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Results 501 - 550 of 1499
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Casadio Maura - - 2008
In MS subjects with no clinical disability, we assessed sensorimotor organization and their ability to adapt to an unfamiliar dynamical environment. Eleven MS subjects performed reaching movements while a robot generated a speed-dependent force field. Control and adaptation performance were compared with that of an equal number of control subjects. ...
Tsunoda Yoshiaki - - 2008
Anticipating the timing of behaviorally relevant events is crucial for organizing movement. The time to initiate actions based on events (i.e., reaction time (RT)) is a useful measure to quantify states of anticipation. Few studies have examined how anticipation affects the timing of limb movements. We addressed this question behaviorally ...
Makimoto Kiyoko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The availability of increasingly sophisticated technology has meant that ambulation can be measured with precision over an extended period. METHODS: An integrated circuit tag-monitoring system was set up to measure the distance moved in a dementia care unit in Korea in 2006. Various indicators were developed to measure temporal ...
Hansen Steve - - 2008
This study examined the spatial and temporal limitations of the visual corrective process in the control of upper limb movements. Real-time calculation of kinematic data was used to trigger a prismatic displacement of the movement environment during manual aiming. Using an OptoTrak motion tracking system, a data acquisition unit, and ...
Noguchi K - - 2008
This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the temporal anticipation effects and motor control on repetitive tooth tapping movements (tooth tapping produced by open-close jaw movements) commanded by six frequencies of acoustic signals. Ten dentulous young adults were asked to perform tooth tapping movements to acoustic command signals ...
Wilson Cassie - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of skill of expert triple jumpers on the coordination variability of lower extremity intra-limb couplings. In contrast to the traditional motor learning perspective, we hypothesized that as skill and thus performance increases, movement coordination variability will also increase. Three-dimensional kinematic ...
Abernethy Bruce - - 2008
Three experiments were undertaken to ascertain the extent to which expertise in natural anticipatory tasks is characterised by superior attunement to the biomechanical (kinematic) constraints of the movement pattern being observed. Twelve world-class and twelve non-expert badminton players were required to predict the depth of an opponent's stroke from either ...
Wilson Margaret - - 2008
This review introduces different techniques used in biomechanics that have been used in analyzing dance movement. Biomechanics provides information not only for analysis of motion, but for understanding muscle use, forces acting on the body, issues of motor control, and the interaction between any one body part and the body ...
Farrer C - - 2008
It has been hypothesized that an internal model is involved in controlling and recognizing one's own actions (action attribution). This results from a comparison process between the predicted sensory feedback of the action and its real sensory consequences. The aim of the present study is to distinguish the respective importance ...
Cesqui Benedetta - - 2008
In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed ...
Liebermann Dario G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) are subject to supraspinal modulation. Therefore, awareness about a noxious stimulation may affect its characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of different degrees of awareness on the NWR. METHOD: Eight subjects performed back and forth hand movements from a common ...
Francis Joseph T JT Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate School of Medicine, 450 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. - - 2008
Our sensory-motor control system has a remarkable ability to adapt to novel dynamics during reaching movements and generalizes this adaptation to movements made in different directions, positions and even speeds. The degree and pattern of this generalization are of great importance in deducing the underlying mechanisms that govern our motor ...
Walsh Eammon E Department of Psychology, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK. - - 2007
An important aspect of everyday behaviour is the ability to cancel a prepared movement. In Experiment 1, subjects prepared a response, and then either executed it in response to a subsequent Go signal, or cancelled the movement if a NoGo signal occurred. Subjects had to detect weak shocks, which were ...
van Vliet Paulette M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the coordination of reach-to-grasp components in hemiparetic and healthy subjects. DESIGN: Split-plot repeated-measures design with 3 factors (group, object size, movement speed). SETTING: Movement laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve hemiparetic and 12 age-matched healthy subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We used motion analysis to collect information on ...
Black David P - - 2007
The authors conducted two experiments that served as a test bed for applying the recently developed uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to rhythmic motor coordination, which has been extensively investigated from a coordination dynamics perspective. The results of two experiments, one investigating within-person and one investigating between-persons rhythmic movement coordination, identified ...
Pereanu Wayne - - 2007
Larval behavioral patterns arise in a gradual fashion during late embryogenesis as the innervation of the somatic musculature and connectivity within the central nervous system develops. In this paper, we describe in a quantitative manner the maturation of behavioral patterns. Early movements are locally restricted "twitches" of the body wall, ...
Kerr A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The principle of specificity in muscle training requires the training mode to reflect the desired outcome. The observed similarity of lower limb movements during recumbent cycling to the functional movements sit-to-stand and step-up presents the possibility of using recumbent cycling in a rehabilitation context. This may reduce the need ...
Burgess Jamie Kaye - - 2007
Recent studies on intermanual transfer of reaching movements suggest that this transfer is conducted over an "extrinsic" coordinate system. We hypothesize that training reaching movements in a force field with both hands at the same time, in the same position (bimanual grip) will be more beneficial in promoting transfer of ...
Schorer Jörg - - 2007
The authors examined the movement patterns of 5 left-handed handball players (ranging from beginner to national level) who threw a handball to different sections of a goal as if a goalkeeper were present. The authors used time-continuous, 3-dimensional kinematic data to assess interindividual movement patterns and considered participants' intraindividual differences ...
Vasil'eva O N - - 2007
The central mechanism of motor programming was studied using a model of precise horizontal flexion of the arm at the elbow joint. Training was performed in the dark to ensure that formation of the motor program was based predominantly on the use of proprioceptive afferentation. The target was not demonstrated ...
Abernethy Bruce - - 2007
In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined the ability of badminton players of different skill levels (12 experts and 12 nonexperts) to anticipate the direction of badminton strokes. Participants viewed either film or point-light displays under a range of temporal or spatial occlusion conditions. World-class players were able ...
Sosnik Ronen - - 2007
Previous psychophysical studies have sought to determine whether the processes of movement engagement and termination are dissociable, whether stopping an action is a generic process, and whether there is a point in time in which the generation of a planned action is inevitable ("point of no return"). It is not ...
Ausborn Jessica - - 2007
The sensory system plays a key role in the generation of behavior by providing the nervous system with information about the environment and feedback about body movements such that motor output can continuously be adapted to changing circumstances. Although the effects of sensory organs on nervous system function have been ...
Dean Noah J - - 2008
Experiment 1 was conducted to determine if proportional transfer from "small to large" scale movements is as effective as transferring from "large to small." We hypothesize that the learning of larger scale movement will require the participant to learn to manage the generation, storage, and dissipation of forces better than ...
Chmarra Magdalena K - - 2008
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires a high degree of eye-hand coordination from the surgeon. To facilitate the learning process, objective assessment systems based on analysis of the instruments' motion are being developed. To investigate the influence of performance on motion characteristics, we examined goal-oriented movements in a box trainer. In ...
Carr Sherilene M SM Psychology Department, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2008
Visual selective attention is thought to underly inhibitory control during pointing movements. Accounts of inhibitory control during pointing movements make differential predictions about movement deviations towards or away from highly salient non-target flankers based on their potential cortical activation and subsequent inhibition: (1) Tipper et al. (Vis Cogn 4:1-38, 1997) ...
Bruzzo Angela - - 2008
It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to ...
Santini Fabrizio - - 2007
In experimental studies of visual performance, the need often emerges to modify the stimulus according to the eye movements performed by the subject. The eye-movement-contingent display (EMCD) methodology enables accurate control of the position and motion of the stimulus on the retina. EMCD procedures have been used successfully in many ...
Meunier Hélène - - 2008
Group members present physical and physiological differences according to their age, sex or social status, which could generate motivation differences among individuals during travel. In spite of these divergences of interest among individuals, the group succeeds more often than not in making a collective decision about departure time and which ...
Franklin David W - - 2007
It has been shown that humans are able to selectively control the endpoint impedance of their arms when moving in an unstable environment. However, directional instability was only examined for the case in which the main contribution was from coactivation of biarticular muscles. The goal of this study was to ...
Goble Jacob A - - 2007
Strategies used by the CNS to optimize arm movements in terms of speed, accuracy, and resistance to fatigue remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is studied that the CNS exploits biomechanical properties of multijoint limbs to increase efficiency of movement control. To test this notion, a novel free-stroke drawing task was ...
Gritsenko V - - 2007
Psychophysical studies have reported an overestimation of limb position in the direction of movement during the early part of active movements. The main hypothesis tested in this study is that the overestimation results from a process of forward prediction of limb state driven by an efference copy of the outgoing ...
Watanabe Katsumi - - 2008
To coordinate our actions with those of others, it is crucial to not only choose an appropriate category of action but also to execute it at an appropriate timing. It is widely documented that people tend to unconsciously mimic others' behavior. The present study show that people also tend to ...
Casellato C - - 2007
The planning and the execution of voluntary movement relies on sensorimotor transformations in which representations of the external environment are integrated into motor programs. We studied executions of Whole Body Pointing movements, in normal and in transient microgravity (parabolic flights) conditions. Three processes could lead to adaptation to the new ...
Janson Charles H - - 2007
We present the theoretical and practical difficulties of inferring the cognitive processes involved in spatial movement decisions of primates and other animals based on studies of their foraging behavior in the wild. Because the possible cognitive processes involved in foraging are not known a priori for a given species, some ...
Obhi Sukhvinder S - - 2007
To investigate the sources of conscious awareness of action, participants made judgments about the initiation times of active and passive key press movements that were either forceful or soft. After each trial, participants made judgments about when they moved by reporting the position of a rotating clock hand at the ...
Esposti Roberto - - 2007
The mechanisms that control the limbs position during rhythmic voluntary oscillations were investigated in ten subjects, who were asked to synchronise the lower peak of their hand or foot rhythmic oscillations to a metronome beat. The efficacy of the "position control" was estimated by measuring the degree of synchronisation between ...
Økland, Finn; Norwegian Institute ...
Movements of and habitat utilisation by radio-tagged threespot tilapia (body length 25–50cm) were studied in the Upper Zambezi River between 23 November 2000 and 8 May 2001. Although utilising a relatively large stretch of river (average 5.4km) during the study period, the fish mainly stayed within defined home ranges, with ...
Khan Michael A - - 2008
The relation between reaction time and the number of elements in a response has been shown to depend on whether simple or choice RT paradigms are employed. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether advance information about the number of elements is the critical factor mediating the ...
Hospod Valérie - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to test whether fusimotor control of human muscle spindle sensitivity changed when attention was selectively directed to the recognition of an imposed two-dimensional movement in the form of a written symbol. The unitary activities of 32 muscle spindle afferents (26 Ia, 6 II) ...
Huang Felix C - - 2007
The authors employed a virtual environment to investigate how humans use haptic and visual feedback in a simple, rhythmic object-manipulation task. The authors hypothesized that feedback would help participants identify the appropriate resonant frequency and perform online control adjustments. The 1st test was whether sensory feedback is needed at all; ...
George, Gerald James
The black drum, Pogonias cromis (Sciaenidae), is a molluscivorous, coastal/estuarine species, often associated with oyster reefs, that is sought in recreational and commercial fisheries. I used a radio-acoustic positioning system and an array of moored receivers to monitor movements of 34 black drum around oyster reefs in Barataria Bay, Louisiana ...
Flash Tamar - - 2007
Humans interact with their environment through sensory information and motor actions. These interactions may be understood via the underlying geometry of both perception and action. While the motor space is typically considered by default to be Euclidean, persistent behavioral observations point to a different underlying geometric structure. These observed regularities ...
Greiner Chieko - - 2007
Videotaping, direct observation, and biomechanical devices have been used to measure the wandering behavior of institutionalized people with dementia and to identify patterns of movement. Owing to technical limitations, the variability in movement patterns or the distance traveled could not be examined. The present study examined the feasibility of an ...
Schutte Anne R - - 2007
The timed-initiation paradigm developed by Ghez and colleagues (1997) has revealed two modes of motor planning: continuous and discrete. Continuous responding occurs when targets are separated by less than 60 degrees of spatial angle, and discrete responding occurs when targets are separated by greater than 60 degrees . Although these ...
Temprado J J - - 2007
The present work investigated the effects of spatial and neuromuscular constraints on the mean states and variability of interlimb coordination patterns performed in the para-sagittal plane of motion in a hand-held pendulum oscillation task. Nine right-handed students had to oscillate two pendulums through wrist adduction-abduction movements. Relative movement direction was ...
Foster Paul S - - 2007
BACKGROUND/HYPOTHESIS: The degree of attention directed to a stimulus and the presence of anisometric representations can alter the perception of the magnitude of a stimulus. We wanted to learn if normal right-handed subjects' estimates of distance traveled are influenced by the right-left direction or hemispace of movements. METHODS: We had ...
Haswgawa, Eiichi
The present study used six carps Cyprinus carpio,about 11cm in average total length,for investigating fish distribution in a funnel net and fish movement between two mountain-shaped nets which set on upper and lower sides or set on both sides. The most important effect to fish distribution in a funnel net ...
Ridderikhoff Arne A Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences (IFKB), Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2007
Although previous studies indicated that the stability properties of interlimb coordination largely result from the integrated timing of efferent signals to both limbs, they also depend on afference-based interactions. In the present study, we examined contributions of afference-based error corrections to rhythmic bimanual coordination using a kinesthetic tracking task. Furthermore, ...
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