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Trempe Maxime M Département de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. - - 2008
One can adapt movement planning to compensate for a mismatch between vision and action. Previous research with prismatic lenses has shown this adaptation to be accompanied with a shift in the evaluation of one's body midline, suggesting an important role of this reference for successful adaptation. This interpretation leads to ...
Valls-Solé Josep J EMG unit, Neurology Department, Hospital Clínic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Barcelona, Spain. - - 2008
The startle reaction (SR) is usually understood as an involuntary reaction to an unexpected sensory input. However, there is evidence that the mechanisms involved in the SR contribute also to the execution of actions that we consider voluntary. We need to exert a fine control of the motor output, which ...
Woolley Daniel G - - 2008
Previous studies have attempted to identify sources of contextual information which can facilitate dual adaptation to two variants of a novel environment, which are normally prone to interference. The type of contextual information previously used can be grouped into two broad categories: that which is arbitrary to the motor system, ...
Godoy Rolf Inge - - 2008
From our studies of sound-related movement (http:musicalgestures.uio.no), we have reason to believe that both sound-producing and sound-accompanying movements are centered around what we call goal-points, meaning certain salient events in the music such as downbeats, or various accent types, or melodic peaks. In music performance, these goal-points are reflected in ...
Roshier David A - - 2008
Most ecological and evolutionary processes are thought to critically depend on dispersal and individual movement but there is little empirical information on the movement strategies used by animals to find resources. In particular, it is unclear whether behavioural variation exists at all scales, or whether behavioural decisions are primarily made ...
De Marco Rodrigo J - - 2008
A honeybee's waggle dance is an intriguing example of multisensory convergence, central processing and symbolic information transfer. It conveys to bees and human observers the position of a relatively small area at the endpoint of an average vector in a two-dimensional system of coordinates. This vector is often computed from ...
Bose Arpita - - 2008
Most existing models of language production and speech motor control do not explicitly address how language requirements affect speech motor functions, as these domains are usually treated as separate and independent from one another. This investigation compared lip movements during bilabial closure between five individuals with mild aphasia and five ...
Biermann-Ruben Katja - - 2008
Our motor and perceptual representations of actions seem to be intimately linked and the human mirror neuron system (MNS) has been proposed as the mediator. In two experiments, we presented biological or non-biological movement stimuli that were either congruent or incongruent to a required response prompted by a tone. When ...
Schneider Axel - - 2008
A closed kinematic chain, like an arm that operates a crank, has a constrained movement space. A meaningful movement of the chain's endpoint is only possible along the free movement directions which are given implicitly by the contour of the object that confines the movement of the chain. Many technical ...
Missaka Reinaldo - - 2008
This study aimed to present a wireless mandibular motion tracking device and optoelectronic data acquisition system developed to analyze the real-time spatial motion of the entire mandible during mouth opening and closing with no restriction of any movement. The procedures were divided into three phases: confection of a kinematic arch, ...
Izawa Jun J Laboratory for Computational Motor Control, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. - - 2008
Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict and cancel effects of a novel environment, returning movements to near baseline (unperturbed) conditions. An alternate view is that cancellation is not the goal of adaptation. Rather, the goal is to maximize performance in that ...
Eckert Scott A - - 2008
Adapting state-space models (SSMs) to telemetry data has been helpful for dealing with location error and for modeling animal movements. We used a combination of two hierarchical Bayesian SSMs to estimate movement pathways from Argos satellite-tag data for 15 juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the western Mediterranean Sea, and ...
Field Evelyn F - - 2008
Sex differences in the kinematic organization of non-reproductive behavior are often relegated to byproducts of sex differences in body morphology. We review evidence showing not only that male and female rats organize their posture and stepping differently during a variety of actions, but that these differences arise from sex differences ...
Casadio Maura - - 2008
In MS subjects with no clinical disability, we assessed sensorimotor organization and their ability to adapt to an unfamiliar dynamical environment. Eleven MS subjects performed reaching movements while a robot generated a speed-dependent force field. Control and adaptation performance were compared with that of an equal number of control subjects. ...
Tsunoda Yoshiaki - - 2008
Anticipating the timing of behaviorally relevant events is crucial for organizing movement. The time to initiate actions based on events (i.e., reaction time (RT)) is a useful measure to quantify states of anticipation. Few studies have examined how anticipation affects the timing of limb movements. We addressed this question behaviorally ...
Makimoto Kiyoko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The availability of increasingly sophisticated technology has meant that ambulation can be measured with precision over an extended period. METHODS: An integrated circuit tag-monitoring system was set up to measure the distance moved in a dementia care unit in Korea in 2006. Various indicators were developed to measure temporal ...
Hansen Steve - - 2008
This study examined the spatial and temporal limitations of the visual corrective process in the control of upper limb movements. Real-time calculation of kinematic data was used to trigger a prismatic displacement of the movement environment during manual aiming. Using an OptoTrak motion tracking system, a data acquisition unit, and ...
Noguchi K - - 2008
This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between the temporal anticipation effects and motor control on repetitive tooth tapping movements (tooth tapping produced by open-close jaw movements) commanded by six frequencies of acoustic signals. Ten dentulous young adults were asked to perform tooth tapping movements to acoustic command signals ...
Wilson Cassie - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of skill of expert triple jumpers on the coordination variability of lower extremity intra-limb couplings. In contrast to the traditional motor learning perspective, we hypothesized that as skill and thus performance increases, movement coordination variability will also increase. Three-dimensional kinematic ...
Abernethy Bruce - - 2008
Three experiments were undertaken to ascertain the extent to which expertise in natural anticipatory tasks is characterised by superior attunement to the biomechanical (kinematic) constraints of the movement pattern being observed. Twelve world-class and twelve non-expert badminton players were required to predict the depth of an opponent's stroke from either ...
Wilson Margaret - - 2008
This review introduces different techniques used in biomechanics that have been used in analyzing dance movement. Biomechanics provides information not only for analysis of motion, but for understanding muscle use, forces acting on the body, issues of motor control, and the interaction between any one body part and the body ...
Farrer C - - 2008
It has been hypothesized that an internal model is involved in controlling and recognizing one's own actions (action attribution). This results from a comparison process between the predicted sensory feedback of the action and its real sensory consequences. The aim of the present study is to distinguish the respective importance ...
Cesqui Benedetta - - 2008
In the past, several research groups have shown that when a velocity dependent force field is applied during upper limb movements subjects are able to deal with this external perturbation after some training. This adaptation is achieved by creating a new internal model which is included in the normal unperturbed ...
Liebermann Dario G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) are subject to supraspinal modulation. Therefore, awareness about a noxious stimulation may affect its characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of different degrees of awareness on the NWR. METHOD: Eight subjects performed back and forth hand movements from a common ...
Francis Joseph T JT Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate School of Medicine, 450 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. - - 2008
Our sensory-motor control system has a remarkable ability to adapt to novel dynamics during reaching movements and generalizes this adaptation to movements made in different directions, positions and even speeds. The degree and pattern of this generalization are of great importance in deducing the underlying mechanisms that govern our motor ...
Walsh Eammon E Department of Psychology, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK. - - 2007
An important aspect of everyday behaviour is the ability to cancel a prepared movement. In Experiment 1, subjects prepared a response, and then either executed it in response to a subsequent Go signal, or cancelled the movement if a NoGo signal occurred. Subjects had to detect weak shocks, which were ...
van Vliet Paulette M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the coordination of reach-to-grasp components in hemiparetic and healthy subjects. DESIGN: Split-plot repeated-measures design with 3 factors (group, object size, movement speed). SETTING: Movement laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve hemiparetic and 12 age-matched healthy subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We used motion analysis to collect information on ...
Black David P - - 2007
The authors conducted two experiments that served as a test bed for applying the recently developed uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to rhythmic motor coordination, which has been extensively investigated from a coordination dynamics perspective. The results of two experiments, one investigating within-person and one investigating between-persons rhythmic movement coordination, identified ...
Pereanu Wayne - - 2007
Larval behavioral patterns arise in a gradual fashion during late embryogenesis as the innervation of the somatic musculature and connectivity within the central nervous system develops. In this paper, we describe in a quantitative manner the maturation of behavioral patterns. Early movements are locally restricted "twitches" of the body wall, ...
Kerr A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The principle of specificity in muscle training requires the training mode to reflect the desired outcome. The observed similarity of lower limb movements during recumbent cycling to the functional movements sit-to-stand and step-up presents the possibility of using recumbent cycling in a rehabilitation context. This may reduce the need ...
Burgess Jamie Kaye - - 2007
Recent studies on intermanual transfer of reaching movements suggest that this transfer is conducted over an "extrinsic" coordinate system. We hypothesize that training reaching movements in a force field with both hands at the same time, in the same position (bimanual grip) will be more beneficial in promoting transfer of ...
Schorer Jörg - - 2007
The authors examined the movement patterns of 5 left-handed handball players (ranging from beginner to national level) who threw a handball to different sections of a goal as if a goalkeeper were present. The authors used time-continuous, 3-dimensional kinematic data to assess interindividual movement patterns and considered participants' intraindividual differences ...
Vasil'eva O N - - 2007
The central mechanism of motor programming was studied using a model of precise horizontal flexion of the arm at the elbow joint. Training was performed in the dark to ensure that formation of the motor program was based predominantly on the use of proprioceptive afferentation. The target was not demonstrated ...
Abernethy Bruce - - 2007
In a series of 3 experiments, the authors examined the ability of badminton players of different skill levels (12 experts and 12 nonexperts) to anticipate the direction of badminton strokes. Participants viewed either film or point-light displays under a range of temporal or spatial occlusion conditions. World-class players were able ...
Sosnik Ronen - - 2007
Previous psychophysical studies have sought to determine whether the processes of movement engagement and termination are dissociable, whether stopping an action is a generic process, and whether there is a point in time in which the generation of a planned action is inevitable ("point of no return"). It is not ...
Ausborn Jessica - - 2007
The sensory system plays a key role in the generation of behavior by providing the nervous system with information about the environment and feedback about body movements such that motor output can continuously be adapted to changing circumstances. Although the effects of sensory organs on nervous system function have been ...
Dean Noah J - - 2008
Experiment 1 was conducted to determine if proportional transfer from "small to large" scale movements is as effective as transferring from "large to small." We hypothesize that the learning of larger scale movement will require the participant to learn to manage the generation, storage, and dissipation of forces better than ...
Chmarra Magdalena K - - 2008
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires a high degree of eye-hand coordination from the surgeon. To facilitate the learning process, objective assessment systems based on analysis of the instruments' motion are being developed. To investigate the influence of performance on motion characteristics, we examined goal-oriented movements in a box trainer. In ...
Carr Sherilene M SM Psychology Department, Monash University, Melbourne, - - 2008
Visual selective attention is thought to underly inhibitory control during pointing movements. Accounts of inhibitory control during pointing movements make differential predictions about movement deviations towards or away from highly salient non-target flankers based on their potential cortical activation and subsequent inhibition: (1) Tipper et al. (Vis Cogn 4:1-38, 1997) ...
Bruzzo Angela - - 2008
It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to ...
Santini Fabrizio - - 2007
In experimental studies of visual performance, the need often emerges to modify the stimulus according to the eye movements performed by the subject. The eye-movement-contingent display (EMCD) methodology enables accurate control of the position and motion of the stimulus on the retina. EMCD procedures have been used successfully in many ...
Meunier Hélène - - 2008
Group members present physical and physiological differences according to their age, sex or social status, which could generate motivation differences among individuals during travel. In spite of these divergences of interest among individuals, the group succeeds more often than not in making a collective decision about departure time and which ...
Franklin David W - - 2007
It has been shown that humans are able to selectively control the endpoint impedance of their arms when moving in an unstable environment. However, directional instability was only examined for the case in which the main contribution was from coactivation of biarticular muscles. The goal of this study was to ...
Goble Jacob A - - 2007
Strategies used by the CNS to optimize arm movements in terms of speed, accuracy, and resistance to fatigue remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is studied that the CNS exploits biomechanical properties of multijoint limbs to increase efficiency of movement control. To test this notion, a novel free-stroke drawing task was ...
Gritsenko V - - 2007
Psychophysical studies have reported an overestimation of limb position in the direction of movement during the early part of active movements. The main hypothesis tested in this study is that the overestimation results from a process of forward prediction of limb state driven by an efference copy of the outgoing ...
Watanabe Katsumi - - 2008
To coordinate our actions with those of others, it is crucial to not only choose an appropriate category of action but also to execute it at an appropriate timing. It is widely documented that people tend to unconsciously mimic others' behavior. The present study show that people also tend to ...
Casellato C - - 2007
The planning and the execution of voluntary movement relies on sensorimotor transformations in which representations of the external environment are integrated into motor programs. We studied executions of Whole Body Pointing movements, in normal and in transient microgravity (parabolic flights) conditions. Three processes could lead to adaptation to the new ...
Janson Charles H - - 2007
We present the theoretical and practical difficulties of inferring the cognitive processes involved in spatial movement decisions of primates and other animals based on studies of their foraging behavior in the wild. Because the possible cognitive processes involved in foraging are not known a priori for a given species, some ...
Obhi Sukhvinder S - - 2007
To investigate the sources of conscious awareness of action, participants made judgments about the initiation times of active and passive key press movements that were either forceful or soft. After each trial, participants made judgments about when they moved by reporting the position of a rotating clock hand at the ...
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