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Results 201 - 250 of 1455
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Pitzalis Sabrina - - 2013
The optic flow generated when a person moves through the environment can be locally decomposed into several basic components, including radial, circular, translational and spiral motion. Since their analysis plays an important part in the visual perception and control of locomotion and posture it is likely that some brain regions ...
Dravida Swethasri S Saxe Lab for Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, - - 2013
What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic neural representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of motion rely on the same neural architecture. The same group of participants took part in two language tasks and ...
McCourt Mark E ME Department of Psychology, Center for Visual and Cognitive Neuroscience, North Dakota State University Fargo, ND, - - 2013
When interpreting object shape from shading the visual system exhibits a strong bias that illumination comes from above and slightly from the left. We asked whether such biases in the perceived direction of illumination might also influence its perceived intensity. Arrays of nine cubes were stereoscopically rendered where individual cubes ...
Charbonneau Geneviève - - 2013
The relative reliability of separate sensory estimates influences the way they are merged into a unified percept. We investigated how eccentricity-related changes in reliability of auditory and visual stimuli influence their integration across the entire frontal space. First, we surprisingly found that despite a strong decrease in auditory and visual ...
Lee Young Lim - - 2012
We tested whether the presence of symmetry improves shape discrimination across changes in viewpoint and lighting for smoothly curved 3D objects. We constructed symmetric and asymmetric versions of random 3D shapes by manipulating their spherical harmonic representations. Matched objects had the same power spectra and appear highly similar except for ...
Neiworth Julie J JJ Department of Psychology, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA. - - 2013
Prior work with Wright and others demonstrated that rhesus monkeys recognized the relative relationships of notes in common melodies. As an extension of tests of pattern similarities, tamarins were habituated to 3-sound unit patterns in an AAB or ABB form that were human phonemes, piano notes, or monkey calls. The ...
Larsson Maria Helena Matiko Akao - - 2012
This study presents the electrocardiogram findings from 97 captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) at the São Paulo Zoo (São Paulo, Brazil) while under ketamine anesthesia. The results did not differ greatly from data of domestic carnivores or other studied primate species. The most common rhythm recorded was normal sinus ...
Takeshima Yasuhiro - - 2012
The effect of audiovisual interactions on size perception has yet to be examined, despite its fundamental importance in daily life. Previous studies have reported that object length can be estimated solely on the basis of the sounds produced when an object is dropped. Moreover, it has been shown that people ...
Dövencio─člu Dicle N DN School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, - - 2013
Luminance variations are ambiguous: they can signal changes in surface reflectance or changes in illumination. Layer decomposition-the process of distinguishing between reflectance and illumination changes-is supported by a range of secondary cues including colour and texture. For an illuminated corrugated, textured surface the shading pattern comprises modulations of luminance (first ...
Sussman Robert W - - 2012
In 1974, Cartmill introduced the theory that the earliest primate adaptations were related to their being visually oriented predators active on slender branches. Given more recent data on primate-like marsupials, nocturnal prosimians, and early fossil primates, and the context in which these primates first appeared, this theory has been modified. ...
Bell Jason - - 2012
Object recognition suffers when objects are rotated-in-depth, as for example with changes to viewing angle. However the loss of recognition can be mitigated by stereoscopic cues, suggesting that object coding is not strictly two-dimensional. Here we consider whether the encoding of rotation-in-depth (RID) of a simple curve is tuned for ...
Cowey Alan A Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, - - 2013
Blindsight has been widely investigated and its properties documented. One property still debated and contested is the puzzling absence of phenomenal visual percepts of visual stimuli that can be detected with perfect accuracy. We investigated the possibility that phenomenal visual percepts of exogenous visual stimuli in patient GY might be ...
Migliaccio Americo A AA Balance and Vision Laboratory, Neuroscience Research Australia, Cnr Barker Street & Easy Street, Randwick, NSW 2031, Australia. - - 2013
Vergence is one of several viewing contexts that require an increase in the angular vestibular-ocular reflex (aVOR) response. A previous monkey study found that the vergence-mediated gain (eye/head velocity) increase of the aVOR was attenuated by 64 % when anodic currents, which preferentially lower the activity of irregularly firing vestibular afferents, ...
Nauhaus Ian I Systems Neurobiology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, - - 2012
Orientation and spatial frequency tuning are highly salient properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The combined organization of these particular tuning properties in the cortical space will strongly shape the V1 population response to different visual inputs, yet it is poorly understood. In this study, we used two-photon ...
Duarte Marcos - - 2012
Understanding the selective pressures that drove the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage may help inform researchers about the locomotor mode(s) of pre-hominin ancestors. Several selective pressures have been hypothesized, including the need to carry food, tools, or infants. Bearded capuchin monkeys are an excellent primate in which to ...
Furl Nicholas - - 2012
Humans adeptly use visual motion to recognize socially relevant facial information. The macaque provides a model visual system for studying neural coding of expression movements, as its superior temporal sulcus (STS) possesses brain areas selective for faces and areas sensitive to visual motion. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and ...
Demes Brigitte - - 2012
Tufted capuchin monkeys are known to use both quadrupedalism and bipedalism in their natural environments. Although previous studies have investigated limb kinematics and metabolic costs, their ground reaction forces (GRFs) and center of mass (CoM) mechanics during two and four-legged locomotion are unknown. Here, we determine the hind limb GRFs ...
Gall Carolin - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with homonymous visual field defects frequently experience reduced reading speed. The purpose of this study was to examine whether increased visual functioning after vision-restoration training (VRT) coincides with improved reading abilities. DESIGN: Prospective noncontrolled open-label trial. SETTING: Controlled laboratory setting for all diagnostic procedures that were conducted before ...
Fornalé Francesca F Research and Conservation Department; Parco Natura Viva-Garda Zoological Park; Bussolengo, Italy ; Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche; Sezione di Psicologia; Università degli Studi di Milano; Segrate, - - 2012
The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in ...
Green Nikos N Max Planck Institute for Human Development, D-14195 Berlin, Germany. - - 2012
Using neuroimaging in combination with computational modeling, this study shows that decision threshold modulation for reward maximization is accompanied by a change in effective connectivity within corticostriatal and cerebellar-striatal brain systems. Research on perceptual decision making suggests that people make decisions by accumulating sensory evidence until a decision threshold is ...
Mohapatra Sambit S Department of Physical Therapy (MC 898), University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2013
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) play an important role in the performance of many activities requiring the maintenance of vertical posture. However, little is known about how variation in the available visual information affects generation of APAs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different visual cues ...
Vagnoni Eleonora - - 2012
Among the most critical of visual functions is the detection of potentially hazardous or threatening aspects of the environment. For example, objects on a collision course with an observer must be quickly identified to allow sufficient time to prepare appropriate defensive or avoidant responses. Directly approaching objects produce a specific ...
Simoncini Claudio - - 2012
Moving objects generate motion information at different scales, which are processed in the visual system with a bank of spatiotemporal frequency channels. It is not known how the brain pools this information to reconstruct object speed and whether this pooling is generic or adaptive; that is, dependent on the behavioral ...
Self Matthew W - - 2012
The use of optogenetics to alter behavior in primates has been challenging, but now a group has managed to activate neurons in the monkey frontal cortex with light and show that this speeds up their performance.
Selezneva Elena - - 2012
Perceptually ambiguous stimuli are useful for testing psychological and neuronal models of perceptual organization, e.g. for studying brain processes that underlie sequential segregation and integration. This is because the same stimuli may give rise to different subjective experiences. For humans, a tone sequence that alternates between a low-frequency and a ...
Zaal Peter M T - - 2012
In this paper, we investigate the effects of visual and motion stimuli on the manual control of one's direction of self-motion. In a flight simulator, subjects conducted an active target-following disturbance-rejection task, using a compensatory display. Simulating a vehicular control task, the direction of vehicular motion was shown on the ...
Kaida Kosuke - - 2012
The present study examined effects of a short nap (20 min) and/or bright light (2000 lux) on visual search and implicit learning in a contextual cueing task. Fifteen participants performed a contextual cueing task twice a day (1200-1330 h and 1430-1600 h) and scored subjective sleepiness before and after a ...
Roberts Daniel J - - 2012
Recent visual neuroscience investigations suggest that ventral occipito-temporal cortex is retinotopically organized, with high acuity foveal input projecting primarily to the posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), making this region crucial for coding high spatial frequency information. Because high spatial frequencies are critical for fine-grained visual discrimination, we hypothesized that damage to ...
Johansson L Christoffer - - 2012
Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly ...
Bernát Gábor - - 2012
The atypical unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, which diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria, can be regarded as a key organism for understanding many structural, functional, regulatory and evolutionary aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. In the present work, the performance of two basic photosynthetic adaptation/protection mechanisms, common to ...
Moon Il Joon - - 2012
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of performing electrocochleography (ECoG) at the initial visit in predicting hearing outcomes. Retrospective study. Tertiary hospital. Ninety patients with unilateral, definite Ménière's disease. The summating potential (SP)/action potential (AP) ratio was obtained using ECoG at the initial visits. An SP/AP ratio greater than 0.34 was ...
Schlauch Robert S - - 2012
PURPOSE: This review/tutorial provides framework and context for understanding the complex interaction of hearing measurement methodology, cohort social factors, and their relation to approaches to data interpretation and identification of minimal hearing loss (HL) in audiometric surveys. METHOD: We reviewed pertinent archival studies and performed an original analysis on Centers ...
Bee Mark A MA Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. - - 2012
Sound source perception refers to the auditory system's ability to parse incoming sensory information into coherent representations of distinct sound sources in the environment. Such abilities are no doubt key to successful communication in many taxa, but we know little about their function in animal communication systems. For anuran amphibians ...
Leurs F - - 2012
In order to achieve efficacious walking, transfemoral amputees must adapt coordination within both the artificial and the sound lower limb. We analyzed kinematic strategies in amputees using the planar covariation of lower limb segments approach. When the elevation angles of the thigh, shank and foot are plotted one versus the ...
Ruusuvirta Timo T - - 2012
The auditory system prefers, presumably because of evolutionary adaptation, melodically upward over downward steps in sound frequency. The mismatch negativity (MMN) of event-related potentials (ERPs) to auditory oddball stimuli, an index of preattentive auditory change detection, is also augmented for the upward relative to the downward steps. We aimed to ...
Santana Sharlene E - - 2012
The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and ...
Nichols Amy Comerford - - 2012
Objective: Background noise acceptance while listening to speech, assessed via the acceptable noise level (ANL) measure, has been shown to be an accurate predictor of hearing-aid success. No specific listener characteristics have been identified as being related to a listener's ability to accept background noise. The purpose of this study ...
Kafaligonul Hulusi - - 2012
Visual motion processing is essential to survival in a dynamic world and is probably the best-studied facet of visual perception. It has been recently discovered that the timing of brief static sounds can bias visual motion perception, an effect attributed to "temporal ventriloquism" whereby the timing of the sounds "captures" ...
Bosco Gianfranco - - 2012
Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the ...
Hoermann Simon - - 2012
Humans readily perceive ownership of a limb even when it is artificially induced as in the case of using a mirror reflection. However, mirror reflections are very constrained perceptions which do not allow transformations and varied contexts as often occurs in real life. The extent to which perceived limb ownership ...
Li Dong - - 2012
We investigate two coupled oscillators, each of which shows an attracting heteroclinic cycle in the absence of coupling. The two heteroclinic cycles are nonidentical. Weak coupling can lead to the elimination of the slowing-down state that asymptotically approaches the heteroclinic cycle for a single cycle, giving rise to either quasiperiodic ...
Rosowski John J JJ Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. - - 2012
This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle ear function including audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal-hearing ears. Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal-hearing subjects, 16 females and 13 males, aged 22 to ...
Tanahashi Shigehito - - 2012
The visual-vestibular conflict theory asserts that visual-vestibular conflicts reduce vection and that vection strength is reduced with an increasing discrepancy between actual and expected vestibular activity. Most studies support this theory, although researchers have not always accepted them. To ascertain the conditions under which the theory of the visual-vestibular conflict ...
Zeddies David G - - 2012
Sound-source localization behavior was studied in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) by making use of the naturally occurring phonotaxis response of gravid females to playback of the male's advertisement call. The observations took place outdoors in a circular concrete tank. A dipole sound projector was placed at the center ...
Ribeiro Maria José - - 2012
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic disorder with the majority of patients presenting subtle to moderate cognitive impairments. Visuospatial deficits are considered to be one of the hallmark characteristics of their cognitive profile. However, low-level visual processing has not been previously investigated. Our aim was to study contrast perception ...
Brino Ana Leda F AL Universidade Federal do Pará, - - 2012
Teaching the first instances of arbitrary matching to sample to nonhumans can prove difficult and time consuming. Stimulus control relations may develop that differ from those intended by the experimenter - even when stimulus control shaping procedures are used. This paper reports efforts to identify sources of shaping program failure ...
Clemens Ivar A H - - 2012
In order to maintain visual stability during self-motion, the brain needs to update any egocentric spatial representations of the environment. Here, we use a novel psychophysical approach to investigate how and to what extent the brain integrates visual, extraocular, and vestibular signals pertaining to this spatial update. Participants were oscillated ...
Huberle Elisabeth - - 2012
Over the past 25 years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral ("what") and a dorsal ("where") visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify ...
Sano Yuji - - 2012
The historical record of daily light cycle in tropical and subtropical regions is short. Moreover, it remains difficult to extract this cycle in the past from natural archives such as biogenic marine carbonates. Here we describe the precise analysis of Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios in a cultivated giant clam ...
Tanaka Hirokazu - - 2012
Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between ...
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