010
We wanted to determine whether movement planning followed Fitts' law by investigating the relationship between movement planning and movement performance in experienced dancers executing a typical classical ballet step in which the big toe was pointed to targets at different distances and of different widths so as to obtain several ...
Neave Nick - - 2011
Male movements serve as courtship signals in many animal species, and may honestly reflect the genotypic and/or phenotypic quality of the individual. Attractive human dance moves, particularly those of males, have been reported to show associations with measures of physical strength, prenatal androgenization and symmetry. Here we use advanced three-dimensional ...
Keeley David W - - 2010
This study examined forearm pronation in relation to both the vertical and horizontal ball movement measured for 2 variations of the fastball pitch. Ten healthy collegiate baseball pitchers participated in the study (age: 19.4 +/- 0.7 yr, height: 1.90 +/- 0.06 m, mass: 88.50 +/- 9.05 kg). Reflective markers were ...
Kim K Han - - 2010
Controlled laboratory study. Statistical regression and between-group comparisons. To characterize functional limitation and adaptive strategies in seated manual transport tasks for spinal cord injury (SCI), low back pain (LBP), and control participants. People with SCI are known to have adapted electromyographic activities and slow hand movement velocity, while those with ...
Sauvageau Anny - - 2010
It has been proposed that filmed hangings may hold the key to a better understanding of human asphyxia, and The Working Group on Human Asphyxia was formed to systematically review and compare these video recordings. This study analyzed eight filmed hangings. Considering time 0 to represent the onset of the ...
Sherwood David E - - 2010
According to closed-loop accounts of motor control, movement errors are detected by comparing sensory feedback to an acquired reference state. Differences between the reference state and the movement-produced feedback results in an error signal that serves as a basis for a correction. The main question addressed in the current study ...
Medée Béatrice - - 2010
Many studies have demonstrated that constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) improves upper limb motor impairment following stroke. This rehabilitation method combines constraint of the less-affected upperlimb with intensive training of the paretic limb. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in a single case study, the respective effects ...
Robinson Mark A MA Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, L3 3AF, Liverpool, - - 2010
Cervical spinal lesions at C6 result in paralysis of the triceps brachii while leaving deltoid and elbow flexor function intact. We examined the spatial-temporal characteristics of goal-directed aiming movements performed by C6 tetraplegics who had undergone musculotendinous transfer surgery in which the posterior deltoid replaces the triceps as the elbow ...
Niu C Minos - - 2010
Reaching movements to a target usually have stereotypical kinematics. Although this suggests that the desired kinematics of a movement might be planned, does it also mean that deviations from the planned kinematics are corrected by proprioceptive feedback control? To answer this question, we designed a task in which the subjects ...
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