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Results 601 - 650 of 1455
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Le Cocq Cécile - - 2010
Occlusion of the ear canal by hearing aids or hearing protectors often results in an occlusion effect, which creates a discomfort to wearers in that it changes their perception of their own voice. As no account was found in the literature on the quantification of this subjective voice occlusion effect, ...
Hunter Eric J EJ National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. - - 2010
In this study, the authors created a more concise picture of the vocal demands placed on teachers by comparing occupational voice use with nonoccupational voice use. The authors used National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimetry databank to calculate voicing percentage per hour as well as average dB SPL ...
Melendez Karla V - - 2010
Bats' echolocation signals have been shown to be situation-, colony-, and individual-specific, but whether or not these findings apply to bats' communication signals is not fully understood. The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the communication calls of adult little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) are ...
Svec Jan G - - 2010
This tutorial addresses fundamental characteristics of microphones (frequency response, frequency range, dynamic range, and directionality), which are important for accurate measurements of voice and speech. Technical and voice literature was reviewed and analyzed. The following recommendations on desirable microphone characteristics were formulated: The frequency response of microphones should be flat ...
Miller Sharon E - - 2010
Previous studies have documented that speech with flattened or inverted fundamental frequency (F0) contours is less intelligible than speech with natural variations in F0. The purpose of this present study was to further investigate how F0 manipulations affect speech intelligibility in background noise. Speech recognition in noise was measured for ...
Klinck Holger - - 2010
This study provides a comprehensive description of the acoustic characteristics of the predominant long-range underwater vocalizations of the crabeater seal, Lobodon carcinophaga, derived from stationary and continuous long-term recordings obtained in the Southern Ocean in 2007. Visual screening of data recorded between 1 October and 15 December 2007 indicates that ...
Daffern Helena - - 2010
An experiment was conducted comparing two subject groups, each comprised of eight professional singers specializing in a genre of classical music: early music or grand opera. Electroglottography was used to consider vocal characteristics idiomatic to each genre. Whilst there are clear differences in contact quotient between subjects, particularly when relationships ...
Zhou Ning - - 2010
The effects of frequency-place shift on consonant recognition and confusion matrices were examined. Frequency-place shift was manipulated using a noise-excited vocoder with 4 to 16 channels. In the vocoder processing, the location of the most apical carrier band varied from the matched condition (i.e., 28 mm from the base of ...
Yrttiaho Santeri - - 2010
Cortical sensitivity to the periodicity of speech sounds has been evidenced by larger, more anterior responses to periodic than to aperiodic vowels in several non-invasive studies of the human brain. The current study investigated the temporal integration underlying the cortical sensitivity to speech periodicity by studying the increase in periodicity-specific ...
Roussel Nancye - - 2010
This perceptual study describes changes in how listeners perceive VCV elements within successive truncations taken from an iambic phrase containing /l/ (e.g. a leaf, or a load) spoken by four male speakers of General American English. Evidence of the respective roles of dorsal gestural affiliation between /l/ and the reduced ...
Martin Brett A - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to compare four strategies for stimulus presentation in terms of their efficiency when generating a speech-evoked cortical acoustic change complex (ACC) in adults and children. Ten normally hearing adults (aged 22 to 31 yrs) and nine normally hearing children (aged 6 to 9 yrs) ...
Radhakrishnan Nandhakumar - - 2011
Vocal modulations characterize many styles of singing. Vibrato, trill, and trillo are some of the ornaments that Western classical singers use. Likewise, taan is one of the basic frequency modulations demonstrated by Hindustani Indian classical singers. The objective of this descriptive study was to discover the F₀ contour of taan; ...
Mishima Katsuaki - - 2011
The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine lip movement characteristics during the phonation of Japanese vowels. Lip motions of 14 normal individuals during the phonation of five Japanese vowels, /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, and /o/ were analyzed. Using our developed motion analyzing system, range images were produced across ...
McDermott Josh H JH Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. - - 2010
Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), whereas others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries. We utilized individual differences to distinguish the candidate theories. We measured preferences for musical chords as ...
Echternach Matthias - - 2011
Voice periodicity during transitions from modal to falsetto register still remains an unclarified question. We examined the acoustic and electroglottographic signals of 20 healthy untrained male voices' transitions from modal to falsetto register on the vowels /a, e, i, o, u, and æ/. In addition to discontinuities in fundamental frequency ...
Liu Hanjun - - 2010
This study investigated the effect of self-triggered voice fundamental frequency (F0) feedback perturbation on auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) during vocalization and listening. Auditory ERPs were examined in response to self-triggered and computer-triggered -200 cents pitch-shift stimuli while participants vocalized or listened to the playback of their self-vocalizations. The stimuli were ...
Steinschneider Mitchell - - 2011
Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty in perceiving stop consonant-vowel syllables (e.g., /ba/, /ga/, /da/) with rapid formant transitions, but perform normally when formant transitions are extended in time. This influential observation has helped lead to the development of the auditory temporal processing hypothesis, which posits that ...
Ghazanfar Asif A AA Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. - - 2010
Audiovisual speech has a stereotypical rhythm that is between 2 and 7 Hz, and deviations from this frequency range in either modality reduce intelligibility. Understanding how audiovisual speech evolved requires investigating the origins of this rhythmic structure. One hypothesis is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of ...
Klemuk Sarah A SA Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Iowa, 334B SHC, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2010
Viscoelastic properties of numerous vocal fold injectables have been reported but not at speaking frequencies. For materials intended for Reinke's space, ramifications of property values are of great concern because of their impact on ease of voice onset. Our objectives were: 1) to measure viscoelastic properties of a new nonresorbing ...
Quillfeldt Petra - - 2010
Chicks of burrowing petrels use begging calls to advertise their hunger levels when parents arrived at the nest. In a previous study, adult thin-billed prions Pachyptila belcheri responded to higher begging call rates of their single chick by regurgitating larger meals. We tested whether acoustic parameters of begging call elements ...
Collyer Sally - - 2011
Breath management training in classical singing is becoming increasingly physiologically focused, despite evidence that directives focusing on chest-wall kinematic (ribcage and abdominal) behavior effect minimal change in acoustical measures of singing. A direct and proportionate relationship between breathing behavior and vocal quality is important in singing training because singing teachers ...
Szameitat Diana P - - 2011
Although laughter is an important aspect of nonverbal vocalization, its acoustic properties are still not fully understood. Extreme articulation during laughter production, such as wide jaw opening, suggests that laughter can have very high first formant (F(1)) frequencies. We measured fundamental frequency and formant frequencies of the vowels produced in ...
Brockmann Meike - - 2011
The aims of this study were to examine vowel and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in a typical clinical voice task while correcting for the confounding effects of voice sound pressure level (SPL) and fundamental frequency (F(0)). Furthermore the relative effect sizes of vowel, gender, voice SPL, and F(0) ...
Echternach Matthias - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Yodelling is a special kind of vocal performance in traditional music which consists of rapid and repeated changes in pitch. It is assumed that these pitch changes are accompanied by register changes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed, using the laryngograph, yodelling on different vowels by four professional yodelling teachers ...
Kimura Miwako M Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9035, - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the functional biomechanical properties of several injectable biomaterials currently or potentially used for vocal fold augmentation. Rheometric investigation of phonosurgical materials in vitro. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of 3% bovine collagen (atelocollagen), micronized AlloDerm (Cymetra; LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, NJ), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) ...
Zhang Zhaoyan Z UCLA School of Medicine, 31-24 Rehabilitation Center, 1000 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1794, USA. - - 2010
Previous studies show that phonation onset occurs as two eigenmodes of the vocal folds are synchronized by the interaction between the vocal folds and the glottal flow. This study examines the influence of the geometrical and biomechanical properties of the vocal folds on this eigenmode-synchronization process, with a focus on ...
Bettagere Ramesh - - 2010
This study examined the differences between acoustic characteristics of lexical and emphatic stress patterns of American English in terms of changes in fundamental frequency (F0), duration, and amplitude of the stress patterns, and identified the most important acoustic characteristics among them. Speech samples were recorded from 13 randomly selected women ...
Kiefte Michael - - 2010
Although recent evidence reconfirmed the importance of spectral peak frequencies in vowel identification [Kiefte and Kluender (2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 1395-1404], the role of formant amplitude in perception remains somewhat controversial. Although several studies have demonstrated a relationship between vowel perception and formant amplitude, this effect may be ...
Swerdlin Yoni - - 2010
The frequencies of vocal tract resonances estimated using whisper and creak phonations are compared with those in normal phonation for subjects who produced pairs of these phonations in the same vocal gesture. Peaks in the spectral envelope were used to measure the frequencies of the first four resonances (R1-R4) for ...
Chen Fei F Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of information provided by obstruent consonants (e.g., stops and fricatives) to speech intelligibility in simulated acoustic-electric hearing. As a secondary objective, this study examines the performance of an objective measure that can potentially be used for predicting the intelligibility of ...
Rong Panying - - 2010
To study the acoustic characteristics of nasalized vowels, the effects of velopharyngeal opening and oral articulation are considered. Based on vocal tract area functions for one American English speaker, spectral evolutions for the nasalization of three English vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ were studied by simulating transfer functions for vowels ...
Lebowitz Amy - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to further clarify a definition of belting in physiological and acoustic terms. Twenty professional female singers produced triads ascending by halftone steps from C₄ to C₅ and sang the last four measures of a popular Broadway ballad in both legit and belt styles. ...
Cai Shanqing - - 2010
Investigations of auditory feedback control of supra-glottal articulatory movements traditionally have focused on quasi-static speech sounds like monophthongs. Only recently has attention been directed toward time-varying sounds. To study the role of auditory feedback in the formation of formant trajectories in time-varying vowels, we perturbed the second formant frequency (F2) ...
Vernaleo Beth A - - 2010
Zebra finch song consists of complex acoustic elements repeated over several hundred milliseconds with extreme vocal-motor precision. Much less is known about how song is perceived though previous work has shown that zebra finches easily discriminate between normal and time-reversed versions of song syllables. Here, we used operant conditioning, psychophysical ...
Barreda Santiago - - 2010
There is disagreement over the role fundamental frequency (f0) plays in the determination of vowel quality. Some claim [e.g., D. Smith et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 305-318 (2005)] that changes in f0 do not affect vowel quality at all. Others claim there is relationship between f0 and vowel ...
Eddins David A - - 2010
Dysphonic voices arising from laryngeal lesions are generally believed to vary across three perceptual dimensions-breathiness, roughness, and strain. This experiment sought to evaluate the psychometric functions for roughness and to determine the acoustic cues for its perception. Ten normal-hearing listeners, all native speakers of American English, were recruited for this ...
Brunner Jana - - 2010
When adapting to an articulatory perturbation, different speakers may use different strategies. This study investigates the hypothesis that the choice of strategy depends on vocal tract shape. Vowel production was perturbed with prostheses that changed palatal shape. Three speakers had a prosthesis that effectively moved the alveolar ridge posteriorily; three ...
McGowan Richard S RS CReSS LLC, 1 Seaborn Place, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420, USA. - - 2010
The unsteady drag on the vocal folds is the major source of sound during voiced speech. The drag force is caused by vortex shedding from the vocal folds. The influence of the ventricular folds (i.e., the "false" vocal folds that protrude into the vocal tract a short distance downstream of ...
Kamdar Sangeeta - - 2010
Our previous studies have shown that Chinese and Korean accented English vowels deviated in fundamental and formant frequency values and gross spectral shape properties when compared to English-native productions. The present study proposed to examine the intelligibility of accented English vowel by manipulating the fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, andor entire ...
Lohr Bernard - - 2010
Grasshopper sparrows produce unusually high-pitched vocalizations for birds, with fundamental frequencies of species typical songs in the range of 7-9 kHz. The characteristics of vocalizations produced early in life, however, are relatively understudied in this and related species. In this study, the development of vocal signal structure and vocal behavior ...
McDermott Josh H - - 2010
Some combinations of musical notes are consonant (pleasant), while others are dissonant (unpleasant), a distinction central to music. Explanations of consonance in terms of acoustics, auditory neuroscience, and enculturation have been debated for centuries. These debates have remained largely unresolved, in part, because the various theories are difficult to distinguish ...
Nordstrom Karl I - - 2010
This study investigates vowel mappings for a voice synthesizer controlled by hand gestures for artistic performance. The vowel targets are on a horizontal plane navigated by the movement of the right hand in front of the performer. Two vowel mappings were explored. In one mapping, the vowels were evenly distributed ...
Lee Hyunjung - - 2010
The three-way laryngeal distinction among voiceless Korean stops has been well documented for the Seoul dialect. The present study compares the acoustic and aerodynamic properties of this stop series between two dialects, non-tonal Seoul and tonal South Kyungsang Korean. Sixteen male Korean speakers (eight from Seoul and eight from Kyungsang) ...
Miller Maggie - - 2010
Psychometric functions of vowel detection and vowel identification were measured in multi-talker babble for young normal-hearing listeners. A four-interval forced-choice procedure was used to examine the accuracy of vowel detection in babble with speech level presented from 0- to +15-dB sensation level relative to vowel detection thresholds obtained with method ...
Behroozmand Roozbeh - - 2010
Voice production and control require neural interactions between the vocal motor and auditory mechanisms. The comparison between the incoming auditory feedback and the predicted sensory input (efference copies) from a self-produced vocalization allows the detection of feedback mismatches for voice error detection and correction. However, the sensitivity of the audio-vocal ...
Healy Eric W - - 2010
Previous work investigating the frequency resolution employed to process English vowels indicated that the speech-critical band (S-CB) for vowels was greater than the psychophysical critical band. This result suggests that the density of information in the acoustic signal is below the resolving power of the auditory system, and therefore functional ...
Nelson Peggy B - - 2010
One problem reported by listeners with hearing impairment (HI) might be that formant transitions in noise are not as salient as for listeners with normal hearing (NH). We hypothesize that a reduced ability to perceive formant transitions in noise could contribute to reduced masking release seen in HI listeners. In ...
Nielsen Kuniko - - 2010
The current study aims to examine the relationship between Japanese vowel devoicing and lexical frequency in light of the probabilistic reduction hypothesis [Jurafsky et al. (2001)], which predicts that more probable words are (phonetically) reduced more than less probable words. In Tokyo Japanese, high vowels become devoiced when they occur ...
Katseff Shira - - 2010
Talkers are known to compensate for experimentally-induced shifts in auditory feedback. In a typical experiment, talkers might hear their F1 feedback shifted (so that [epsilon] sounds like [ae], for example), and compensate by lowering F1 in their subsequent speech. Typically, compensation is assumed to directly oppose the action of the ...
Soltis Joseph - - 2010
Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" ...
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