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Results 301 - 350 of 1455
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Matic Agnella Izzo - - 2011
Artificial neural stimulation is widely used in clinic, rehabilitation, and research. One of the limitations of electrical stimulation is the current spread in tissue. Recently, pulsed mid-infrared laser stimulation of nerves has been investigated as an alternative stimulation method. The likely benefits of infrared neural stimulation (INS) include spatial selectivity ...
Gregan Melanie J - - 2011
Cochlear hearing loss is often associated with a loss of basilar-membrane (BM) compression, which in turn may contribute to degraded processing of suprathreshold stimuli. Behavioral estimates of compression may therefore be useful as long as they are valid over a wide range of levels and frequencies. Additivity of forward masking ...
Mehrparvar Amir H - - 2011
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect ...
Moore Brian C J - - 2011
The relationship between the ability to hear out partials in complex tones, discrimination of the fundamental frequency (F0) of complex tones, and frequency selectivity was examined for subjects with mild-to-moderate cochlear hearing loss. The ability to hear out partials was measured using a two-interval task. Each interval included a sinusoid ...
Ramma Lebogang - - 2011
Hearing loss, most specifically noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) due to exposure to vuvuzela noise, received extended media coverage before and during the 2010 Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) soccer world cup tournament. This study aimed to evaluate the impact that this media coverage had on raising awareness about NIHL ...
Lokki Tapio - - 2011
A recent study on perceptual difference in simulated concert halls showed that a concert hall renders stronger sound with more bass when the temporal envelope of a signal is preserved in the reflections [Lokki et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL223-EL228 (2011)]. In the same study the lateral reflections ...
Takahashi Hidetoshi - - 2011
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and personality, such as temperament and character, are considered candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Gene polymorphism studies have provided evidence that both PPI and self-transcendence (ST) are polygenetic traits that involve several neurotransmitters, including the serotonin and dopamine signaling pathways. However, the relationship ...
Nélisse Hugues - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of hearing protection devices (HPDs), when used in workplace conditions, has been shown over the years to be usually lower than the labeled values obtained under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Causes for such discrepancies have been listed and discussed by many authors. This study is an attempt to ...
Schneck Marilyn E - - 2012
To determine which, if any, vision variables are associated with moderate bilateral hearing loss in an elderly population. Four hundred and forty-six subjects completed a hearing screening in conjunction with measurements on a variety of vision tests including high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity measured under a variety of lighting ...
Fooladi Marjaneh M - - 2012
This study was conducted to assess the effects of involuntary and persistent noise exposure on health and hearing among Lebanese adults in Beirut, Lebanon, where people are exposed to noise from construction sites, power generators, honking cars, and motorcycles. Using a descriptive and exploratory design with mixed methods, participants were ...
Mueller Andreas H - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews literature on the scientific background of functional electric stimulation of the immobile larynx, the status of animal pacing trials, and first clinical attempts to establish laryngeal pacing. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired vocal fold motion is seen following recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and is a result ...
Ter Hofstede Hannah M - - 2011
Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) ...
Joris Philip X PX Laboratory of Auditory Neurophysiology, University of Leuven, BE-3000 Leuven, - - 2011
Frequency selectivity in the inner ear is fundamental to hearing and is traditionally thought to be similar across mammals. Although direct measurements are not possible in humans, estimates of frequency tuning based on noninvasive recordings of sound evoked from the cochlea (otoacoustic emissions) have suggested substantially sharper tuning in humans ...
Etchelecou M-C - - 2011
Hearing loss is routinely estimated from the audiogram, even though this measure gives only a rough approximation of hearing. Indeed, cochlear regions functioning poorly, if at all, called dead regions, are not detected by a simple audiogram. To detect cochlear dead regions, additional measurements of psychophysical tuning curves or thresholds ...
Vergne Amélie L - - 2011
In spite of the importance of crocodilian vocalizations for the understanding of the evolution of sound communication in Archosauria and due to the small number of experimental investigations, information concerning the vocal world of crocodilians is limited. By studying black caimans Melanosuchus niger in their natural habitat, here we supply ...
Waller Steven J - - 2011
Blindfolded participants hearing an interference pattern attributed the dead zones to the presence of acoustic obstructions in an arrangement reminiscent of Stonehenge. Without prior mention of interference or Stonehenge, participants were brought blindfolded to an open field with two English flutes atop thin 1 m tall wooden stands 2 m apart, connected ...
Fogerty Daniel - - 2011
The speech signal may be divided into spectral frequency bands, each band containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. This study measured the perceptual weighting strategies for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials in young normal-hearing listeners, older normal-hearing listeners, ...
Grassia Stephanie L - - 2011
Passive acoustic monitoring began offshore of Barrow, Alaska, in 2007 as part of the interdisciplinary BOWFEST (Bowhead Feeding Ecology Study) project. This study area spans from the northern coast of Alaska out to 72°N and between 152° and 157°W. To better understand how bowhead whales use this area, long-term (year-long) ...
Aalbers Scott A - - 2011
The white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) is an economically important member of the family Sciaenidae that generates a series of distinct low-frequency sounds during spawning. Long-term acoustic recorders (LARS; Loggerhead Instruments) were moored to the seafloor at three sites along the southern California coastline to monitor white seabass sound production. LARS ...
Simonis Anne E - - 2011
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) use acoustic signals to echolocate and communicate, although there are differences in acoustic behavior among ecotypes. Atlantic resident populations recently have been reported to produce acoustic signals at higher frequencies than previously known. Acoustic recordings from ship-based acoustic and visual surveys and from autonomous acoustic recorders ...
McKinley Richard L - - 2011
The attenuation performance and noise reduction rating (NRR) of six commercially available active noise reduction (ANR) headsets was assessed using the proposed environmental protection agency (EPA) regulation. The passive attenuation results were collected using American National Standard Institute (ANSI) S12.6 method for measuring real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) of hearing ...
Širović Ana - - 2011
While over 100 fish families produce sounds during behaviors like spawning, aggression, and feeding, passive-acoustic sampling is not used commonly for long-term fish population monitoring. Fish sounds consist mostly of low-frequency pulses of variable duration, number, and repetition rate, but it is often difficult to identify their sources to species. ...
Cottingham James P - - 2011
The Asian mouth blown free reed instruments are of ancient origin and typically employ a free reed strongly coupled to a pipe resonator. In these reed-pipes, the same reed often operates on both directions of airflow and behaves as a blown-open or outward striking reed, with playing frequency above both ...
Moon In Seok - - 2011
One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises ...
Huberth Madeline R - - 2011
Previous work has shown that the presence or absence of auditory feedback in musicians has little effect on the performance factors such as note accuracy, timing, and dynamics. This study explored the extent to which an instrumentalist's timber is affected by various feedback conditions. Nine cellists were recorded playing excerpts ...
Carbonell Kathy M - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that rhythm metrics calculated from amplitude envelopes extracted from octave bands across the spectrum (the envelope modulation spectrum or EMS) can reliably discriminate between spoken Spanish and English even when produced by the same speakers [Carbonell et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 2680]. Additionally, bilingual ...
Yang Jie - - 2011
Direct measurements of sediment sound speed were made near Panama City, Florida in April 2011. Considerable effort is being made to provide detailed environmental characterization for an upcoming mid-frequency sound propagation and reverberation experiment in 2013 and the measurements presented here are part of that effort. Two direct measurement systems ...
Clark Christopher W - - 2011
Whales, dolphins, and porpoises (cetaceans) are adapted to produce and perceive sounds that collectively span 4-6 orders of magnitude along space, time, and frequency dimensions. Two important concepts, acoustic ecology and acoustic habitat, emerge from this perspective: where acoustic ecology is the study of acoustics involved in interactions of living ...
Arora Aditi - - 2011
Based on a longitudinal study of three generations of diasporic Siraiki speakers in India, it is shown that first generation (Gen1) implosives develop into lengthened plosives, intervocalically, in the subsequent two generations (Gen2/Gen3). Historically, Prakrit geminates developed into Siraiki and Sindhi implosives. Ohala (1992a) observes that maintaining voicing during intervocalic ...
Giegold Carl P - - 2011
Enhancement techniques are employed in two vastly divergent venues in Chicago with the purpose of removing barriers to communication. In the first case, the marine environment scaled to house Beluga whales presents its own acoustical obstacle. In the second, the presence of a microphone can be an obstacle as seen ...
Giraud Jarom H - - 2011
Measurements of acoustic vector quantities in the near field of a solid-fuel rocket motor are useful for enhancing prediction models related to rocket noise. However, the probes used to measure these quantities traditionally have low-frequency bandwidth limitations (e.g., below 45 Hz) thereby excluding the lowest, and in some cases, the ...
Fried Stephanie - - 2011
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization operates an International Monitoring System (IMS). The IMS includes hydroacoustic stations composed of hydrophones deployed in the ocean deep-sound-channel in a two-kilometers-side triangular configuration(referred to as triad) in the horizontal plane. Data are continuously recorded on hydrophone triads (with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz) ...
Bucaro Joseph - - 2011
A compact directional acoustic sensor concept is described, which uses an multi-optical fiber probe, a light emitting diode source, a photo-diode detector, and a short, slender cylindrical cantilever to the end of which is attached an optical reflector. A portion of the light exiting one fiber is collected by a ...
Benoit-Bird Kelly J - - 2011
Van Holliday used sound to study nearly every type of organism living in the ocean, contributing to our understanding of acoustics as well as marine ecological processes. To honor Van, I will talk about the one animal group that I could not find in his long publication list-seabirds. We combined ...
Dutta Indranil - - 2011
Evidence in support of enhancement features (Keyser and Stevens, 2006) is presented from an acoustic study of laryngeal contrasts in Hindi. Segmental contrasts where defining features and their corresponding acoustic outcomes are attenuated are said to be made acoustically salient by enhancing gestural features (Stevens and Keyser, 2010). In this ...
Takeda Thays Bueno - - 2011
Otoacoustic Emissions are generated by the cochlea in response to sound stimuli. They can be generated by clicks or specific frequency stimuli, such as tone pips. This is a quick and objective test with several applications. To investigate the influence of the type of stimulus achieving otoacoustic emissions in individuals ...
Guillette Lauren M - - 2011
The tseet contact call, common to black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli), is the most frequently produced vocalization of each species. Previous work has characterized the tseet call of black-capped and mountain chickadees from different geographic locations in terms of nine acoustic features. In the current study, using ...
Sereno Joan A - - 2011
The present research examines how perceptual constancy is achieved by exploring three fundamental sources of acoustic variability: changes in the rate at which a sentence is spoken, differences due to which speaker produced the sentence, and variations resulting from the sentence context. These sources of variability are investigated by examining ...
Amoss R Toby - - 2011
Laughter is a ubiquitous human phenomenon that has been little investigated scientifically. To examine the relationship between laugher arousal level and acoustic output, bouts of laughter were recorded from undergraduates viewing humorous video clips. These participants provided continuous subjective ratings of funniness while watching the clips, and heart rate (HR) ...
Fiebig Andre - - 2011
The EC Noise Directive 2002/49, related to the assessment and the management of environmental noise, demands "to preserve environmental noise quality where it is good." In addition, one major issue of the directive concerns the creation of quiet zones in urban areas. This ambitious goal of creating "acoustically green" and ...
Gassmann Martin - - 2011
Marine mammals produce a wide range of frequency-modulated sounds at low and high frequencies as well as directional broadband echolocation sounds in a refractive ocean environment. This creates several challenges for passive acoustic long-term tracking of the various marine mammal species. To overcome these, three-dimensional small-aperture hydrophone arrays coupled to ...
Mulsow Jason - - 2011
Hearing studies with odontocete cetaceans often use suction-cup transducers known as``jawphones" to imitate underwater stimulus transmission. Jawphones are typically calibrated by measuring a frequency-response curve with a receiving hydrophone placed at a controlled distance in an underwater direct field. This procedure is somewhat controversial, as it may not sufficiently reproduce ...
Moir Hannah M - - 2011
Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are present in non-linear hearing organs, and for low-intensity sounds are a by-product of active processes. In vertebrate ears they are considered to be due to hair cell amplification of sound in the cochlea; however, certain animals lacking a cochlea and hair cells are also reported ...
Carroll Jeff - - 2011
Cochlear implant (CI) users have been shown to benefit from residual low-frequency hearing, specifically in pitch related tasks. It remains unclear whether this benefit is dependent on fundamental frequency (F0) or other acoustic cues. Three experiments were conducted to determine the role of F0, as well as its frequency modulated ...
Wiggins Sean M - - 2011
Tracking marine mammals over long periods can provide information on their movement patterns including base-line behavior and responses to natural and anthropogenic stimuli. Autonomous acoustic recorders provide a cost effective and portable means of tracking these sounds over long periods, but until recently these devices have been restricted to tracking ...
Davies-Venn Evelyn - - 2011
The effect of masking release is still the source of numerous active investigations. However, differences in findings are sometimes noted among studies, especially related to potential gate frequency effects. The present study investigated the effect of masking release on listeners using a variety of speech materials . The main goal ...
Crance Jessica L - - 2011
The North Pacific right whale, (NPRW), is one of the most endangered baleen whales in the world and has been the focus of intensive population monitoring studies. In 2010 during transit through the Bering Sea right whale critical habitat (BSCH), near-24-h acoustic monitoring was conducted using DiFAR-capable sonobuoys. A new ...
Buck Karl - - 2011
Presently, the evaluation of HPDs (hearing protection devices) is mainly based on audiometric threshold methods. However, in the military environment soldiers may be exposed to impulse noise levels of 190 dB and higher if large caliber weapons or IEDs (improvised explosive devices) are considered. In this case it seems reasonable ...
Dolgonos Sarah - - 2011
The authors investigated whether trigeminal sensitization occurs in response to bright light with the retina disconnected from the rest of the central nervous system by optic nerve section. In urethane-anesthetized rats, trigeminal reflex blinks were evoked with air puff stimuli directed at the cornea in darkness and at three different ...
Hartmann William M - - 2011
Room acoustics concerns the geometrical and materials properties of rooms as they determine measurable sound field parameters that are perceptually important to listeners. For example, the volume and absorption in a room determine the reverberation time, which is important to the comprehension of speech and the enjoyment of music. Binaural ...
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