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Gozli Davood G DG Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G3, Canada, - - 2014
Growing evidence suggests that visual information is processed differently in the near-hand space, relative to the space far from the hands. To account for the existing literature, we recently proposed that the costs and benefits of hand proximity may be due to differential contributions of the action-oriented magnocellular (M) and ...
Mardirossian Vartan V *Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Boston University Medical Center; and †Jenks Vestibular Physiology Lab, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Visual and vestibular cues provide complementary information about spatial orientation. A previous study we performed showed that visual and vestibular cues are fused when the brain judges the roll-tilt direction. However, it was unclear if the motion perception threshold measured in visual-vestibular conditions will be better than visual or vestibular ...
Choi Eunjung E Dept. of Industrial and Management Engineering, Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH), Republic of Korea. Electronic address: - - 2014
Various studies that derived gesture commands from users have used the frequency ratio to select popular gestures among the users. However, the users select only one gesture from a limited number of gestures that they could imagine during an experiment, and thus, the selected gesture may not always be the ...
Tibber Marc S MS Department of Visual Neuroscience, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust & UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, London, London, EC1V 9EL, United - - 2014
Purpose: People with migraine are relatively poor at judging the direction of motion of coherently-moving signal-dots when interspersed with noise-dots drifting in random directions, a task known as motion coherence. Although this has been taken as evidence of impoverished global pooling of motion signals, it could also arise from unreliable ...
Clayton Holly A HA Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, - - 2014
Reaching movements are rapidly adapted following training with rotated visual feedback of the hand (motor recalibration). Our laboratory has also found that visuomotor adaptation results in changes in estimates of felt hand position (proprioceptive recalibration) in the direction of the visuomotor distortion (Cressman and Henriques 2009, 2010; Cressman et al. ...
Bartolo Ramón R Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro, 76230, - - 2014
Gamma (γ) and beta (β) oscillations seem to play complementary functions in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit (CBGT) during motor behavior. We investigated the time-varying changes of the putaminal spiking activity and the spectral power of local field potentials (LFPs) during a task where the rhythmic tapping of monkeys was guided ...
Liu Rui R Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai, 200031, - - 2014
Purpose: Influence of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) on emmetropization during early eye development has not been studied in primates. We investigated the effects of quasi-monochromatic lighting on refractive development and eye growth in rhesus monkeys. Methods: Infant rhesus monkeys were raised under 1 of 3 lighting conditions for 51 weeks: ...
Gilad Ariel A Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900 - - 2014
In a typical visual scene we continuously perceive a "figure" that is segregated from the surrounding "background" despite ongoing microsaccades and small saccades that are performed when attempting fixation (fixational saccades [FSs]). Previously reported neuronal correlates of figure-ground (FG) segregation in the primary visual cortex (V1) showed enhanced activity in ...
Martin Paul R PR Department of Ophthalmology and Save Sight Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2014
We review here the distribution of S-cone signals and properties of S-cone recipient receptive fields in subcortical pathways. Nearly everything we know about S-cone signals in the subcortical visual system comes from the study of visual systems in cats and primates (monkeys); in this review, we concentrate on results from ...
Cattaneo Zaira Z Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy; Brain Connectivity Center, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cerebellar patients have been found to show deficits in visual motion discrimination, suggesting that the cerebellum may play a role in visual sensory processing beyond mediating motor control. Here we show that triple-pulse online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over cerebellar vermis but not over the cerebellar hemispheres significantly impaired motion ...
Gremmler Svenja S University of - - 2014
Saccadic eye movements are an integral part of many visually guided behaviors. Recent research in humans has shown that processes which control saccades are also involved in establishing perceptual space: A shift in object localization during fixation occurred after saccade amplitudes had been shortened or lengthened by saccadic adaptation. We ...
So Kelvin K Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, - - 2014
Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have predominantly utilized spike activity as the control signal. However, an increasing number of studies have shown the utility of local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding motor related signals. Currently, it is unclear how well different LFP frequencies can serve as features for continuous, closed-loop ...
Tanabe Seiji S Albert Einstein College of - - 2014
The stereo correspondence problem poses a challenge to visual neurons because localized receptive fields potentially cause false responses. Neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) partially resolve this problem by combining excitatory and suppressive responses to encode binocular disparity. We explored the time-course of this combination in awake, monkey V1 ...
Pinotsis D A DA The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Using high-density electrocorticographic recordings - from awake-behaving monkeys - and dynamic causal modelling, we characterised contrast dependent gain control in visual cortex, in terms of synaptic rate constants and intrinsic connectivity. Specifically, we used neural field models to quantify the balance of excitatory and inhibitory influences; both in terms of ...
Mostafa Ahmed A AA Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Reaching with visual feedback that is misaligned with respect to the actual hand's location leads to changes in reach trajectories (i.e., visuomotor adaptation). Previous studies have also demonstrated that when training to reach with misaligned visual feedback of the hand, the opposite hand also partially adapts, providing evidence of intermanual ...
Ghazanfar Asif A AA Princeton University, - - 2014
In primates, different vocalizations are produced, at least in part, by making different facial expressions. Not surprisingly, humans, apes, and monkeys all recognize the correspondence between vocalizations and the facial postures associated with them. However, two dissimilarities between monkey vocalizations and human speech are that, in the latter, the acoustic ...
Wutz Andreas A Center for Mind and Brain Sciences (CIMeC), University of Trento, Rovereto I-38068, Italy and MEG Center, University of Tübingen, Tübingen D-72076, - - 2014
Dynamic vision requires both stability of the current perceptual representation and sensitivity to the accumulation of sensory evidence over time. Here we study the electrophysiological signatures of this intricate balance between temporal segregation and integration in vision. Within a forward masking paradigm with short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), ...
Rawashdeh Oliver O Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological - - 2014
Depression is often linked to early-life adversity and circadian disturbances. Here we assessed the long-term impact of early-life adversity, particularly pre-weaning mother-infant separation, on the circadian system's responsiveness to a time giver or synchronizer (Zeitgeber). Mother-reared (MR) and peer-reared (PR) rhesus monkeys were subjected to chronic jet-lag, a forced desynchrony ...
Kinoshita Junzo J Medicinal Safety Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-16-13, Kita-Kasai, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo, 134-8630, - - 2014
Purpose: To investigate functional alteration of the retina induced by digoxin in monkeys. Methods: Digoxin was intravenously administered to cynomolgus monkeys and standard full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were serially recorded. In other digoxin-treated monkeys, the rod and cone a-waves to high-intensity flashes were obtained and analyzed by the a-wave fitting model ...
Cullen Kathleen E KE Aerospace Medical Research Unit, Department of Physiology, McGill University Montreal, QC, - - 2014
The vestibular system is vital for maintaining an accurate representation of self-motion. As one moves (or is moved) toward a new place in the environment, signals from the vestibular sensors are relayed to higher-order centers. It is generally assumed the vestibular system provides a veridical representation of head motion to ...
Brevers Damien D Psychological Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Brugmann-campus, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 4 Place Van Gehuchten, 1020, Brussels, Belgium, - - 2014
Casino venues are often characterized by "warm" colors, reward-related sounds, and the presence of others. These factors have always been identified as a key factor in energizing gambling. However, few empirical studies have examined their impact on gambling behaviors. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of combined red light ...
Agrillo Christian C Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Via Venezia 8, 35131, Padova, Italy, - - 2014
A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman animals share the same perceptual mechanisms. In humans, the Zöllner illusion occurs when two parallel lines appear to be convergent when oblique crosshatching lines are superimposed. Although one baboon study suggests that they too might perceive this illusion, the ...
Böckler Anne A 1Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University - - 2014
Direct eye contact and motion onset are two powerful cues that capture attention. In the present study, we combined direct gaze with the sudden onset of motion to determine whether these cues have independent or shared influences. Participants identified targets presented randomly on one of four faces. Initially, two faces ...
Chaudhari Uddhav K UK Department of Primate Biology, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (NIRRH), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Parel, Mumbai, India. - - 2014
We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys ( Macaca radiata ) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width ...
Otsuna Hideo H Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences (IMCB), University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan ; Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT, - - 2014
Compared with connections between the retinae and primary visual centers, relatively less is known in both mammals and insects about the functional segregation of neural pathways connecting primary and higher centers of the visual processing cascade. Here, using the Drosophila visual system as a model, we demonstrate two levels of ...
Wang Ying Y State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into ...
Léveillé Jasmin J Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology, Boston University, Boston, MA, - - 2014
An object-centric reference frame is a spatial representation in which objects or their parts are coded relative to others. The existence of object-centric representations is supported by the phenomenon of induced motion, in which the motion of an inducer frame in a particular direction induces motion in the opposite direction ...
Law Nok-Yeung NY a Schools of Human Kinetics , University of Ottawa , - - 2014
Tai Chi movements share many similar biomechanical features with normal walking. The purpose of the study was to examine and to compare the temporospatial and kinematic features of two typical Tai Chi movements with forward walking. Experienced male Tai Chi practitioners (n = 15) between the ages of 65 to ...
Craft Cheryl M CM Mary D. Allen Laboratory for Vision Research, Doheny Eye Institute, Departments of Ophthalmology and Cell & Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo St., DVRC 405, 90033, Los Angeles, CA, USA, - - 2014
Macaca, Callithrix jacchus marmoset monkey, Pan troglodytes chimpanzee and human retinas were examined to define if short wavelength (S) cones share molecular markers with L&M cone or rod photoreceptors. S cones showed consistent differences in their immunohistochemical staining and expression levels compared to L&M cones for "rod" Arrestin1 (S-Antigen), "cone" ...
Faivre Nathan N Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, - - 2014
Visual awareness of an event, object, or scene is, by essence, an integrated experience, whereby different visual features composing an object (e.g., orientation, color, shape) appear as an unified percept and are processed as a whole. Here, we tested in human observers whether perceptual integration of static motion cues depends ...
Karmali Faisal F Massachusetts Eye & Ear - - 2013
Prior studies show that visual motion perception is more precise than vestibular motion perception, but it is unclear whether this is universal or the result of specific experimental conditions. We compared visual and vestibular motion precision over a broad range of temporal frequencies by measuring thresholds for vestibular (subject motion ...
Badde Stephanie - - 2013
Touch location can be specified in different anatomical and external reference frames. Temporal order judgments (TOJs) in touch are known to be sensitive to conflict between reference frames. To establish which coordinates are involved in localizing touch to a finger, participants performed TOJ on tactile stimuli to 2 out of ...
Sartori Luisa L Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Via Venezia 8, 35131, Padua, - - 2013
Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in non-human primates, how posture influences the kinematics of prehensile behavior is not yet clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare kinematic descriptions of grip behaviors while primates (macaque monkeys) were in a sitting ...
Pontzer Herman - - 2013
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) habitually walk both bipedally and quadrupedally, and have been a common point of reference for understanding the evolution of bipedal locomotion in early ape-like hominins. Here we compare the kinematics, kinetics, and energetics of bipedal and quadrupedal walking and running in a sample of five captive chimpanzees. ...
Keshavarz Behrang B Department of Research, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Technology Team/iDAPT, 550 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 2A2, Canada, - - 2013
Vection is the illusion of self-motion in the absence of real physical movement. The aim of the present study was to analyze how multisensory inputs (visual and auditory) contribute to the perception of vection. Participants were seated in a stationary position in front of a large, curved projection display and ...
Correia Grácio B J - - 2013
In the field of motion-based simulation, it was found that a visual amplitude equal to the inertial amplitude does not always provide the best perceived match between visual and inertial motion. This result is thought to be caused by the "quality" of the motion cues delivered by the simulator motion ...
Gleiss Stephanie - - 2013
Perception is a multisensory process, and previous work has shown that multisensory interactions occur not only for object-related stimuli but also for simplistic and apparently unrelated inputs to the different senses. We here compare the facilitation of visual perception induced by transient (target-synchronized) sounds to the facilitation provided by continuous ...
Gleiss Stephanie - - 2013
Multisensory interactions shape every day perception and stimuli in one modality can enhance perception in another even when not being directly task relevant. While the underlying neural principles are slowly becoming evident, most work has focused on transient stimuli and little is known about those mechanisms underlying audio-visual motion processing. ...
Baltazar Ricardo M - - 2013
Psychostimulant reward, as assessed via the conditioned place paradigm (CPP), exhibits a daily rhythm with peaks in the late dark and early light periods, and a nadir near the light-to-dark transition. While this diurnal rhythm is correlated with neural activity in several corticolimbic structures, the brain regions mediating this behavioral ...
Tychsen Lawrence - - 2013
Purpose: Optokinetic eye movements stabilize gaze by tracking motion of the visual scene when we move our head. The purpose of this study was to describe vertical and horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in non-human primates (NHPs) with normal binocular vision, and to compare their responses to NHPs with binocular maldevelopment ...
Sahraie Arash - - 2013
Significantly above-chance detection of stimuli presented within the field defect of patients with postgeniculate lesions is termed "blindsight." It has been proposed that those with blindsight are more likely to benefit from visual rehabilitation by repeated stimulation, leading to increased visual sensitivity within their field defect. Establishing the incidence of ...
Farley Norman J - - 2013
Two experiments evaluated the ability of 50 older, middle-aged, and younger adults to discriminate the 3-dimensional (3-D) shape of curved surfaces defined by optical motion. In Experiment 1, temporal correspondence was disrupted by limiting the lifetimes of the moving surface points. In order to discriminate 3-D surface shape reliably, the ...
Gomi Hiroaki - - 2013
Information pertaining to visual motion is used in the brain not only for conscious perception but also for various kinds of motor controls. In contrast to the increasing amount of evidence supporting the dissociation of visual processing for action versus perception, it is less clear whether the analysis of visual ...
Angueyra Juan M - - 2013
Noise in the responses of cone photoreceptors sets a fundamental limit on visual sensitivity, yet the origin of noise in mammalian cones and its relation to behavioral sensitivity are poorly understood. Our work here on primate cones improves understanding of these issues in three ways. First, we found that cone ...
Pinto Maria - - 2013
A recent study (Cavallo and Pinto, 2012) showed that daytime running lights (DRLs) on cars create "visual noise" that interferes with the lighting of motorcycles and affects their visual conspicuity. In the present experiment, we tested three conspicuity enhancements designed to improve motorcycle detectability in a car-DRL environment: a triangle ...
Röper K M - - 2013
The endangered proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is a sexually highly dimorphic Old World primate endemic to the island of Borneo. Previous studies focused mainly on its ecology and behavior, but knowledge of its vocalizations is limited. The present study provides quantified information on vocal rate and on the vocal acoustics ...
Fidalgo Camino - - 2013
Several studies have reported the brain regions involved in response learning. However, there is discrepancy regarding the lighting conditions in the experimental setting (i.e. under dark or light conditions). In this regard, it would be relevant to know if the presence/absence of visual cues in the environment has any effect ...
Dokka Kalpana - - 2013
Judging object trajectory during self-motion is a fundamental ability for mobile organisms interacting with their environment. This fundamental ability requires the nervous system to compensate for the visual consequences of self-motion in order to make accurate judgments, but the mechanisms of this compensation are poorly understood. We comprehensively examined both ...
van Kemenade Bianca M - - 2013
The human motion complex hMT+/V5 is activated not only by visual motion, but also by tactile and auditory motion. Whilst direction-selectivity has been found within this complex for visual and auditory stimuli, it is unknown whether hMT+/V5 also contains direction-specific information from the tactile modality. In the current study, we ...
Maloney Ryan Thomas - - 2013
Complex patterns of image motion (contracting, expanding, rotating and spiralling fields) are important in the coordination of visually-guided behaviors. While specialized detectors in monkey visual cortex show selectivity for particular patterns of complex motion, their representation in human visual cortex remains unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used ...
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