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Rost Kristen A KA Queens College and the Graduate Center, City University of New - - 2014
Organisms often prefer conditions that allow selection among alternatives (free-choice) to conditions that do not (forced-choice), particularly when response alternatives in free-choice produce equal or greater reinforcer magnitudes than those available under forced-choice. We present data on free-choice preference for human participants who gained or lost points by selecting images ...
Celeghin Alessia A Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory, and CoRPS - Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic diseases - Tilburg University, Tilburg, The - - 2014
Blindsight, i.e., unconscious visually guided behaviour triggered by stimuli presented to a cortically blind hemifield, has been typically found either by using direct (forced choice) or indirect (interhemispheric) methods. However, one would expect to find blindsight also in fast responses to suddenly appearing visual stimuli, a reminiscence of evolutionary ancient ...
Fetsch Christopher R CR Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2014
Decisions are often associated with a degree of certainty, or confidence-an estimate of the probability that the chosen option will be correct. Recent neurophysiological results suggest that the central processing of evidence leading to a perceptual decision also establishes a level of confidence. Here we provide a causal test of ...
Turri John J Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, - - 2014
Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement ...
Kamrowski Ruth L RL School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, - - 2014
Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are ...
Werkle-Bergner Markus M Max Planck Institute for Human Development, D-14195 Berlin, Germany, - - 2014
Higher cognitive functions, such as human perceptual decision making, require information processing and transmission across wide-spread cortical networks. Temporally synchronized neural firing patterns are advantageous for efficiently representing and transmitting information within and between assemblies. Computational, empirical, and conceptual considerations all lead to the expectation that the informational redundancy of ...
Johnsson Ewa E Department of Psychiatric Epidemiology, Lund University, Skånes University Hospital in Lund, Lund, Sweden - - 2014
Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants' capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. The study investigated whether immigrants' experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by ...
Polanía Rafael R Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research (SNS-Lab), Department of Economics, University of Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Organisms make two types of decisions on a regular basis. Perceptual decisions are determined by objective states of the world (e.g., melons are bigger than apples), whereas value-based decisions are determined by subjective preferences (e.g., I prefer apples to melons). Theoretical accounts suggest that both types of choice involve neural ...
Frissen Ilja I a School of Information Studies, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Music Media and Technology (CIRMMT), McGill University , 3661 Peel street, Montréal , Québec , Canada H3A - - 2014
To assist the human operator, modern auditory interfaces increasingly rely on sound spatialisation to display auditory information and warning signals. However, we often operate in environments that apply vibrations to the whole body, e.g. when driving a vehicle. Here, we report three experiments investigating the effect of sinusoidal vibrations along ...
Hansen Ronald M RM Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 2115, United - - 2014
Purpose:To evaluate scotopic retinal organization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a study of spatial summation. Methods:Thresholds for a range of stimulus diameters (0.4 to 10 degrees) were measured using a two alternative, spatial, forced choice psychophysical procedure. The critical diameter (DCRIT) for complete summation was estimated in subjects with ...
Segers V V a Department of Movement and Sport Sciences , Ghent University , - - 2014
ABSTRACT. Subjects (N = 14) were instructed to walk at comfortable walking speed and to start sprinting on an external (visual) stimulus. This is a burst transition. To accelerate maximally, different strategies can be used. The choice for a strategy was hypothesized to be (a) dependent of the body's dynamical ...
Knopf Antje-Christin AC Proton Center, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland; ETH, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The treatment of mobile targets with scanned particle beams is challenging, and the effects of motion will be especially pronounced in hypo-fractionated treatment regimes due to the lack of statistical smoothing through fractionation and the prolonged delivery times per session. Therefore, motion mitigation techniques will play a major role for ...
Sweeney Neal T NT Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, California - - 2014
There are ∼20 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in mice, each of which has distinct molecular, morphological, and physiological characteristics. Each RGC type sends axon projections to specific brain areas that execute light-dependent behaviors. Here, we show that the T-box transcription factor Tbr2 is required for the development of ...
Forrest Sarah M SM Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Aberystwyth University, United - - 2014
Approximate entropy (ApEn) is frequently used to identify changes in the complexity of isometric force records with ageing and disease. Different signal acquisition and processing parameters have been used, making comparison or confirmation of results difficult. This study determined the effect of sampling and parameter choices by examining changes in ...
Viénot Françoise - - 2014
The generic framework of metamerism implies that the number of sensors is smaller than the dimension of the stimulus. The metameric black paradigm was introduced by Wyszecki [Farbe2, 39 (1953)] and developed by Cohen and Kappauf [Am. J. Psychol.95, 537 (1982)]. Within a multireceptor and multiprimary scheme, we investigate how ...
Morrow M M B MB Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Rochester, - - 2014
This study aimed to define accelerations measured at the waist and lower extremities over a range of gait velocities to provide reference data for choosing the appropriate accelerometer for field-based human activity monitoring studies. Accelerations were measured with a custom activity monitor (±16g) at the waist, thighs, and ankles in ...
Hunt Laurence T LT Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square House, London, WC1N 3BG, UK; Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Two recent studies examine neural activity predictive of upcoming choices during value-guided choice. Their results may be cast in light of a competitive winner-take-all decision network. This viewpoint places certain decision variables not as features of the environment to be encoded, but as emergent properties of network activity.
Sotiropoulos Grigorios G Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation, University of Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The perceived speed of moving objects has long been known to depend on image contrast. Lowering the contrast of first-order motion stimuli typically decreases perceived speed - the well-known "Thompson effect". It has been suggested that contrast-dependent biases are the result of optimal inference by the visual system, whereby unreliable ...
Hirtenlehner Stefan S Department of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010, Graz, Austria, - - 2014
Acoustic mate choice in insects has been extensively studied under laboratory conditions, using different behavioural paradigms. Ideally, however, mate choice designs should reflect natural conditions, including the physical properties of the transmission channel for the signal. Since little is known about the discrimination ability of females between male song variants ...
Emich Kyle J KJ a Management Systems , Fordham University , Bronx , NY , - - 2014
Three studies find evidence that positive affect reduces comparative overconfidence (overplacement). This occurs because positive affect attenuates focalism via decreasing people's tendency to overweight information regarding themselves in the light of information concerning others. Specifically, Study 1 provides evidence that positive affect leads to more realistic estimates of comparative ability ...
Garín M M 1] Centro de Tecnologías Físicas, Unidad Asociada ICMM/CSIC-UPV, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Av. Los Naranjos s/n, Valencia 46022, Spain [2] Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Madrid 28049, Spain [3] Department d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034, - - 2014
Silicon is the material of choice for visible light photodetection and solar cell fabrication. However, due to the intrinsic band gap properties of silicon, most infrared photons are energetically useless. Here, we show the first example of a photodiode developed on a micrometre scale sphere made of polycrystalline silicon whose ...
Habagishi Chie C Center for Biosciences and Informatics, School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University Kanagawa, - - 2014
In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours) with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they ...
Huguet Gemma G Department of Applied Mathematics I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, - - 2014
We study the dynamics of perceptual switching in ambiguous visual scenes that admit more than two interpretations/percepts to gain insight into the dynamics of perceptual multistability and its underlying neural mechanisms. We focus on visual plaids that are tristable and we present both experimental and computational results. We develop a ...
Burk Diana D Computational and Biological Learning Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia, United States of America; Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of - - 2014
After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning ...
Fuss Theodora T Department for Comparative Sensory Biology and Neurobiology, Institute of Zoology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn Bonn, - - 2014
Bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) were tested for their ability to perceive subjective and illusionary contours as well as line length illusions. Individuals were first trained to differentiate between squares, triangles, and rhomboids in a series of two alternative forced-choice experiments. Transfer tests then elucidated whether Kanizsa squares and triangles, grating ...
Koch Sabine C SC SRH University Heidelberg Heidelberg, Germany ; University of Heidelberg Heidelberg, - - 2014
Body feedback is the proprioceptive feedback that denominates the afferent information from position and movement of the body to the central nervous system. It is crucial in experiencing emotions, in forming attitudes and in regulating emotions and behavior. This paper investigates effects of dynamic body feedback on affect and attitudes, ...
Zhang Tingting - - 2014
Depth of field (DOF) is defined as the distance range within which objects are perceived as sharp. Previous research has focused on blur discrimination in artificial stimuli and natural photographs. The discrimination of DOF, however, has received less attention. Since DOF introduces blur which is related to distance in depth, ...
Gribble Adam - - 2013
Dual photoelastic modulator polarimeters can measure light polarization, which is often described as a Stokes vector. By evaluating changes in polarization when light interacts with a sample, the sample Mueller matrix also can be derived, completely describing its interaction with polarized light. The choice of which and how many input ...
Lu Jing - - 2013
Previous studies have proved that partial information transmission can be found between intensity and pitch. In our last study, it was demonstrated that the timbre attribute can be transmitted as partial information between timbre and intensity. We manipulated the two attributes of stimulus, namely, timbre (piano vs. violin) and pitch ...
Arazpour M - - 2013
Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a powered gait orthosis (PGO) on the temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics of walking in both healthy participants and persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) using three-dimensional motion analysis to facilitate further development of such devices.Methods:Kinematics and temporal spatial data ...
Vinas Maria M *BOptom, MSc †BOptom, MSc, FAAO ‡PhD Instituto de Óptica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain (MV, PdG, CD, LS, SM); and Essilor International, Research and Development, Vision Science Department, Saint-Maur, France (GM, - - 2013
Astigmatic subjects are adapted to their astigmatism and perceptually recalibrate upon its correction. However, the extent to which prior adaptation to astigmatism affects visual performance, whether this effect is axis dependent, and the time scale of potential changes in visual performance after astigmatism correction are not known. Moreover, the effect ...
Berman Sigal - - 2013
Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding the paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated ...
Valdesolo Piercarlo - - 2013
Across five studies, we found that awe increases both supernatural belief (Studies 1, 2, and 5) and intentional-pattern perception (Studies 3 and 4)-two phenomena that have been linked to agency detection, or the tendency to interpret events as the consequence of intentional and purpose-driven agents. Effects were both directly and ...
Hamy Valentin - - 2013
Motion correction in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE-) MRI is challenging because rapid intensity changes can compromise common (intensity based) registration algorithms. In this study we introduce a novel registration technique based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to decompose a given time-series into a low rank and a sparse component. ...
Lawson Colin C Tamlite - - 2013
Colin Lawson, head of sales and marketing at Tamlite Lighting, argues that when selecting new lighting for healthcare facilities, estates and facilities managers need to make 'smart, well-informed decisions' in order to balance energy saving with patient comfort. Estates personnel selecting LED lighting in particular, he cautions in this article, ...
Gao Xueqing - - 2013
A vibration monitoring system based on light intensity measurement has been constructed, and the designed accelerometer is based on steel cantilever frame and dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). By using numerical simulations for the dual FBGs, the dependence relationship of the area of main lobes on the difference of initial ...
Huang Jason L - - 2013
We examined emotional stability, ambition (an aspect of extraversion), and openness as predictors of adaptive performance at work, based on the evolutionary relevance of these traits to human adaptation to novel environments. A meta-analysis on 71 independent samples (N = 7,535) demonstrated that emotional stability and ambition are both related ...
Szalárdy Orsolya - - 2013
For studying multistable auditory perception, we propose a paradigm that evokes integrated or segregated perception of a sound sequence, and permits decomposition of the segregated grouping into foreground and background sounds. The paradigm combines 3-tone pitch patterns with alternating timbres, resulting in a repeating 6-tone structure that can be perceived ...
Elk Michiel van - - 2013
It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers. Participants were required ...
Mossbridge Julia A - - 2013
How rapidly can one voluntarily influence percept generation? The time course of voluntary visual-spatial attention is well studied, but the time course of intentional control over percept generation is relatively unknown. We investigated the latter question using "one-shot" apparent motion. When a vertical or horizontal pair of squares is replaced ...
Kalisvaart Joke P - - 2013
It is often assumed that decision making involves neural competition, accumulation of evidence "scores" over time, and commitment to a particular alternative once its scores reach a critical decision threshold first. So far, however, neither the first-to-threshold rule nor the nature of competition (feedforward or feedback inhibition) has been revealed ...
IntaitÄ— Monika - - 2013
Ambiguous figures reverse their appearance during prolonged viewing and can be perceived in two (or more) available interpretations. Both physical stimulus manipulations and cognitive control influence the perception of ambiguous figures, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, the perception of an ambiguous figure was manipulated ...
Voudouris Dimitris - - 2013
To grasp an object one needs to determine suitable positions on its surface for placing the digits and to move the digits to those positions. If the object is displaced during a reach-to-grasp movement, the digits' movements are quickly adjusted. Do these fast adjustments only guide the digits to previously ...
Yin Juan - - 2013
In their well-known paper, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen called the nonlocal correlation in quantum entanglement a "spooky action at a distance." If the spooky action does exist, what is its speed? All previous experiments along this direction have locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes. Here, we strictly closed the loopholes by observing ...
d'Acremont Mathieu M Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA. - - 2013
To make adaptive choices, humans need to estimate the probability of future events. Based on a Bayesian approach, it is assumed that probabilities are inferred by combining a priori, potentially subjective, knowledge with factual observations, but the precise neurobiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we study whether neural encoding centers on ...
Orbán Levente L - - 2013
How do distinct visual stimuli help bumblebees discover flowers before they have experienced any reward outside of their nest? Two visual floral properties, type of a pattern (concentric vs radial) and its position on unrewarding artificial flowers (central vs peripheral on corolla), were manipulated in two experiments. Both visual properties ...
Stamps Arthur E AE - - 2013
Permeability theory suggests that safety in environments depends on how far and how easily one can perceive or move through environments. Parts of environments that limit perception or retard locomotion elicit impressions of being enclosed, so properties of environments that influence perceived enclosure are important in permeability theory. One prediction ...
Peck Tabitha C - - 2013
Although it has been shown that immersive virtual reality (IVR) can be used to induce illusions of ownership over a virtual body (VB), information on whether this changes implicit interpersonal attitudes is meager. Here we demonstrate that embodiment of light-skinned participants in a dark-skinned VB significantly reduced implicit racial bias ...
Miller Luke E - - 2013
Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion ...
Maister Lara - - 2013
Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we 'share' their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion ...
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