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Maloney Ryan Thomas - - 2013
Complex patterns of image motion (contracting, expanding, rotating and spiralling fields) are important in the coordination of visually-guided behaviors. While specialized detectors in monkey visual cortex show selectivity for particular patterns of complex motion, their representation in human visual cortex remains unclear. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used ...
de Winkel K N - - 2013
The brain is able to determine angular self-motion from visual, vestibular, and kinesthetic information. There is compelling evidence that both humans and non-human primates integrate visual and inertial (i.e., vestibular and kinesthetic) information in a statistically optimal fashion when discriminating heading direction. In the present study, we investigated whether the ...
Dai Chenkai - - 2013
Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can be disabling. We have shown that a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can partly restore vestibular sensation as evidenced by improvements in the 3-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (3D VOR). However, a key challenge is to minimize misalignment between the axes of eye and head rotation, ...
Majdak Piotr - - 2013
Sound localization in the sagittal planes, including the ability to distinguish front from back, relies on spectral features caused by the filtering effects of the head, pinna, and torso. It is assumed that important spatial cues are encoded in the frequency range between 4 and 16 kHz. In this study, ...
Gilaie-Dotan Sharon S Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK. - - 2013
Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral 'form' (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether ...
Suzuki Wataru - - 2013
Purpose: To investigate the properties and origin of retinal intrinsic signals by functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) in macaque retinas. Methods: We modified a spectral domain OCT system to be able to give short-duration flashes or continuous light stimulation to the retina of three adult macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) under ...
Krekelberg Bart B Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, New - - 2013
Visual motion on the macaque retina is processed by direction- and speed-selective neurons in extrastriate middle temporal cortex (MT). There is strong evidence for a link between the activity of these neurons and direction perception. However, there is conflicting evidence for a link between speed selectivity of MT neurons and ...
Nordström Karin - - 2013
Visual systems adapt rapidly to objects moving repeatedly within the visual field, because such objects are likely irrelevant. In the crab, the neural switch for such adaptation has been found to take place at a surprisingly early stage of the visual processing pathway.
Rajala Abigail Z - - 2013
Illusions are effective tools for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying perception because neural responses can be correlated to the physical properties of stimuli and the subject's perceptions. The Franssen illusion (FI) is an auditory spatial illusion evoked by presenting a transient, abrupt tone and a slowly rising, sustained ...
Jensen Greg - - 2013
We investigated how changes in outcome magnitude affect behavioral variation in human volunteers. Our participants entered strings of characters using a computer keyboard, receiving feedback (gaining a number of points) for any string at least ten characters long. During a "surprise" phase in which the number of points awarded was ...
Deplancke Antoine - - 2013
The observation that near threshold low contrast visual distractors can equally influence perceptual state and goal-directed motor responses was recently taken as an argument against a sharp separation between a conscious vision for perception and an unconscious vision for action. However, data supporting the dual visual system theory have principally ...
Schmiedchen Kristina - - 2013
Similarities have been observed in the localization of the final position of moving visual and moving auditory stimuli: Perceived endpoints that are judged to be farther in the direction of motion in both modalities likely reflect extrapolation of the trajectory, mediated by predictive mechanisms at higher cognitive levels. However, actual ...
Polosecki Pablo P The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2013
Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque ...
Krug Kristine - - 2013
Judgments about the perceptual appearance of visual objects require the combination of multiple parameters, like location, direction, color, speed, and depth. Our understanding of perceptual judgments has been greatly informed by studies of ambiguous figures, which take on different appearances depending upon the brain state of the observer. Here we ...
Wang Lei - - 2013
The present study compared single and dual adaptation to visuomotor rotations in different cueing conditions. Participants adapted either to a constant rotation or to opposing rotations (dual adaptation) applied in an alternating order. In Experiment 1, visual and corresponding postural cues were provided to indicate different rotation directions. In Experiment ...
Meso Andrew Isaac - - 2013
Transparency is perceived when two or more objects or surfaces can be separated by the visual system whilst they are presented in the same region of the visual field at the same time. This segmentation of distinct entities on the basis of overlapping local visual cues poses an interesting challenge ...
Jamali Mohsen M Department of Physiology, Aerospace Medical Research Unit, McIntyre Medical Building, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, - - 2013
The vestibular system is vital for our sense of linear self-motion. At the earliest processing stages, the otolith afferents of the vestibular nerve encode linear motion. Their resting discharge regularity has long been known to span a wide range, suggesting an important role in sensory coding, yet to date, the ...
Zamma Koichiro - - 2013
I examined the possible cause of night awakening among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Chimpanzee vocalizations and activity-related sounds (CVSs) were used to indicate awakening because I was unable to visually observe them. Over a 5-night observation period, CVSs (n = 128) were heard every night, and ...
Matsuura Shu - - 2013
Rotational motion plays an essential role in physics even at an introductory level. In addition, the stereoscopic display of three-dimensional graphics includes is advantageous for the presentation of rotational motions, particularly for depth recognition. However, the immersive visualization of rotational motion has been known to lead to dizziness and even ...
Panday V - - 2013
For small stimuli, it has been shown that subjects are very accurate in distinguishing a cylinder with an elliptical cross section from one with a circular cross section. In such a task, both curvature and length are integrated effectively. Large cylinders are explored differently: either by one hand or by ...
Yang Sungwook - - 2013
This paper presents the first experimental results from human users of a new 6-degree-of-freedom handheld micromanipulator. This is the latest prototype of a fully-handheld system, known as "Micron," which performs active compensation of hand tremor for microsurgery. The manipulator is a miniature Gough-Stewart platform incorporating linear ultrasonic motors that provide ...
Francoise Vincent - - 2013
In this paper, a new kind of assistance for bone milling is disclosed. It combines a robotic comanipulator applying forces to guide the milling tool tip with a visual display mounted on the hand-held tool. This visual display is a LED bargraph providing to the user a geometric information that ...
Bourne Michael - - 2013
We identified the information used to anticipate throw direction in handball. In two experiments, we examined how anticipation performance is affected when the information from one of five body areas (right arm, shoulders, hips, trunk, or total throw side) was either neutralized or decoupled from the motion of other body ...
Lewis Richard F RF Jenks Vestibular Physiology Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. - - 2013
Patients with vestibular dysfunction have visual, perceptual, and postural deficits. While there is considerable evidence that a semicircular canal prosthesis that senses angular head velocity and stimulates canal ampullary nerves can improve vision by augmenting the vestibulo-ocular reflex, no information is available regarding the potential utility of a canal prosthesis ...
Malone Brian J BJ Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA. - - 2013
Amplitude modulation encoding is critical for human speech perception and complex sound processing in general. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a staple of auditory psychophysics, and has been shown to predict speech intelligibility performance in a range of adverse listening conditions and hearing impairments, including cochlear implant-supported hearing. Although ...
Baker Travis E TE Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. - - 2013
We recently demonstrated that the latency of a component of the event-related brain potential, the topographical N170 (NT170), is sensitive to the spatial location of reward-related stimuli in a virtual maze environment, occurring earlier for rewards found following rightward turns compared to leftward turns. We suggested that this NT170 latency ...
Maus Gerrit W GW Department of Psychology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. - - 2013
How is visual space represented in cortical area MT+? At a relatively coarse scale, the organization of MT+ is debated; retinotopic, spatiotopic, or mixed representations have all been proposed. However, none of these representations entirely explain the perceptual localization of objects at a fine spatial scale--a scale relevant for tasks ...
- - 2013
I lose track of time when I climb a mountain. My biggest motivation is to reach the summit.
Terez Dmitry - - 2013
Novel techniques for sound waveform visualization and real-time pitch tracking are presented. The use of techniques is demonstrated on vocal sounds such as singing and speech. The visualization of a sound waveform in two- or three-dimensional reconstructed phase space obtained via signal time-delay embedding provides a compelling alternative to traditional ...
Ramkumar Pavan - - 2013
Current knowledge about the precise timing of visual input to the cortex relies largely on spike timings in monkeys and evoked-response latencies in humans. However, quantifying the activation onset does not unambiguously describe the timing of stimulus-feature-specific information processing. Here, we investigated the information content of the early human visual ...
Aimola Davies Anne M - - 2013
The nonvisual self-touch rubber hand paradigm elicits the compelling illusion that one is touching one's own hand even though the two hands are not in contact. In four experiments, we investigated spatial limits of distance (15cm, 30cm, 45cm, 60cm) and alignment (0°, 90° anti-clockwise) on the nonvisual self-touch illusion and ...
Marathe A R AR Department of Neurosciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2013
Our goal was to identify spatial filtering methods that would improve decoding of continuous arm movements from epidural field potentials as well as demonstrate the use of the epidural signals in a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) system in monkeys. Eleven spatial filtering options were compared offline using field potentials collected ...
Sunderland Alan A School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. - - 2013
The dorsal and ventral streams model of action and perception suggests that reaching to grasp a tool for use involves integrated operation of the two streams. Few attempts have been made to test the limits of this integration in normal subjects. Twenty normal subjects reached for tools or geometric objects ...
Koda Hiroki - - 2013
The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies ...
Ovsiew Fred - - 2013
The Zeitraffer phenomenon is the altered perception of the speed of moving objects. A single case is reported using the subject's own description of a transient alteration of the visual perception of motion. The literature on the subject is reviewed. The Zeitraffer phenomenon probably arises from dysfunction of brain networks ...
Smith Earl L EL - - 2013
To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates. Hyperopic defocus was imposed on 27 monkeys by securing -3 diopter (D) lenses in front of one eye. The lens-rearing procedures were initiated at 24 days of ...
Tallman Melissa - - 2013
IPS18800 is a partial skeleton attributed to the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus, and dated to 9.6 Ma (millions of years ago). Previous studies on the postcranial anatomy of this taxon have shown that it displayed a derived, extant great ape-like orthograde body plan with suspensory adaptations, uniquely coupled with adaptations ...
Zhang Ruyuan R Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, - - 2013
Visual input is remarkably diverse. Certain sensory inputs are more probable than others, mirroring statistical regularities of the visual environment. The visual system exploits many of these regularities, resulting, on average, in better inferences about visual stimuli. However, by incorporating prior knowledge into perceptual decisions, visual processing can also result ...
Johnston Alan - - 2013
Adapting to visual collisions increases the tendency to see the colliding objects as sliding over one another, rather than as one 'launching' another, but only in the adapted retinal location. This demonstrates a low-level perceptual component to the interpretation of the causes of visual events.
Slaboda Jill C - - 2013
We employed a virtual environment to examine the postural behaviors of adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Four adults with CP (22-32 years) and nine healthy adults (21-27 years) were tested with a Rod and Frame protocol. They then stood quietly on a platform within a three-wall virtual environment. The platform ...
Webb Catherine M - - 2013
Previous research has shown that retinal slip can be a significant factor in causing motion sickness. Stroboscopic illumination may prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment that are brief enough so each image is stationary on the retina. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...
Cravo André M - - 2013
Although it is increasingly accepted that temporal expectation can modulate early perceptual processing, the underlying neural computations remain unknown. In the present study, we combined a psychophysical paradigm with electrophysiological recordings to investigate the putative contribution of low-frequency oscillatory activity in mediating the modulation of visual perception by temporal expectation. ...
Mori Shuji - - 2013
Expertise in sports enhances the ability to anticipate forthcoming events from the observation of a player's actions. In the present study, we investigated whether this ability is applicable to deceptive action. In three experiments, performance at anticipating the direction change of a running opponent was examined with experienced rugby players ...
Mahon Bradford Z - - 2013
It is widely argued that the ability to recognize and identify manipulable objects depends on the retrieval and simulation of action-based information associated with using those objects. Evidence for that view comes from fMRI studies that have reported differential BOLD contrast in dorsal visual stream regions when participants view manipulable ...
De Saedeleer Caty - - 2013
In the present study, we investigated the effect of weightlessness on the ability to perceive and remember self-motion when passing through virtual 3D tunnels that curve in different direction (up, down, left, right). We asked cosmonaut subjects to perform the experiment before, during and after long-duration space flight aboard the ...
Hartmann Matthias M Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Muesmattstrasse 45, 3000 Bern, Switzerland. - - 2013
We investigated perceptual learning in self-motion perception. Blindfolded participants were displaced leftward or rightward by means of a motion platform and asked to indicate the direction of motion. A total of eleven participants underwent 3,360 practice trials, distributed over twelve (Experiment 1) or 6 days (Experiment 2). We found no ...
Julias Margaret M Division of Engineering, New York University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab - - 2013
Collagen fiber content and orientation affect the viscoelastic properties of the vocal folds, determining oscillation characteristics during speech and other vocalization. The investigation and reconstruction of the collagen network in vocal folds remains a challenge, because the collagen network requires at least micron-scale resolution. In this study, we used polarized ...
Kerrigan Iona S - - 2013
The pattern of shading across an image can provide a rich sense of object shape. Our ability to use shading information is remarkable given the infinite possible combinations of illumination, shape and reflectance that could have produced any given image. Illumination can change dramatically across environments (e.g. indoor vs. outdoor) ...
Cardini Flavia - - 2013
We have investigated the relation between visuo-tactile interactions and the self-other distinction. In the Visual Enhancement of Touch (VET) effect, non-informative vision of one's own hand improves tactile spatial perception. Previous studies suggested that looking at another person's hand could also enhance tactile perception, but did not systematically investigate the ...
Matsushima Ayano - - 2013
For each saccade, we select an object to direct gaze and to specify the direction and amplitude of eye movement. Although these 2 processes are inevitably interdependent when visual stimuli are held stationary, several lines of evidence suggest that the neuronal signals in the frontal eye fields (FEF) that underlie ...
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