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Ydesen Kristina S KS Aarhus University, - - 2014
A key component in understanding the ecological role of marine mammal predators is to identify how, where and how much prey they capture in time and space. Satellite and archival tags on pinnipeds generally only provide diving and positioning information, and foraging is often inferred to take place in particular ...
Viswanathan Navin - - 2014
Perception of a speech segment changes depending on properties of surrounding segments in a phenomenon called compensation for coarticulation (Mann, 1980). The nature of information that drives these perceptual changes is a matter of debate. One account attributes perceptual shifts to low-level auditory system contrast effects based on static portions ...
Muijres Florian T FT University of Washington, Box 351800, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA 98195-1800, - - 2014
Avoiding predators is an essential behavior in which animals must quickly transform sensory cues into evasive actions. Sensory reflexes are particularly fast in flying insects such as flies, but the means by which they evade aerial predators is not known. Using high-speed videography and automated tracking of flies in combination ...
Mehdizadeh Sina S a Biomechanics and Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering , Amirkabir University of Technology , Tehran , - - 2014
Abstract A number of studies have investigated effects of speed on local dynamic stability of walking, although this relationship has been rarely investigated under changing task constraints, such as during forward and backward running. To rectify this gap in the literature, the aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Bentley Kale T KT School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA, - - 2014
1. Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. 2. We investigated the reproductive ...
Stearns Tim T Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Little is understood about how the centrosome, a complex organelle and signaling hub consisting of hundreds of components, is assembled. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Conduit et al. (2014) shed light on this issue, showing that modification and recruitment of Centrosomin to the centrosome center creates a dynamic pericentriolar matrix.
Filatov Michael - - 2014
In the past, the design of light-driven single molecule rotary motors has been mainly guided by the modification of their ground state conformational properties. Further progress in this field is thus likely to be achieved through a detailed understanding of light-induced dynamics of the system and the ways of modulating ...
Holzman Roi R Tel Aviv University, - - 2014
Fishes commonly use their lateral line system to detect moving bodies such as prey and predators. A remarkable case is the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus who evolved the ability to detect non-moving obstacles. The swimming body of A. fasciatus generates fluid disturbances, whose alteration by an obstacle can be ...
Careau Vincent V Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Science, Deakin University, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, VIC, 3216, Australia, - - 2014
The importance of studying individual variation in locomotor performance has long been recognized as it may determine the ability of an organism to escape from predators, catch prey or disperse. In ectotherms, locomotor performance is highly influenced by ambient temperature (T a), yet several studies have showed that individual differences ...
Cheney K L KL School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, - - 2014
Many taxa use conspicuous colouration to attract mates, signal chemical defences (aposematism) or for thermoregulation. Conspicuousness is a key feature of aposematic signals, and experimental evidence suggests that predators avoid conspicuous prey more readily when they exhibit larger body size and/or pattern elements. Aposematic prey species may therefore evolve a ...
Pätynen Jukka J Department of Media Technology, School of Science, Aalto University, FI-02150, Espoo, - - 2014
One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians' skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and ...
Avril Alexis - - 2014
Movements of animals have important consequences, at both the individual and population levels. Due to its important implications in the evolutionary dynamics of populations, dispersal is one of the most studied types of movement. In contrast, non-permanent extra home-range movements are often paid less attention. However, these movements may occur ...
Wilms M M Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lübeck, D-23538 Lübeck, - - 2014
Breathing-induced location uncertainties of internal structures are still a relevant issue in the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Motion compensation approaches like gating or tumour tracking are usually driven by low-dimensional breathing signals, which are acquired in real-time during the treatment. These signals are only surrogates of the ...
Wang Hsin-Ping - - 2014
We demonstrated that hierarchical structures combining different scales (i.e., pyramids from 1.5 to 7.5 μm in width on grooves from 40 to 50 μm in diameter) exhibit excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping characteristics. These microscaled hierarchical structures could not only improve light absorption but prevent poor electrical properties typically observed ...
Slifkin Andrew B AB Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44115, USA, - - 2014
Studies using a variety of experimental tasks have established that when humans repeatedly produce an action, fluctuations in action output are highest at the lowest frequencies and fluctuation magnitude (power) systematically declines as frequency increases. Such time series structure is termed pink noise. However, the appearance of pink noise seems ...
Bauer Barbara B Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Modeling, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam, - - 2014
Abstract The concept that diversity promotes reliability of ecosystem function depends on the pattern that community-level biomass shows lower temporal variability than species-level biomasses. However, this pattern is not universal, as it relies on compensatory or independent species dynamics. When in contrast within-trophic level synchronization occurs, variability of community biomass ...
Liu Ce C Microsoft Research New England, - - 2014
Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics ...
Ge Hongmei H Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, P. R. - - 2014
A study on the effects of light intensity (40 and 80 μE/m(2)/sec) on the components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was carried out in cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.. EPS yield increased with light intensity. However, light intensity did not significantly affect the EPS fractions and monosaccharide composition. Higher light ...
Bailly Lucie - - 2014
PURPOSE This work aims (i) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (ii) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, (iii) to assess whether ventricular-fold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. METHOD A 72-sample database of vocal gestures ...
Good Daryl B - - 2014
The ability to detect and characterize molecular motions represents one of the unique strengths of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study we report solid-state NMR (SSNMR) site-specific measurements of the dipolar order parameters and (15)N rotating frame spin-lattice (R1ρ) relaxation rates in a seven transmembrane helical protein Anabaena ...
Suzuki Yoshinori Y Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa, - - 2014
How is binocular motion information integrated in the bilateral network of wide-field motion-sensitive neurons, called lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs), in the visual system of flies? It is possible to construct an accurate model of this network because a complete picture of synaptic interactions has been experimentally identified. We investigated ...
Hellström P P Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, - - 2014
The functional response is a key element of predator-prey interactions. Basic functional response theory explains foraging behavior of individual predators, but many empirical studies of free-ranging predators have estimated functional responses by using population-averaged data. We used a novel approach to investigate functional responses of an avian predator (the rough ...
Llaurens V V Institut de Systématique, Evolution et Biodiversité, Département systématique et evolution, UMR 7205, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Bâtiment d'entomologie, Paris, - - 2014
Antagonistic interactions between predators and prey often lead to co-evolution. In the case of toxic prey, aposematic colours act as warning signals for predators and play a protective role. Evolutionary convergence in colour patterns among toxic prey evolves due to positive density-dependent selection and the benefits of mutual resemblance in ...
Harley Cynthia M CM Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called 'head movement' and another called 'body waving'. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a ...
Hastie Gordon D GD Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY 16 8LB, United Kingdom; SMRU Marine, New Technology Centre, North Haugh, St Andrews KY 16 9SR, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
The use of high frequency sonar is now commonplace in the marine environment. Most marine mammals rely on sound to navigate, and for detecting prey, and there is the potential that the acoustic signals of sonar could cause behavioral responses. To investigate this, we carried out behavioral response tests with ...
Kane Suzanne Amador SA Physics Department, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041, - - 2014
This study reports on experiments on falcons wearing miniature videocameras mounted on their backs or heads while pursuing flying prey. Videos of hunts by a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus)/Saker falcon (F. cherrug) hybrids and peregrine falcons (F. peregrinus) were analyzed to determine apparent prey positions on their visual ...
Edmunds Malcolm M School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE, United Kingdom. - - 2014
Palatable Batesian mimics are avoided by predators because they resemble noxious or defended species. The striking resemblance of many hoverflies to noxious Hymenoptera is a "textbook" example of Batesian mimicry, but evidence that selection by predators has shaped the evolution of hoverfly patterns is weak. We looked for geographical and ...
Kowalewski Michał M Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of - - 2014
Multi-decadal increase in shell removal by tourists, a process that may accelerate degradation of natural habitats, was quantified via two series of monthly surveys, conducted thirty years apart (1978-1981 and 2008-2010) in one small embayment on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last three decades, the local ...
Vibert Samantha S Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. - - 2014
Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female's attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female's web. In web-dwelling spiders, ...
Lezama-Ochoa Ainhoa A AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Unit, Pasaia, Basque Country, - - 2014
Bifrequency acoustic data, hydrological measurements and satellite data were used to study the vertical distribution of macrozooplankton in the Bay of Biscay in relation to the hydrological conditions and fish distribution during spring 2009. The most noticeable result was the observation of a 'biocline' during the day i.e., the interface ...
Jennings Ben J BJ School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, - - 2014
We investigated the interdependence of activity within the luminance (L + M) and opponent chromatic (L - M and S - [L + M]) postreceptoral mechanisms in mid-level and high-level vision. Mid-level processes extract contours and perform figure-background organization whereas high-level processes depend on additional semantic input, such as object ...
Ally Dilara D Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America ; Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of - - 2014
Most clinical and natural microbial communities live and evolve in spatially structured environments. When changes in environmental conditions trigger evolutionary responses, spatial structure can impact the types of adaptive response and the extent to which they spread. In particular, localized competition in a spatial landscape can lead to the emergence ...
Daly Benjamin B Kodiak Laboratory, Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering Division, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Kodiak, Alaska, United States of - - 2014
Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the ...
Ge Xun X School of Mathematical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, - - 2014
This paper investigates superspaces 𝒫 0(X) and 𝒦 0(X) of a tvs-cone metric space (X, d), where 𝒫 0(X) and 𝒦 0(X) are the space consisting of nonempty subsets of X and the space consisting of nonempty compact subsets of X, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to establish ...
Hammond Matthew P MP Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2014
Ecological processes, like the rise and fall of populations, leave an imprint of their dynamics as a pattern in space. Mining this spatial record for insight into temporal change underlies many applications, including using spatial snapshots to infer trends in communities, rates of species spread across boundaries, likelihood of chaotic ...
Hartmann William M WM Psychoacoustics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, - - 2014
Human listeners, and other animals too, use interaural time differences (ITD) to localize sounds. If the sounds are pure tones, a simple frequency factor relates the ITD to the interaural phase difference (IPD), for which there are known iso-IPD boundaries, 90°, 180°… defining regions of spatial perception. In this article, ...
Claes Julien M JM Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, - - 2014
Counterilluminating animals use ventral photogenic organs (photophores) to mimic the residual downwelling light and cloak their silhouette from upward-looking predators. To cope with variable conditions of pelagic light environments they typically adjust their luminescence intensity. Here, we found evidence that bioluminescent sharks instead emit a constant light output and move ...
Pittman Shannon E SE Department of Biology, Davidson College, , Davidson, NC, - - 2014
Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21-36 ...
Effertz Christoph C Zoological Institute, Aquatic Chemical Ecology, University of Cologne, , Zülpicher Strasse 47b, Cologne 50674, - - 2014
A huge variety of organisms respond to the presence of predators with inducible defences, each of which is associated with costs. Many genotypes have the potential to respond with more than one defence, and it has been argued that it would be maladaptive to exhibit all possible responses at the ...
Dutertre Sébastien S 1] Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072 Queensland, Australia [2] Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, UMR 5247, Université Montpellier 2-CNRS, Place Eugène Bataillon, Montpellier Cedex 5 34095, - - 2014
Venomous animals are thought to inject the same combination of toxins for both predation and defence, presumably exploiting conserved target pharmacology across prey and predators. Remarkably, cone snails can rapidly switch between distinct venoms in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom of Conus ...
Casini Michele M Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, - - 2014
Spatio-temporal density-dependent processes are crucial regulatory factors for natural populations. However, there is a lack of studies addressing spatial density-dependence in fish growth. A previous investigation has suggested spatio-temporal density-dependence in body condition of Baltic sprat. Here, we used different techniques, such as centre of gravity, distance, and homogeneity indices, ...
Cavanaugh Kyle C KC Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Smithsonian Institution, Edgewater, MD - - 2013
Regional warming associated with climate change is linked with altered range and abundance of species and ecosystems worldwide. However, the ecological impacts of changes in the frequency of extreme events have not been as well documented, especially for coastal and marine environments. We used 28 y of satellite imagery to ...
Eitan Zohar Z School of Music, Tel Aviv University, - - 2013
Experiments using diverse paradigms, including speeded discrimination, indicate that pitch and visually-perceived size interact perceptually, and that higher pitch is congruent with smaller size. While nearly all of these studies used static stimuli, here we examine the interaction of dynamic pitch and dynamic size, using Garner's speeded discrimination paradigm. Experiment ...
Luo Jinhong J Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Sensory Ecology Group, , Eberhard-Gwinner-Straße, 82319 Seewiesen, - - 2014
Climate change impacts the biogeography and phenology of plants and animals, yet the underlying mechanisms are little known. Here, we present a functional link between rising temperature and the prey detection ability of echolocating bats. The maximum distance for echo-based prey detection is physically determined by sound attenuation. Attenuation is ...
Windsor Shane P SP Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, , South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, - - 2014
Vision is a key sensory modality for flying insects, playing an important role in guidance, navigation and control. Here, we use a virtual-reality flight simulator to measure the optomotor responses of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata, and use a published linear-time invariant model of the flight dynamics to interpret the function ...
Cornilescu Claudia C CC University of Wisconsin - Madison, United - - 2013
The phytochrome superfamily of photoreceptors exploits reversible light-driven changes in the bilin chromophore to initiate a variety of signaling cascades. The nature of these alterations and how they impact the protein moiety remain poorly resolved and might include several species-specific routes. Here, we provide a detailed picture of photoconversion for ...
Maciejewski Mateusz - - 2013
In this study, we examine the feasibility and limitations of describing the motional behavior of three-domain proteins in which the domains are linearly connected. In addition to attempting the determination of the internal and overall reorientational correlation times, we investigate the existence of correlations in the motions between the three ...
Schwalbe Margot A B MA Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 120 Flagg Road, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
The adaptive radiations of African cichlids resulted in a diversity of feeding morphologies and strategies, but the role of sensory biology in prey detection and feeding ecology remains largely unexplored. Two endemic Lake Malawi cichlid genera, Tramitichromis and Aulonocara, feed on benthic invertebrates, but differ in lateral line morphology (narrow ...
How Martin J MJ Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4000, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
The functional significance of the zebra coat stripe pattern is one of the oldest questions in evolutionary biology, having troubled scientists ever since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace first disagreed on the subject. While different theories have been put forward to address this question, the idea that the stripes ...
Creel Scott S Department of Ecology, Montana State University 310 Lewis Hall, Bozeman, Montana, 59717, - - 2013
Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals ...
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