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Poletti Martina - - 2013
A new study has found that artificial occlusion of central vision leads to rapid emergence, and long-term maintenance of a new preferred retinal locus of fixation. These findings have important implications for the understanding of visual and oculomotor plasticity as well as for the development of rehabilitation techniques.
Hong Joo Young - - 2013
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of audio-visual components on environmental quality to improve soundscape. Natural sounds with road traffic noise and visual components in urban streets were evaluated through laboratory experiments. Waterfall and stream water sounds, as well as bird sounds, were selected to enhance ...
Keshavarz Behrang - - 2013
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. ...
Makin Alexis D J - - 2013
Humans are quicker to detect reflectional than rotational or translational symmetry, despite the fact that these patterns are equally regular. We were interested in the neural correlates of these perceptual effects. Participants viewed random, reflection, rotation, and translation patterns while we recorded EEG from the scalp. Half the participants classified ...
Belikov Alexander V - - 2013
We investigate the possibility of fitting the putative spectrum of gamma rays from annihilating dark matter at the galactic center by a superexponential template. By generating and analyzing mock data for several ongoing and future experiments (HESS, CTA, and DMA), we find that the preference for a superexponential template (over ...
Srivastava Shrikant - - 2013
Introduction:Bright light exposure can alter circulating serotonin levels, and alteration of available serotonin by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibition significantly lowers sweet but not salt taste recognition thresholds. We tested the hypothesis that bright light exposure would increase sweet but not salt taste sensitivity in healthy adults.Methods:Fourteen healthy volunteers were ...
Wurdeman Shane R - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between stride-to-stride fluctuations and prosthesis preference. Thirteen individuals with unilateral, transtibial amputation consented to participate. Individuals walked on a treadmill for 3 min with their prescribed and an alternate prosthesis. Stride-to-stride fluctuations were quantified with the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) ...
Macleod Toran D - - 2013
This study was conducted to investigate whether adding mass to subjects' feet affects the preferred transition speed (PTS), and to ascertain whether selected swing phase variables (maximum ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity, angular acceleration, joint moment, and joint power) are determinants of the PTS, based upon four previously established criteria. After ...
Mesik Juraj - - 2013
The ability of the visual system to rapidly adjust to changing environmental conditions is one of its key characteristics. Environmental changes can occur over a variety of timescales, however, and it remains unknown how the visual system adapts to these. Does a single mechanism control adaptation across all timescales, or ...
Shekhawat Giriraj Singh - - 2013
Objective: Tinnitus is a perceived sound that cannot be attributed to an external source. This study attempts to identify a prescription of amplification that is optimized as a first-fit setting for tinnitus relief. Design: Participants compared the effect of high frequency amplification on their tinnitus. Stimuli were 13 speech files ...
Brindle Richard A - - 2013
Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them ...
Berger Christopher C - - 2013
Multisensory interactions are the norm in perception, and an abundance of research on the interaction and integration of the senses has demonstrated the importance of combining sensory information from different modalities on our perception of the external world [1-9]. However, although research on mental imagery has revealed a great deal ...
Auffarth Benjamin - - 2013
The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. ...
Harada Mayu - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Hyperthymic temperament has been generally accepted as one of premorbid temperament of bipolar disorders. Since recent several studies indicate an association between illuminance and hyperthymic temperament, it can be hypothesized that more hyperthymic temperament subjects have a different threshold of brightness or darkness perception in comparison with less hyperthymic ...
D'Alonzo Marco - - 2013
Electro- or vibro-tactile stimulations were used in the past to provide sensory information in many different applications ranging from human manual control to prosthetics. The two modalities were used separately in the past, and we hypothesized that a hybrid vibro-electrotactile (HyVE) stimulation could provide two afferent streams that are independently ...
McIntyre-Robinson Andrew J K - - 2013
Hand and foot movements are made more reliably when both limbs move in the same direction at the same time (isodirectional), compared to when they are made in opposite directions (anisodirectional). We hypothesised that M1 intracortical facilitation may subserve hand-foot coordination, and reveal correlates that explain the preference for hand-foot ...
Mitchell Michael - - 2013
A computer-controlled mechanism that fits a standard ankle-foot prosthesis was designed to capture the absorbed energy in the ankle and delay its release until specific times in the gait cycle. This mechanism used a direct current motor to take up and hold the compression of a carbon-fiber ankle joint. Based ...
Wagman Jeffrey B - - 2013
Perception becomes increasingly scaled to environmental properties when feedback is provided about the perception of a given property. Understanding the process of calibration requires a description of the stimulation patterns to which perceivers become calibrated as a result of such feedback. Recent investigations using a transfer-of-calibration paradigm have shown that ...
de Haan Roel - - 2013
Many animals use visual motion cues for navigating within their surroundings. Both flies and vertebrates compute local motion by temporal correlation of neighboring photoreceptors, via so-called elementary motion detectors (EMDs). In the fly lobula plate and the vertebrate visual cortex the output from many EMDs is pooled in neurons sensitive ...
Hammett Stephen T - - 2013
The generation of a behaviorally relevant cue to the speed of objects around us is critical to our ability to navigate safely within our environment. However, our perception of speed is often distorted by prevailing conditions. For instance, as luminance is reduced, our perception of the speed of fast moving ...
Bidet-Ildei Christel - - 2013
In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception ...
Enders Hendrik - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To characterize soft tissue vibrations during running with a preferred and a non-preferred strike pattern in shoes and barefoot. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants ran at 3.5ms(-1) on a treadmill in shoes and barefoot using a rearfoot and a forefoot strike for each footwear condition. The preferred strike patterns ...
Li Peichao - - 2013
In the primate visual system, area V4 is located in the ventral pathway and is traditionally thought to be involved in processing color and form information. However, little is known about its functional role in processing motion information. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging over large fields of view in V1, ...
Castaldi E - - 2013
Animal physiological and human psychophysical studies suggest that an early step in visual processing involves the detection and identification of features such as lines and edges, by neural mechanisms with even- and odd-symmetric receptive fields. Functional imaging studies also demonstrate mechanisms with even- and odd-receptive fields in early visual areas, ...
Liu Jiang - - 2013
The main objective of this study was to analyse the effects of various landscape factors on soundscape perception in city parks. This was based on the experience, which was supposed to reflect soundscape perception, of 580 users of five city parks in Xiamen, China. Visual and functional landscape characteristics were ...
Lombardo Marco - - 2013
PURPOSE: To investigate the distribution of cone density and spacing as well as the preferred packing arrangement of the cone mosaic as a function of retinal eccentricity. METHODS: An adaptive optics retinal camera (rtx1, www.imagine-eyes.com) was used to obtain images of the parafoveal cone mosaic in nineteen healthy volunteers. Cone ...
Cappa Dario F - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare drop (DJ) and hurdle jumps using a preferred, flat foot (FLAT) and fore foot (FORE) landing technique. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height was used to establish the hurdle and the DJ heights. Subjects performed forward hurdles and vertical DJs on a force ...
Nakano Yoshinori - - 2013
This study aimed to evaluate the taste and mouth feel of newly designed orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of pioglitazone, which is a typical type 2 diabetes medicine with an unpleasant taste, using a visual analogue scale (VAS) analysis. The ODTs were subjected to either of these 2 taste-masking procedures: a ...
Wise Paul M - - 2013
Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of ...
Lange Joachim - - 2013
Several studies have demonstrated that prestimulus occipital alpha-band activity substantially influences subjective perception and discrimination of near-threshold or masked visual stimuli. Here, we studied the role of prestimulus power fluctuations in two visual phenomena called double-flash illusion (DFI) and fusion effect (FE), both consisting of suprathreshold stimuli. In both phenomena, ...
Catania Kenneth C - - 2013
Integration of bilateral sensory information is fundamental to stimulus localization in auditory systems and depth perception in vision, but the role of stereo olfactory cues remains obscure. Here it is shown that blind, eastern American moles combine serial sampling with bilateral nasal cues to localize odorants. Blocking one nostril causes ...
Johnson Earl E - - 2013
Background: Johnson and Dillon (2011) provided a model-based comparison of current generic hearing aid prescriptive methods for adults with hearing loss based on the attributes of speech intelligibility, loudness, and bandwidth. Purpose: This study compared the National Acoustic Laboratories-Non-linear 2 (NAL-NL2) and Cambridge Method for Loudness Equalization 2-High-Frequency (CAM2) prescriptive ...
Hummel Thomas - - 2013
The present study aimed to investigate whether side differences in olfactory bulb (OB) volume correlate to respective differences in olfactory function. In a total of 164 healthy volunteers volumetric measures of the OBs were performed plus lateralized measurements of odor thresholds and odor discrimination. Side differences were defined as 10% ...
Napadow V - - 2013
Nausea is associated with significant morbidity, and there is a wide range in the propensity of individuals to experience nausea. The neural basis of the heterogeneity in nausea susceptibility is poorly understood. Our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in healthy adults showed that a visual motion stimulus caused ...
Green Amy A Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2013
Heroin addicts consume large quantities of refined sugars. This study investigated the effect of opiate use and antagonism on sweet taste in opiate-maintained drug users and detoxified former chronic opiate users, using a within-subject design. Seven opiate users received methadone and seven buprenorphine maintenance. Six detoxified subjects received naltrexone. Sucrose ...
Gu Cheng - - 2013
Thresholds for the perception of vibration on the hand reduce with increasing area of excitation when the thresholds are mediated by the Pacinian channel (a phenomenon known as spatial summation) but thresholds are generally independent of the area of excitation when they are mediated by non-Pacinian channels. The effect of ...
Hubel Tatjana Y TY Structure and Motion Laboratory, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. - - 2013
There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the 'compass gait', a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal-at walking ...
Scheme E - - 2013
This study describes a novel myoelectric control scheme that is capable of motion rejection. As an extension of the commonly used linear discriminant analysis (LDA), this system generates a confidence score for each decision, providing the ability to reject those with a score below a selected threshold. The thresholds are ...
Xiao Qian - - 2013
In the visual system of invertebrates and vertebrates there are specialised groups of motion-sensitive neurons, with large receptive fields, which are optimally tuned to respond to optic flow produced by the animals' movement through the 3-D world. From their response characteristics, shared frame of reference with the vestibular or inertial ...
Wallis Guy - - 2013
Human observers are extremely adept at correctly interpreting the visual input that they receive despite its inherent ambiguity. There are, however, situations in which no single, valid interpretation exists and perception oscillates. Such situations offer insight into the processes underlying perception, as they reveal the conditions under which our percept ...
Cribb Nardi - - 2013
Limited information is available regarding the habitat preference of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in South Australian estuarine environments. The need to overcome this paucity of information is crucial for management and conservation initiatives. This preliminary study investigates the space-time patterns of habitat preference by the Indo-Pacific bottlenose ...
Gruber Nicole - - 2013
Objective: In this article, we review the impact of vision on older people's night driving abilities. Driving is the preferred and primary mode of transport for older people. It is a complex activity where intact vision is seminal for road safety. Night driving requires mesopic rather than scotopic vision, because ...
Castelhano João - - 2013
The relation of gamma-band synchrony to holistic perception in which concerns the effects of sensory processing, high level perceptual gestalt formation, motor planning and response is still controversial. To provide a more direct link to emergent perceptual states we have used holistic EEG/ERP paradigms where the moment of perceptual "discovery" ...
Otálora-Luna Fernando - - 2013
The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, ...
Heo Hwan - - 2013
To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of ...
Cianca Valentina - - 2013
Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the study of anxiety-related disorders in translational research, whereby they serve a fundamental complement to laboratory rodents. Several anxiety-related behavioral paradigms, which rest upon the presentation of live predatorial stimuli, may yield inconsistent results due to fatigue, habituation, or idiosyncratic ...
Duijnhouwer Jacob - - 2013
Several models of heading detection during smooth pursuit rely on the assumption of local constraint line tuning to exist in large scale motion detection templates. A motion detector that exhibits pure constraint line tuning responds maximally to any 2D-velocity in the set of vectors that can be decomposed into the ...
Li Ran - - 2013
Luminance is a fundamental property of visual scenes. A population of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) is sensitive to uniform luminance. In natural vision, however, the retinal image often changes rapidly. Consequently the luminance signals visual cells receive are transiently varying. How V1 neurons respond to such luminance changes ...
Daly Kevin C - - 2013
Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing ...
Doi Takahiro - - 2013
Stereoscopic depth perception is supported by a combination of correlation-based and match-based representations of binocular disparity. It also relies on both transient and sustained temporal channels of the visual system. Previous studies suggest that the relative contribution of the correlation-based representation (over the match-based representation) and the transient channel (over ...
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