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Results 201 - 250 of 991
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Lloyd David R - - 2012
The term "sensory reinforcer" has been used to refer to sensory stimuli (e.g. light onset) that are primary reinforcers in order to differentiate them from other more biologically important primary reinforcers (e.g. food and water). Acquisition of snout poke responding for a visual stimulus (5 s light onset) with fixed ...
Tan Chee Leong - - 2012
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices by reducing reflection and increasing light trapping within device. However, metal NPs on top flat surface suffer from high reflectivity losses due to the backscattering of the NPs itself. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a novel ...
Neufeld Janina - - 2012
It has been suggested that synaesthesia is the result of a hyper-sensitive multimodal binding-mechanism. To address the question whether multi-modal integration is altered in synaesthetes in general, grapheme-colour and auditory-visual synaesthetes were studied using the double-flash illusion. This illusion is induced by a single light flash presented together with multiple ...
Walls Helen L - - 2012
Bierman and Rea outlined some corrections and offered further information regarding the lighting sources described in our article. We welcome their comments and respond to each point as follows. First and second, Bierman et al. stated that high-intensity discharge (HID) and fluorescent lamps of similar wattage are approximately equal in ...
Lubimova N V - - 2012
Serum concentrations of κ- and λ-free light chains and their ratios were compared in 126 patients with monoclonal gammapathies (age 23-80 years) and 60 normal subjects (25-82 years). The main group included patients with intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma, Bence Jones multiple myeloma, nonsecreting multiple myeloma, plasmocytoma, and monoclonal gammapathy of ...
Terry Kevin - - 2012
Falls during walking are a major contributor to accidental deaths and injuries that can result in debilitating hospitalization costs, lost productivity, and diminished quality of life. To reduce these losses, we must develop a more profound understanding of the characteristic responses to perturbations similar to those encountered in daily life. ...
Eichenberger Martina - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the near visual acuity of dentists in relation to age and magnification under simulated clinical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Miniaturized visual tests were performed in posterior teeth of a dental phantom head in a simulated clinical setting (dental chair, operating lamp, dental mirror). The visual acuity ...
Aaltonen T - - 2012
We present a search for a new heavy particle X produced in association with a top quark, pp[over ¯]→t(X→t[over ¯]q) or pp[over ¯]→t[over ¯](X[over ¯]→tq[over ¯]), where q stands for up quarks and down quarks. Such a particle may explain the recent anomalous measurements of top-quark forward-backward asymmetry. If the ...
Altmann Christian F - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Auditory distance judgment relies on several acoustic cues and can be modulated by visual information. Sound intensity serves as one such cue as it decreases with increasing distance. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment, we tested whether N1m MEG responses, previously described to scale with sound intensity, are modulated by ...
Jarvis John R - - 2012
The validity of the Barten theoretical model for describing the vertebrate spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and acuity at scotopic light levels has been examined. Although this model (which has its basis in signal modulation transfer theory) can successfully describe vertebrate CSF, and its relation to underlying visual neurophysiology at ...
Wood Joanne M - - 2012
To determine the effect of moderate levels of refractive blur and simulated cataracts on nighttime pedestrian conspicuity in the presence and absence of headlamp glare. The ability to recognize pedestrians at night was measured in 28 young adults (M = 27.6 years) under three visual conditions: normal vision, refractive blur, ...
Kim Dae Shik - - 2012
This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the ...
Bókkon István - - 2012
In near death experiences (NDEs), seeing a brilliant light may arise in the recovery period following cardiac arrest, but the subjects can think that these experiences had happened during the actual period itself. Here we hypothesize a biophysical explanation about the encounter with a brilliant light in NDEs. Accordingly, meeting ...
Shepherd Alex J - - 2012
Background: There are conflicting reports concerning the ability of people with migraine to detect and discriminate visual motion. Previous studies used different displays and none adequately assessed other parameters that could affect performance, such as those that could indicate precortical dysfunction.Methods: Motion-direction detection, discrimination and relative motion thresholds were compared ...
Braunitzer Gábor - - 2012
Introduction: Altered visual processing has been observed in adult migraineurs. But because visual processing has not been studied in paediatric cases, it is not known whether such visual system alterations are already present in early development. We therefore used a dynamic visual task to investigate motion detection threshold in paediatric ...
Charbonneau Jeremy - - 2012
The standardized equal loudness contours identify the non-linearities of the human auditory system using simple sinusoidal input signals. The graphical illustration of auditory performance trends provides a visual representation of these non-linearities with respect to both frequency and amplitude across the range of auditory perception. Metrics such as the A-Weighting ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2012
In this study, we investigated the simultaneity perception between a visual stimulus and its associated sound. We carried out experiments of an auditory-visual stimulus presentation using an audio-video clip of a man beating a drum on a road. The visual stimulus had a feeling of depth with a perspective view ...
Hong Jooyoung - - 2012
Design elements of urban soundscape were investigated through individual soundwalk and laboratory experiments. Soundwalking was performed in Seoul; thirty subjects selected evaluation sites when they perceived positive and negative soundscape elements in the soundscape route. It was found that soundscape elements are closely related to visual elements. In order to ...
Mishima Yuka - - 2012
It is important to playback broadband sounds for the research of communication and echolocation of dolphins. Acoustic studies of dolphins mainly focus on recording of vocalizations and hearing abilities, but relatively few playback experiments have been conducted. To improve our understanding of their communication and echolocation abilities, an extremely broadband ...
Tengtrisorn Supaporn - - 2012
To determine the range of central corneal light reflex ratio (CCLRR) in Thai children. Sixty-three students identified as having a visual acuity of poorer than 20/40 screening by a research assistant underwent a complete assessment including a visual acuity test, orthoptic examination, refraction, and cover tests were enrolled in the ...
Chen Ai-Hong - - 2012
Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. ...
Mankowska Aleksandra - - 2012
This study was conducted to investigate whether neural compensation for induced defocus can alter visual resolution in other areas of the human retina beyond the fovea. In certain circumstances, the blur adaptation response may be influenced by refractive status. The effect of blur adaptation on the central 10° of the ...
Wolffsohn James S - - 2012
Background:  As light-emitting diodes become more common as the light source for low vision aids, the effect of illumination colour temperature on magnifier reading performance was investigated. Methods:  Reading ability (maximum reading speed, critical print size, threshold near visual acuity) using Radner charts and subjective preference was assessed for 107 ...
Huisman Sander G - - 2012
We present accurate measurements of the relative motion and deformation of two large bubbles released consecutively in a quiescent liquid confined in a thin-gap cell. Although the second injected bubble was smaller, we observed that, in all cases, it accelerated and caught up with the leading bubble. This acceleration is ...
Ghose Tandra - - 2012
In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking ...
van den Boomen C - - 2012
Visual form perception is essential for correct interpretation of, and interaction with, our environment. Form perception depends on visual acuity and processing of specific form characteristics, such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency, color, orientation, depth, and even motion information. As other cognitive processes, form perception matures with age. This paper ...
Tappeiner Christoph - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual acuity of adult zebrafish by assessing the optokinetic reflex. Using a modified commercially available optomotor device (OptoMotry®), virtual three-dimensional gratings of variable spatial frequency or contrast were presented to adult zebrafish. In a first experiment, visual acuity was evaluated by ...
Garde A A Dept. of ESAII, Escola Universitaria de Enginyeria Tècnica de Barcelona (EUETIB), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), Barcelona, Spain. - - 2012
High altitude periodic breathing (PB) shares some common pathophysiologic aspects with sleep apnea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and PB in heart failure patients. Methods that allow quantifying instabilities of respiratory control provide valuable insights in physiologic mechanisms and help to identify therapeutic targets. Under the hypothesis that high altitude PB appears even ...
Harrison Neil - - 2012
The phenomenon of crossmodal dynamic visual capture occurs when the direction of motion of a visual cue causes a weakening or reversal of the perceived direction of motion of a concurrently presented auditory stimulus. It is known that there is a perceptual bias towards looming compared to receding stimuli, and ...
Rojas David - - 2012
Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on ...
Bozzani Fiammetta Maria - - 2012
Economic viability of treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) should be assessed objectively to prioritise health care interventions. This study aims to identify the methods for eliciting utility values (UVs) most sensitive to differences in visual field and visual functioning in patients with POAG. As a secondary objective, the dimensions ...
Schütz Alexander C - - 2012
Humans have a clear sense of the numerosity of elements in a surface. However, recent studies showed that the binding of features to the single elements is severely limited. By studying the relationship of depth order and perceived numerosity of overlapping, pseudotransparent surfaces, we show that the binding of elements ...
Sousa Luciana Leal de - - 2012
To assess the auditory ability of temporal resolution and to compare the random gap detection test (RGDT) versions with pure tone and clicks stimuli. Participants were 40 young individuals of both genders with ages between 18 and 25 years, and normal hearing thresholds for the sound frequencies of 250 Hz ...
Tebboune Cheikh El-Bachir - - 2012
A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 26 VDU operators in a post office and a bank, working regularly on video display units. The study aimed at (1) determining the physical working conditions, particularly lighting conditions, (2) assessing employees' complaints, (3) measuring visual defects among operators in ...
Raz Noa - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs) following optic neuritis (ON) remain chronically prolonged, although standard visual tests indicate full recovery. We hypothesized that dynamic visual processes, such as motion perception, may be more vulnerable to slowed conduction in the optic nerve, and consequently be better associated with projection rates. METHODS: Twenty-one ...
Hirata Sachiko - - 2011
The present study examines implicit phonetic symbolism which posits that arbitrary linguistic sound is related to certain aspects of characteristics of other modalities, such as color, touch, or emotion. In consonant discrimination and lightness discrimination using Garner's speeded classification paradigm, spoken sounds (voiced/voiceless consonants) and lightness of visual stimuli (black/white ...
Kilavik Bjørg Elisabeth - - 2011
The local field potential (LFP) is a population measure, mainly reflecting local synaptic activity. Beta oscillations (12-40 Hz) occur in motor cortical LFPs, but their functional relevance remains controversial. Power modulation studies have related beta oscillations to a "resting" motor cortex, postural maintenance, attention, sensorimotor binding and planning. Frequency modulations ...
Kim Beomjin - - 2011
Two color white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) that used a co-host system in a solution process method was prepared. A device configuration is ITO/PEDOT:PSS (40 nm)/emitting layer (50 nm)/TPBi (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al. The emitting layer consists of TATa+ alpha-NPB or beta-NPB + DPAVBi (blue dopant) + Rubrene (yellow dopant). ...
Puzzo Ignazio - - 2011
The present study addresses three methodological questions that have been ignored in previous research on EEG indices of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS), particularly in regard to autistic individuals. The first question regards how to elicit the EEG indexed hMNS during movement observation: Is hMNS activation best elicited using ...
Omlor Wolfgang - - 2011
During steady muscle contractions, the human sensorimotor cortex generates oscillations in the beta-frequency range (15-30 Hz) that are coherent with the activity of contralateral spinal motoneurons. This corticospinal coherence is thought to favor stationary motor states, but its mode of operation remains elusive. We hypothesized that corticospinal beta-range coherence depends ...
Page Jennifer L - - 2011
The chemosensory signal structure governing the upstream progress of blue crabs to an odorant source was examined. We used a three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence system to collect chemical concentration data simultaneously with behavior observations of actively tracking blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) in a variety of plume types. This allowed us to ...
Mansuryan T - - 2011
A very compact and innovative pulse shaper is proposed and demonstrated. The standard architecture for pulse shaping that is composed of diffraction gratings associated with an amplitude-phase spatial light modulator (SLM) is replaced by a single phase-only SLM. It acts as a pulse stretcher and as an amplitude and phase ...
Burseg Kerstin Martha Mensien - - 2011
Oral stimulation with high-tastant concentrations that are alternared with low-tastant concentrations or water rinses (pulsatile stimulation) results in taste intensity ratings that are higher than continuous stimulation with the same average tastant concentration. This study tested the combined effects of taste pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement in ...
Ha Sangwoo - - 2011
We demonstrate the fabrication by direct laser writing and the operation of a directional coupler containing Bragg gratings in each waveguide. We achieve high-precision control over the longitudinal shift between the gratings, which feature first-order Bragg resonance at telecommunication wavelengths. We observe fundamental differences between light transmission characteristics in couplers ...
Extermann Jérôme - - 2011
We describe the performance of a reflective pulse-shaper based on a Micro-ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) linear mirror array. It represents a substantial upgrade of a preceding release [Opt. Lett. 35, 3102 (2010)] as it allows simultaneous piston and tilt mirror motion, allowing both phase- and binary amplitude-shaping with no wavelength restriction. ...
Franklin Clifford A - - 2011
PURPOSE: Pulsed and warbled tones are suitable substitutions for pure tones in hearing threshold measurement according to the 2005 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines. These guidelines also recommend measuring thresholds at 3000 and 6000 Hz. To date, there is no research directly supporting substitution of pulsed or warbled tones for ...
Valente Daniel L - - 2011
The detection of a brief increment in the intensity of a longer duration pedestal is commonly used as a measure of intensity-resolution. Increment detection is known to improve with increasing duration of the increment and also with increasing duration of the pedestal, but the relative effects of these two parameters ...
Lazure Louis - - 2011
There are two very different approaches to laryngeal echolocation in bats. Although most bats separate pulse and echo in time by signalling at low duty cycles (LDCs), almost 20% of species produce calls at high duty cycles (HDCs) and separate pulse and echo in frequency. HDC echolocators are sensitive to ...
Sikurova L - - 2011
Hemoglobin is the main absorber of visible light in blood and blood-perfused tissues. However, hemoglobin is released from a red blood cell (RBC) during hemolysis. Hemolysis may be caused by a large number of medical conditions, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and this subsequently can affect passage of light through the ...
Yum H N - - 2011
Recently, a tunable bandwidth white light cavity (WLC) was demonstrated by using an anomalously dispersive intra-cavity medium to adjust a cavity linewidth without reducing the cavity buildup factor [G.S. Pati et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 133601 (2007)]. In this paper, we show theoretically how such a WLC can be ...
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