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Results 501 - 550 of 1455
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Wilson Wj - - 2011
Objective  To use the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) to test the hypothesis that auditory function could be worse in older horses than in younger horses. Procedure  BAER waveforms in response to click stimuli were measured in five younger horses (5-8 years) and four older horses (17-22 years). Results  Compared ...
Rossiter Stephen J SJ School of Biological and Chemical Sciences; Queen Mary University of London; London, - - 2011
Recent evidence indicates that the evolution of ultrasonic hearing in echolocating bats and cetaceans has involved adaptive amino acid replacements in the cochlear gene prestin. A substantial number of these changes have occurred in parallel in both groups, suggesting that particular amino acid residues might confer greater auditory sensitivity to ...
Mellone S - - 2011
Tremor is one of the symptoms of several disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system, such as Parkinsons disease (PD). Impairment of postural control is another symptom of PD. The conventional method of posture analysis uses force plates but accelerometers can be a valid and reliable alternative. Both these ...
Boets Bart - - 2011
Recent findings suggest deficits in coherent motion sensitivity, an index of visual dorsal stream functioning, in children with poor mathematical skills or dyscalculia, a specific learning disability in mathematics. We extended these data using a longitudinal design to unravel whether visual dorsal stream functioning is able to predict individual differences ...
Wu Bing - - 2011
Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as ...
Laback Bernhard - - 2011
The additivity of nonsimultaneous masking was studied using Gaussian-shaped tone pulses (referred to as Gaussians) as masker and target stimuli. Combinations of up to four temporally separated Gaussian maskers with an equivalent rectangular bandwidth of 600 Hz and an equivalent rectangular duration of 1.7 ms were tested. Each masker was ...
MacDonald Ewen N - - 2011
Two auditory feedback perturbation experiments were conducted to examine the nature of control of the first two formants in vowels. In the first experiment, talkers heard their auditory feedback with either F1 or F2 shifted in frequency. Talkers altered production of the perturbed formant by changing its frequency in the ...
Rodríguez Joyce - - 2011
Slopes of forward-masked psychometric functions (FM PFs) were compared with distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) input/output (I/O) parameters at 1 and 6 kHz to test the hypothesis that these measures provide similar estimates of cochlear compression. Implicit in this hypothesis is the assumption that both DPOAE I/O and FM PF slopes ...
Won Jong Ho JH Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2011
Previous studies have found a significant correlation between spectral-ripple discrimination and speech and music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. This relationship could be of use to clinicians and scientists who are interested in using spectral-ripple stimuli in the assessment and habilitation of CI users. However, previous psychoacoustic tasks used ...
Guest Maya - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: We sought to examine the vestibular function and whether an association exists between vestibular function and hearing thresholds in a group of military aircraft-maintenance workers with exposures to high levels of noise and organic solvents, relative to two different comparison groups. METHODS:: Vestibular function (using functional reach) and hearing ...
Sasai Shuntaro - - 2011
Analyses of spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations observed on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have revealed the existence of temporal correlations in signal changes between widely separated brain regions during the resting state, termed "resting state functional connectivity." Recent studies have demonstrated that these correlations are also present in the hemodynamic signals ...
van Heuven Vincent J - - 2011
Although much has been written on the relative importance of acoustic correlates of linguistic stress for the listener, the role of spectral expansion/reduction has been much understudied. The present article is the first to study the role of spectral expansion/reduction in a two- parameter study together with temporal structure exploiting ...
Comins Jordan A - - 2011
The present case report provides a description of the emergence of an innovative, highly beneficial for- aging behavior in a single rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Selectively choosing the island's cement dock and nearby surrounding rocky terrain, our focal subject (ID: 84 J) ...
Vuillerme N N TIMC-IMAG Laboratory, UMR UJF CNRS 5525, Grenoble, France. - - 2011
This pilot study aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effectiveness of an electro Electro-tactile Vestibular Substitution System (EVSS) in patients with unilateral vestibular loss under normal and altered somatosensory conditions from the foot and ankle. Four unilateral vestibular-defective patients voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were asked to stand ...
Rossel Olivier O Laboratoire d’Informatique de Robotique et de Micro´electronique de Montpellier, 161 rue Ada, 34392 Montpellier, - - 2011
In the context of functional electrical stimulation, neural recording is one of the main issues. For instance, the control of the limbs in people with motor deficiencies needs information about the muscle lengths and speeds that can be extracted from electroneurograms (ENG) carried on afferent peripheral nerves. The aim of ...
Weitz A C AC Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. - - 2011
The most common electrical stimulation pulse used in retinal implants is a symmetric biphasic current pulse. Prior electrophysiological studies in peripheral nerve have shown that adding an interphase gap (IPG) between the two phases makes stimulation more efficient. We investigated the effect of IPG duration on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) ...
Maciej Peter - - 2011
Acoustic analyses have become a staple method in field studies of animal vocal communication, with nearly all investigations using computer-based approaches to extract specific features from sounds. Various algorithms can be used to extract acoustic variables that may then be related to variables such as individual identity, context or reproductive ...
Romei Vincenzo - - 2011
There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgments, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive ...
Njemanze Philip C - - 2011
Simultaneous color contrast and color constancy are memory processes associated with color vision, however, the gender-related differences of 'physiologic color space' remains unknown. Color processing was studied in 16 (8 men and 8 women) right-handed healthy subjects using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) technique. Mean flow velocity (MFV) was recorded in ...
Guinand N N ENT Department, University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2011
Currently there is no efficient treatment for patients with severe bilateral vestibular function impairment. Presence of oscillopsia is their main complaint. It has a significant negative impact on their quality of life. Recently it has been shown that angular vestibulo-ocular reflex can be partially restored in animals. In humans it ...
André M - - 2011
The development and broad use of passive acoustic monitoring techniques have the potential to help assessing the large-scale influence of artificial noise on marine organisms and ecosystems. Deep-sea observatories have the potential to play a key role in understanding these recent acoustic changes. LIDO (Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment) ...
Crossland Michael D - - 2011
Scotopic function is an important marker of many retinal diseases and is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials, such as those investigating gene therapy for Lebers congenital amaurosis. Scotopic visual function has traditionally been measured using an adapted perimetry system such as the Humphrey field analyser (HFA). ...
Sousa Rita - - 2011
The presence of a more distant object helps judge an object's position in depth. To find out why, we examined whether misjudging a distant cube's location induces a corresponding misjudgment of a nearer sphere's location. Various configurations of a distant cube and a near sphere were presented in total darkness. ...
Shen Jun-Xian - - 2011
Acoustic communication has an important role in the reproductive behaviour of anurans. Although males of the concave-eared frog (Odorrana tormota) have shown an ultrasonic communication capacity adapted to the intense, predominately low-frequency ambient noise from local streams, whether the females communicate with ultrasound remains unclear. Here we present evidence that ...
Mihajloski Todor T Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA. - - 2011
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE), which are acoustic responses produced by the cochlea, can be recorded with a microphone in the ear canal to give diagnostic information regarding cochlear functioning. Recently, the researchers developed a novel stimulus for the acquisition of OAE using a hearing-level equalized (HL(eq)) swept-tone signal. The objective of ...
Kane David - - 2011
The response of motion-selective neurons in primary visual cortex is ambiguous with respect to the two-dimensional (2D) velocity of spatially extensive objects. To investigate how local neural activity is integrated in the computation of global motion, we asked observers to judge the direction of a rigidly translating natural scene viewed ...
Sueur Jérôme - - 2011
To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the ...
Ghionzoli A A BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. - - 2011
Transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes (TIMEs) are polyimide-based microelectrodes, which are potentially very interesting to restore sensorimotor functions in disabled people. By means of microstimulation of the nerve stump of an amputee, it can be possible to manipulate the phantom limb sensation, to provide sensory feedback to upper limb amputees, and ...
Bigand Emmanuel - - 2011
The present study investigated the minimum amount of auditory stimulation that allows differentiation of spoken voices, instrumental music, and environmental sounds. Three new findings were reported. 1) All stimuli were categorized above chance level with 50 ms-segments. 2) When a peak-level normalization was applied, music and voices started to be ...
von Ilberg Christoph A - - 2011
Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) was developed for individuals with a profound hearing loss in the high frequencies and a substantial residual low-frequency hearing (LFH). For this group of candidates, conventional hearing aids often neither provided sufficient amplification nor were they considered suitable for cochlear implantation due to the possible destruction of ...
De Stefani Elisa - - 2011
Our visual percepts are not fully determined by physical stimulus inputs. Thus, in visual illusions such as the Kanizsa figure, inducers presented at the corners allow one to perceive the bounding contours of the figure in the absence of luminance-defined borders. We examined the discrimination of the curvature of these ...
Fontana Juan M JM Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. - - 2011
The detection of swallowing events by acoustic means represents an important tool to assess and diagnose swallowing disorders as well as to objectively monitor ingestive behavior of individuals. Acoustic sensors used to register swallowing sounds may also capture sound artifacts arising from intrinsic speech and external noise affecting the detection. ...
Starobin Joseph M - - 2011
We introduce a novel approach of stabilizing the dynamics of excitation waves by spatially extended sub-threshold periodic forcing. Entrainment of unstable primary waves has been studied numerically for different amplitudes and frequencies of additional sub-threshold stimuli. We determined entrainment regimes under which excitation blocks were transformed into consistent 1:1 responses. ...
Johnson Catherine L - - 2011
This paper forms part of a broader overview of biodiversity of marine life in the Gulf of Maine area (GoMA), facilitated by the GoMA Census of Marine Life program. It synthesizes current data on species diversity of zooplankton and pelagic nekton, including compilation of observed species and descriptions of seasonal, ...
Gavriel Haim - - 2011
Exposure to continuous and impulse noise can induce a hearing loss. Leupeptin is an inhibitor of the calpains, a family of calcium-activated proteases which promote cell death. The objective of this study is to assess whether Leupeptin could reduce the hearing loss resulting from rifle impulse noise. A polyethelene tube ...
Colleye Orphal - - 2011
Clownfishes are colorful coral reef fishes living in groups in association with sea anemones throughout the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Within their small societies, size hierarchy determines which fish have access to reproduction. These fishes are also prolific callers whose aggressive sounds seem to play an important role in the social hierarchy. ...
Wilhelm Helmut - - 2011
Pupil size is determined by the interaction of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic system conducts the light reaction with its major center in the dorsal midbrain. The sympathetic nervous system acts either directly on the dilator muscle (peripherally) or centrally by inhibiting the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Psychosensory ...
Liu Zhen - - 2011
High-frequency hearing is required for echolocating bats to locate, range and identify objects, yet little is known about its molecular basis. The discovery of a high-frequency hearing-related gene, KCNQ4, provides an opportunity to address this question. Here, we obtain the coding regions of KCNQ4 from 15 species of bats, including ...
Francis Clinton D - - 2011
Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include ...
Park Jaebum J Department of Kinesiology, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, - - 2011
A recently developed method of analytical inverse optimization (ANIO) was used to compute cost functions based on sets of experimental observations in 4-finger pressing tasks with accurate total force and moment production. In different series, feedback on total force and moment was provided using the index finger force at its ...
Charlton Benjamin D BD Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2011
While social and behavioural contexts are known to affect the acoustic structure of vocal signals in several mammal species, few studies have investigated context-related acoustic variation during inter-sexual advertisement and/or intra-sexual competition. Here we recorded male fallow deer groans during the breeding season and investigated how key acoustic parameters (fundamental ...
Leitman David I DI Neuropsychiatry Section, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA, - - 2011
Recognizing emotion is an evolutionary imperative. An early stage of auditory scene analysis involves the perceptual grouping of acoustic features, which can be based on both temporal coincidence and spectral features such as perceived pitch. Perceived pitch, or fundamental frequency (F(0)), is an especially salient cue for differentiating affective intent ...
Ozdamar Ozcan O Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33214, USA. - - 2011
Electrophysiological indices of auditory binaural beats illusions are studied using late latency evoked responses. Binaural beats are generated by continuous monaural FM tones with slightly different ascending and descending frequencies lasting about 25 ms presented at 1 sec intervals. Frequency changes are carefully adjusted to avoid any creation of abrupt ...
Stanley Jenni A - - 2011
A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential ...
Yoshimoto Shunsuke S Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University. - - 2011
An important function for a tactile navigation system of a handheld tool, such as a surgical scalpel, is the spatial transparency of the device. This paper proposed a new tactile display that can augment touch sensation at the finger pulps without the need for a stimulator between the tool and ...
Nooij S A E - - 2011
During the first days of spaceflight, about 50-70% of the astronauts experience symptoms of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). It has been proposed that an asymmetry between the left and right otolith organs contributes to an astronaut's individual susceptibility. A recently developed test to measure unilateral utricular function enabled us to ...
Geffen Maria N - - 2011
Many natural signals, including environmental sounds, exhibit scale-invariant statistics: their structure is repeated at multiple scales. Such scale-invariance has been identified separately across spectral and temporal correlations of natural sounds (Clarke and Voss, 1975; Attias and Schreiner, 1997; Escabi et al., 2003; Singh and Theunissen, 2003). Yet the role of ...
Mockford Emily J - - 2011
Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, ...
Miller Christopher P - - 2010
STUDY DESIGN.: Laboratory biomechanical experiment. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate how different anterior cervical collar heights restrict full, active range of motion (ROM), and functional ROM during 15 activities of daily living. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Hard cervical collars are commonly used in the clinical setting. Collar fit is presumed to affect ...
Cafaro Jon J Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, - - 2010
Computation in the nervous system often relies on the integration of signals from parallel circuits with different functional properties. Correlated noise in these inputs can, in principle, have diverse and dramatic effects on the reliability of the resulting computations. Such theoretical predictions have rarely been tested experimentally because of a ...
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