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Stamps Arthur E AE - - 2013
Permeability theory suggests that safety in environments depends on how far and how easily one can perceive or move through environments. Parts of environments that limit perception or retard locomotion elicit impressions of being enclosed, so properties of environments that influence perceived enclosure are important in permeability theory. One prediction ...
Peck Tabitha C - - 2013
Although it has been shown that immersive virtual reality (IVR) can be used to induce illusions of ownership over a virtual body (VB), information on whether this changes implicit interpersonal attitudes is meager. Here we demonstrate that embodiment of light-skinned participants in a dark-skinned VB significantly reduced implicit racial bias ...
Maister Lara - - 2013
Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we 'share' their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion ...
Miller Luke E - - 2013
Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion ...
Fernández Enrique J EJ Laboratorio de Óptica, Instituto Universitario de investigación en Óptica y Nanofísica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo (Edificio 34), E-30100 Murcia, - - 2013
Some of the different currently applied approaches that correct presbyopia may reduce stereovision. In this work, stereo-acuity was measured for two methods: (1) monovision and (2) small aperture inlay in one eye. When performing the experiment, a prototype of a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer was employed. The system allowed ...
Pelli Denis G DG Psychology Department & Center for Neural Science, New York University, USA. - - 2013
Contrast sensitivity defines the threshold between the visible and invisible, which has obvious significance for basic and clinical vision science. Fechner's 1860 review reported that threshold contrast is 1% for a remarkably wide range of targets and conditions. While printed charts are still in use, computer testing is becoming more ...
Heo Inseok - - 2013
Dichotic masking studies using noise are commonly referenced in regard to their implications for "cocktail party listening" wherein target and maskers are speech. In the present study masker decision weights (MDWs) are reported suggesting that speech and noise are processed differently in dichotic masking. The stimuli were words or Gaussian-noise ...
Tokunaga Yasunobu - - 2013
When hearing music in an auditorium, audience is provided with aural information and visual information at the same time. Visual and auditory sense sometimes interact with each other so that the auditory sense is considered to have some influence on sound evaluation made by audience. The purpose of this study ...
Shen Jing - - 2013
Using the visual world paradigm, the present study investigated on-line processing of fine-grained pitch information prior to lexical access in a tone language; specifically how lexical tone perception of Mandarin Tones 2 and 3 was influenced by the pitch height of the tone at onset, turning point, and offset. Native ...
Wojtczak Magdalena M Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Rd, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. - - 2013
Cochlear hearing loss is often associated with broader tuning of the cochlear filters. Cochlear response latencies are dependent on the filter bandwidths, so hearing loss may affect the relationship between latencies across different characteristic frequencies. This prediction was tested by investigating the perception of synchrony between two tones exciting different ...
Ho Ming-Chou - - 2013
The betel nut (Areca catecu) is regarded by the World Health Organization as the fourth most prevalent human carcinogen. Our study aims to investigate whether habitual chewers show bias in their attention toward betel nut usage. In the current study, heavy and light betel nut chewers were instructed to respond ...
Zhu Yanmei - - 2013
Event-related potential is used to study the influence of explicit conceptual knowledge on the perception of physical motions. Participants holding correct or wrong physics concept performed an oddball task with a pair of stimuli. For half of the blocks, the motion consistent with the physical law was the oddball stimulus ...
Ladd D Robert - - 2013
Recent experimental findings suggest stable individual differences in the perception of auditory stimuli lacking energy at the fundamental frequency (F0), here called missing fundamental (MF) tones. Specifically, some individuals readily identify the pitch of such tones with the missing F0 ("F0 listeners"), and some base their judgment on the frequency ...
Bucaro J A - - 2013
A compact directional acoustic sensor is described which uses a two-fiber optical probe, a light emitting diode (LED), a photo-diode detector, and a slender cylindrical cantilever to the end of which is attached an optical reflector. Acoustically induced transverse displacement of the cantilever tip modulates the light reflected by it ...
Maffei Luigi - - 2013
Noise annoyance is considered as the main effect of noise, it is a complex and multifaceted psychological concept dealing with immediate behavioral and evaluative aspects. In the last decades the research has intensely investigated the correlation between noise exposure and noise annoyance, nevertheless recent studies confirm that non-auditory factors influence ...
Trafimow Jordan H JH Department of Physical Therapy (MC 898), University of Illinois at Chicago, 1919 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2013
Both clinical and biomechanical problems affecting the shoulder joint suggest that investigators should study force transmission into and out from the scapula. To analyze force transmission between the humeral head and the glenoid, one must know the position of the glenoid. Studies have analyzed the position of the scapula from ...
Claus Daniel - - 2013
In this paper the coherence requirement for different holographic setups (Fresnel hologram, Fourier hologram, and image-plane hologram) is compared. This analysis is based on the investigation of the recorded interference pattern from the superposition of reference wave and object wave in in-line and off-axis mode. The outcome of this investigation ...
Varnet Léo L Neuroscience Research Centre, Brain Dynamics and Cognition Team, INSERM U1028, CNRS UMR5292 Lyon, France ; Ecole Doctorale Neurosciences et Cognition, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1 Lyon, - - 2013
An essential step in understanding the processes underlying the general mechanism of perceptual categorization is to identify which portions of a physical stimulation modulate the behavior of our perceptual system. More specifically, in the context of speech comprehension, it is still a major open challenge to understand which information is ...
Fischer Peter - - 2013
The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention ...
Stelinski Lukasz - - 2013
Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are ...
Keefe B D - - 2013
Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy ...
van der Groen Onno - - 2013
Stimuli from different sensory modalities are thought to be processed initially in distinct unisensory brain areas prior to convergence in multisensory areas. However, signals in one modality can influence the processing of signals from other modalities and recent studies suggest this cross-modal influence may occur early on, even in 'unisensory' ...
Lucci Cintia Retz - - 2013
Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC) have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be ...
Leardini Alberto - - 2013
It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during ...
Liu Wei - - 2013
Numerosity perception is a process involving several stages of visual processing. This study investigated whether distinct mechanisms exist in numerosity adaptation under different awareness conditions to characterize how numerosity perception occurs at each stage. The status of awareness was controlled by masking conditions, in which monoptic and dichoptic masking were ...
DiPaola Steve S School of Interactive Arts and Technology (SIAT), Simon Fraser University Surrey, Surrey, BC V3T 0A3, - - 2013
A painted portrait differs from a photo in that selected regions are often rendered in much sharper detail than other regions. Artists believe these choices guide viewer gaze and influence their appreciation of the portrait, but these claims are difficult to test because increased portrait detail is typically associated with ...
Amitay Sygal S Medical Research Council Institute of Hearing Research, Nottingham, United Kingdom. - - 2013
Perceptual decision making is prone to errors, especially near threshold. Physiological, behavioural and modeling studies suggest this is due to the intrinsic or 'internal' noise in neural systems, which derives from a mixture of bottom-up and top-down sources. We show here that internal noise can form the basis of perceptual ...
Calvano Christopher J - - 2013
Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) is dependent on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty position when under fire. There is no single ideal light source suitable for varied SOFMED environments. We present the results of an online survey of Special Operations Medical Operators in an ...
Gilles Annick - - 2013
Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise ...
Gómez-Laplaza Luis M - - 2012
Previous studies investigating quantity discrimination have shown that angelfish are able to select the larger of two groups of conspecifics (shoals). The discrimination limits shown by angelfish were similar to those found for other vertebrates when large (≥4) and small quantities (<4) were presented. However, in these studies, no attempt ...
Cabe Patrick A - - 2012
Participants explored ellipse perimeters defined by fixed-length strings, held taut by their moving finger, with ends attached to two fixed hooks (foci). Participants haptically judged ellipse interfocal distance (IFD; in effect, exocentric separation, or size at a distance) or location of ellipse major axes (i.e., egocentric localization relative to the ...
Pastukhov Alexander - - 2012
In the structure-from-motion paradigm, physical motion on a screen produces the vivid illusion of an object rotating in depth. Here, we show how to dissociate illusory depth and illusory rotation in a structure-from-motion stimulus using a rotationally asymmetric shape and reversals of physical motion. Reversals of physical motion create a ...
Dornelas Maria - - 2013
Growing concern about biodiversity loss underscores the need to quantify and understand temporal change. Here, we review the opportunities presented by biodiversity time series, and address three related issues: (i) recognizing the characteristics of temporal data; (ii) selecting appropriate statistical procedures for analysing temporal data; and (iii) inferring and forecasting ...
Gao Tao - - 2012
Certain motion patterns can cause even simple geometric shapes to be perceived as animate. Viewing such displays evokes strong activation in temporoparietal cortex, including areas in and near the (predominantly right) posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). These brain regions are sensitive to socially relevant information, but the nature of the ...
Hickenbotham Adam A University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. - - 2012
To compare the validity and effectiveness of 2 methods for expanding depth of focus to correct for presbyopia; that is, induction of spherical aberration and small-pupil apertures. University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. Comparative case series. A random 4-alternative forced-choice acuity task was performed on 13 subjects. Visual performance and ...
Lee Su Mei - - 2012
The right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is a neural region involved in assessing the goals and intentions underlying the motion of social agents. Recent research has identified visual cues, such as chasing, that trigger animacy detection and intention attribution. When readily available in a visual display, these cues reliably ...
Brown Michael F - - 2012
Bumblebees were exposed to a discrimination procedure in which reinforcement was contingent on choice of one of two spatial locations. The correct choice depended on whether a stimulus display contained two identical stimuli or two different stimuli. Some bees were trained with color stimuli and tested with line grating stimuli ...
Gerhardstein Peter - - 2012
Research asserting that the visual system instantiates a global closure heuristic in contour integration has been challenged by an argument that behaviorally-detected closure enhancement could be accounted for by low-level local mechanisms driven by collinearity or "good continuation" interacting with proximity. The present study investigated this issue in three experiments. ...
Madsen J C O - - 2012
Making the use of daytime running lights mandatory for motor vehicles is generally documented to have had a positive impact upon traffic safety. Improving traffic safety for bicyclists is a focal point in the road traffic safety work in Denmark. In 2004 and 2005 a controlled experiment including 3845 cyclists ...
Mitchinson Lara - - 2012
Volleyball players are at high risk of overuse should injuries, with spike biomechanics a perceived risk factor. This study compared spike kinematics between elite, male, volleyball players with and without a history of shoulder injuries. Height, mass, maximum jump height, passive shoulder rotation range of motion (ROM), active trunk ROM ...
Lancioni Giulio E - - 2012
These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or ...
Lieven Christopher J - - 2012
Light-induced oxidative stress is an important risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, but the downstream mediators of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cell death after photic injury are unknown. Given our previous identification of sulfhydryl/disulfide redox status as a factor in photoreceptor survival, we hypothesized that formation of one or ...
Evans Samantha R - - 2012
  Investigations of perinatal deaths often result in discrepancies between autopsy findings and witness accounts. The mechanism by which the umbilical cord is severed after delivery is a common quandary. Confirming or refuting the mother's stated method frequently has significant investigative importance; however, a surprising paucity of data currently exists ...
Prasarn Mark L - - 2012
Object The proper prehospital and inpatient management of patients with unstable spinal injuries is critical for prevention of secondary neurological compromise. The authors sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to ...
Gumm Jennifer M - - 2012
We examined variation in the visual system both within and among seven species of darters, colorful freshwater fishes of the genus Etheostoma. Using microspectrophotometry, we found that darters possess rod photoreceptor cells, single cone photoreceptor cells containing middle wavelength sensitive (MWS) visual pigments, and twin photoreceptor cells containing (LWS) visual ...
Ross Patrick D - - 2012
To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic ...
Põder Endel - - 2012
Crowding is related to an integration of feature signals over an inappropriately large area in the visual periphery. The rules of this integration are still not well understood. This study attempts to understand how the orientation signals from the target and flankers are combined. A target Gabor, together with 2, ...
Shippen James - - 2012
A technique that can be used with dancers for the calculation of ground reaction forces in the absence of force plates is described. The ground reaction forces are required for analyzing potentially injurious activity within the dancer's body. However, the use of a force plate for this purpose disrupts the ...
Robertson Caroline E CE Department of Psychiatry, Autism Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Vision in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) is characterized by enhanced perception of local elements, but impaired perception of global percepts. Deficits in coherent motion perception seem to support this characterization, but the roots and robustness of such deficits remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of the perceptual decision-making ...
Kim Leesuk - - 2011
To investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on recovery of the swallowing function in patients with a brain injury. Patients with a brain injury and dysphagia were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to sham, and low and high frequency stimulation groups. We performed rTMS at 100% of ...
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