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Suárez Rodrigo - - 2012
The sense of smell plays a crucial role in the sensory world of animals. Two chemosensory systems have been traditionally thought to play-independent roles in mammalian olfaction. According to this, the main olfactory system (MOS) specializes in the detection of environmental odorants, while the vomeronasal system (VNS) senses pheromones and ...
Maslow Andréa L AL R. Stuart Dickson Institute for Health Studies, Carolinas HealthCare System, PO BOX 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA. - - 2012
Rail trails are elements of the built environment that support the Task Force on Community Preventive Services' recommendation to create, or enhance access to, places for physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the ...
Magri Cesare - - 2011
Local Field Potentials (LFPs) exhibit a broadband spectral structure that is traditionally partitioned into distinct frequency bands which are thought to originate from different types of neural events triggered by different processing pathways. However, the exact frequency boundaries of these processes are not known and, as a result, the frequency ...
Schulz-Mirbach Tanja - - 2011
Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one ...
Imai Yukari - - 2011
Anthraquinone-lectin hybrids were effectively synthesized using water-soluble anthraquinone derivative 11 with concanavalin A (ConA) and hygrophorus russula lectin (HRL) to give anthraquinone-ConA (16) and anthraquinone-HRL (17) hybrids, respectively. These anthraquinone-lectin hybrids effectively and selectively degraded oligosaccharides containing a mannose residue as a non-reducing terminal sugar, which has affinity for ConA ...
Pan Jui-Wen - - 2011
We introduce a hybrid backlight module, which consists of a hybrid light guide plate (HLGP) and a brightness enhancement film (BEF). The HLGP comprises functions of a conventional light guide plate, a reflector, and a BEF. The HLGP allows one-dimensional rays to be collimated. We add a BEF above the ...
Dell'osso L F - - 2011
We studied the mechanisms of oscillopsia suppression in subjects with infantile nystagmus syndrome, fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome, and acquired nystagmus (AN). Hypothetical possibilities for perceptual stability were the following: (1) epochs of clear and stable vision during foveation periods of nystagmus waveforms; (2) cancellation by efference copy of motor output; (3) a ...
Brigo Francesco - - 2011
Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings obtained after craniotomy are difficult to interpret because of the presence of a breach rhythm (BR) consisting of unfiltered high-voltage physiological waveforms, sometimes with a spiky and irregular morphology, that can mimic interictal epileptiform abnormalities and may therefore lead to misinterpretations. In this article, we review EEG ...
Kimmich Okka - - 2011
Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be ...
Preussler Stefan - - 2011
The quasi-light-storage (QLS) is a method for the variable and almost distortion free storage of optical data which is based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The natural gain bandwidth of SBS limits the storage time of this method to up to 100 ns. We overcome this limit by the superposition of ...
Hard Bridgette Martin - - 2011
How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of the joint time ...
Chen Xiaoying - - 2011
Although the wheat hybrids have often shown higher grain yields, the physiological basis of the higher yields remains unknown. Previous studies suggest that tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid may be one of the physiological bases (Yang et al., 2006, Plant Sci 171:389-97). The objective of this study was to ...
Long Run - - 2011
In this study, we have used cation-passivated codoping of Nb with Ga/In and also of W with Zn/Cd to modulate the band structure of anatase-TiO(2) to extend absorption to longer visible-light wavelengths. We adopted generalized Kohn-Sham theory with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. It has been ...
Robinson G - - 2011
Traditional time-motion analysis methods have analysed broad locomotive movements and distances covered by players in different speed ranges. It is necessary to consider path changes made during movements in order to understand the agility requirements of soccer. The purpose of the current investigation was to describe the path changes performed ...
Laury Marie L - - 2011
Scale factors for (a) low (<1000 cm(-1) ) and high harmonic vibrational frequencies, (b) thermal contributions to enthalpy and entropy, and (c) zero-point vibrational energies have been determined for five hybrid functionals (B3P86, B3PW91, PBE1PBE, BH&HLYP, MPW1K), five pure functionals (BLYP, BPW91, PBEPBE, HCTH93, and BP86), four hybrid meta functionals ...
Rogers Mark W - - 2011
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently have difficulties with generating anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) for forward propulsion and lateral weight transfer when initiating gait. This impairment has been attributed to deficits in motor planning and preparation. This study examined the preparation of APAs prior to an imperative cue to initiate ...
Nakata Hiroki - - 2011
We investigated the relationship between reaction time (RT) and response variability and somatosensory Go/No-go potentials. Event-related potentials following electrical stimulation of the second (Go stimulus) or fifth (No-go stimulus) digit of the left hand were recorded from 16 subjects, and Go and No-go stimuli were presented at an even probability. ...
Tanaka Keisuke - - 2011
The light-induced reaction of the BLUF (blue light photoreceptor using flavin adenine dinucleotide) photoreceptor PixD from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Slr1694) was investigated using the time-resolved transient grating method. A conformational change coupled with a volume contraction of 13 mL mol(-1) was observed with a time constant of 45 ms following photoexcitation. At ...
Cho Dongbin Tobin - - 2011
Choice reactions to a property of an object stimulus are often faster when the location of a graspable part of the object corresponds with the location of a keypress response than when it does not, a phenomenon called the object-based Simon effect. Experiments 1-3 examined this effect for variants of ...
Davoodi Seyed Rasoul - - 2011
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the baseline motorcycle riders' perception-response times (PRTs) in an expected object braking task and to determine the significant difference between PRTs of older and younger riders. Methods: Fifty-nine participants sat on their motorcycles in exactly the same way as they would ...
Pustoc'h A - - 2011
Despite their large clinical application, the understanding of the effects of foot orthoses on the lower limb kinematics and kinetics is limited. In this context, we propose an advanced musculoskeletal model to assess the influence of foot orthoses in the loading conditions within an osteoarthritic hip joint during gait. Experimental ...
Pfordresher Peter Q - - 2011
It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified ...
Kuldkepp Nele - - 2011
Reaction times (RT) to motion onset of a target grating moving at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 or 1.6 °/s and magnitude estimation of the same velocities were studied in the presence of the surrounding background motion which was either in the same or opposite direction. Surprisingly, we found no relative ...
Tandiono - - 2011
One way to focus the diffuse energy of a sound field in a liquid is by acoustically driving bubbles into nonlinear oscillation. A rapid and nearly adiabatic bubble collapse heats up the bubble interior and produces intense concentration of energy that is able to emit light (sonoluminescence) and to trigger ...
Wise Paul M - - 2011
Psychophysical judgments often depend on stimulus context. For example, sugar solutions are judged sweeter when a tasteless fruity aroma has been added. Response context also matters; adding a fruity aroma to sugar increases the rated sweetness when only sweetness is considered but not when fruitiness is judged as well. The ...
Allum J H J - - 2011
The reaction to an unexpected balance disturbance is unpractised, often startling and frequently associated with falls. This everyday situation can be reproduced in an experimental setting by exposing standing humans to sudden, unexpected and controlled movements of a support surface. In this review, we focus on the responses to the ...
Kryvohuz Maksym - - 2011
The semiclassical instanton approximation is revisited in the context of its application to the calculation of chemical reaction rate constants. An analytical expression for the quantum canonical reaction rate constants of multidimensional systems is derived for all temperatures from the deep tunneling to high-temperature regimes. The connection of the derived ...
Omland Petter M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Results have varied between studies of pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP) habituation, possibly caused by differences in stimulation parameters. Our aim was to estimate the interaction between check size and reversal rate on PR-VEP-habituation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated. Mid-occipital monocular PR-VEP was recorded in six ...
Liu Jianbo - - 2011
The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of veterinary clinical assessments of lameness to probability estimates of lameness predicted from vertical kinetic measures. We hypothesized that algorithm-derived probability estimates of lameness would accurately reflect vertical measures in lame limbs even though vertical changes may not inevitably occur ...
Keren Nir - - 2011
"Why do we always come here?" "I guess we'll never know." Waldorf and Statler Photoinhibition is defined as the light induced loss of photosynthetic activity and is an unavoidable consequence of the light reactions. Photoinhibitory damages are repaired by dedicated mechanisms and as long as the rate of repair matches ...
Doğramac Sera N - - 2011
Doğramacı, SN, Watsford, ML, and Murphy, AJ. The reliability and validity of subjective notational analysis in comparison to GPS tracking to assess athlete movement patterns. J Strength Cond Res 25(3): 852-859, 2011-Subjective notational analysis can be used to track players and analyse movement patterns during match-play of team sports such ...
Dai Zhendong - - 2011
Measuring the interaction between each foot of an animal and the substrate is one of the most effective ways to understand the dynamics of legged locomotion. Here, a new facility - the force-measuring array (FMA) - was developed and applied to measure 3D reaction forces of geckos on different slope ...
Na Seokhee - - 2011
Prolonged work in upright postures (standing and walking) is common in industry and in daily living activities, and is one possible risk factor for low back pain and leg problems. This study compared the reaction forces of four different floor surface conditions (three inner-room floor mats and no-mat) during gait. ...
Gray Rob - - 2011
A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although ...
Hubbard Timothy L - - 2011
The effects of line length and of spatial or temporal distance on illusory line motion (i.e., on the perception that a stationary line unfolds or expands away from a previously presented stationary cue) were examined in five experiments. Ratings of relative velocity decreased with increases in stimulus onset asynchrony between ...
Stuck B A - - 2011
An interaction of the intranasal chemical trigeminal and the olfactory system has previously been described. Intranasal chemical trigeminal stimulation during sleep leads to a dose-dependent increase in arousal reactions while pure olfactory stimuli are not able to trigger arousals or awakenings during sleep, regardless of the concentration used. The aim ...
Varechova S - - 2011
The aim of the study was to characterise mechanically induced cough threshold and reactivity by exposing the trachea to stimuli of variable duration in rabbit. Long lasting mechanical stimulation is widely used in experimental protocols studying cough reflex. The cough threshold and reactivity to chemical agents is known to change ...
Dijkstra Arie - - 2011
According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: ...
Barnier Amanda J - - 2011
This article describes a study that used hypnosis to temporarily re-create mirrored-self misidentification, which is the delusional belief that the person one sees in the mirror is a stranger. Following a hypnotic suggestion to see a stranger in the mirror, high hypnotizable subjects described seeing a stranger with physical characteristics ...
Kastelein Ronald A - - 2011
Equal-loudness functions describe relationships between the frequencies of sounds and their perceived loudness. This pilot study investigated the possibility of deriving equal-loudness contours based on the assumption that sounds of equal perceived loudness elicit equal reaction times (RTs). During a psychoacoustic underwater hearing study, the responses of two young female ...
Kalisvaart Joke P - - 2011
Speed and accuracy of visual motion discrimination depend systematically on motion strength. This behavior is traditionally explained by diffusion models that assume accumulation of sensory evidence over time to a decision bound. However, how does the brain decide when sensory evidence is ambiguous, such as in binocular rivalry? Theories on ...
Brönmark Christer - - 2011
The expression of anti-predator adaptations may vary on a spatial scale, favouring traits that are advantageous in a given predation regime. Besides, evolution of different developmental strategies depends to a large extent on the grain of the environment and may result in locally canalized adaptations or, alternatively, the evolution of ...
Tia Banty - - 2011
Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. We recorded ...
Net Sopheak - - 2010
The pseudo-first-order loss of coniferyl aldehyde, adsorbed on silicon dioxide particles, upon heterogeneous ozonolysis was monitored at various ozone mixing ratios in the absence and presence of simulated sunlight. For the first time we investigated the effect of light on the heterogeneous ozonolysis of coniferyl aldehyde adsorbed on silica particles. ...
Calvin Sarah - - 2010
Simultaneously executed limb movements interfere with each other. Whereas the interference between discrete movements is examined mostly from a cognitive perspective, that between rhythmic movements is studied mainly from a dynamical systems perspective. As the tools and concepts developed by both communities are limited in their applicability to the other ...
Hughes Gerwyn - - 2010
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump ...
Balasubramanian Sivakumar - - 2010
Initial work on robot-assisted neurorehabilitation for the upper extremity aimed primarily at training, reaching movements with the proximal sections of the upper extremity. However, recent years have seen a surge in devices dedicated to hand function. This review describes the state of the art and the promises of this novel ...
Plessa E I - - 2010
The take-off is probably the most important phase of the pole vault. The kinematics of pole vault take-off is often described in comparison to the long jump take-off. If a kinetic similarity were also evidenced, the extra loading of carrying the pole could be avoided by using the long jump ...
Shadmehr Reza R Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, USA. - - 2010
Let us assume that the purpose of any movement is to position our body in a more rewarding state. People and other animals discount future reward as a function of time. Recent results suggest that there is a correlation between changes in this reward temporal discount function and changes in ...
Sande de Souza Luciane Aparecida Pascucci - - 2011
Subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) presented difficulties in the performance of multi-joint movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the slowness of such movements was caused by the generation of non-linear trajectories and/or by a reduction or a deficit in the modulation of EMG activity. Nine healthy ...
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