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Huang Yan Y Intelligent Control Laboratory, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing , 100871, - - 2014
Walking behavior is modulated by controlling joint torques in most existing passivity-based bipeds. Controlled Passive Walking with adaptable stiffness exhibits controllable natural motions and energy efficient gaits. In this paper, we propose torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic bipedal walking, which extends the concept of Controlled Passive Walking by introducing structured control parameters and ...
Reinel Caroline C Department of Animal Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth 95440, - - 2014
In their unique hunting behaviour, archerfish use a complex motor decision to secure their prey: based solely on how dislodged prey initially falls, they select an adapted C-start manoeuvre that turns the fish right towards the point on the water surface where their prey will later land. Furthermore, they take ...
Reinl Maren M Vision and Cognition Lab, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076, - - 2014
Facial movement conveys important information for social interactions, yet its neural processing is poorly understood. Computational models propose that shape- and temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms interact in processing dynamic faces. While face processing regions are known to respond to facial movement, their sensitivity to particular temporal sequences has barely been ...
Zurlini Giovanni G Landscape Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Ecotekne, University of Salento, Lecce, - - 2014
De Keersmaecker et al. (2014) recently reported the normalized spectral entropy (HS n ) between the stability metrics that have been developed to characterize ecosystem resilience based on the variance of the frequency spectrum of remote sensing time series of vegetation indices. Specifically, they stated that "the normalized spectral entropy expresses ...
Hughes A Randall AR Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, 430 Nahant Rd., Nahant, MA 01908, USA - - 2014
The risk of predation can have large effects on ecological communities via changes in prey behaviour, morphology and reproduction. Although prey can use a variety of sensory signals to detect predation risk, relatively little is known regarding the effects of predator acoustic cues on prey foraging behaviour. Here we show ...
Simpson Stephen D SD Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QD, - - 2014
Increases in noise-generating human activities since the Industrial Revolution have changed the acoustic landscape of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major pollutant of international concern, and recent studies have demonstrated impacts on, for instance, hearing thresholds, communication, movement and foraging in a range ...
Moore Brian C J BC Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, - - 2014
The summation of loudness across ears is often studied by measuring the level difference required for equal loudness (LDEL) of monaural and diotic sounds. Typically, the LDEL is ∼5-6 dB, consistent with the idea that a diotic sound is ∼1.5 times as loud as the same sound presented monaurally at the ...
Au Whitlow W L WW Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96734 wau@hawaii.edu, - - 2014
Killer whales project short broadband biosonar clicks. The broadband nature of the clicks provides good temporal resolution of echo highlights and allows for the discriminations of salmon prey. The echoes contain many highlights as the signals reflect off different surfaces and parts of the fish body and swim bladder. The ...
Mulvany Samantha S Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, - - 2014
Cephalic lobes are novel structures found in some myliobatid stingrays. While undulatory batoids utilize the pectoral fins for prey capture and locomotion, lobed species partition locomotion to the pectoral fins, utilizing the lobes exclusively for prey capture. We investigated the use of the anterior pectoral fins and cephalic lobes in ...
Caetano João V O JV Departamento de Zoologia - IB, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, D.F., 70910-900, - - 2014
Predation is a major force shaping natural history traits of birds because of their vulnerability during nesting and higher visibility during diurnal activities. For most birds in the Neotropics, predation is the major cause of nest failure due to the regiońs high diversity and abundance of predators. The blue-black grassquit ...
Guelzow Nils N Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Schleusenstr. 1, 26382, Wilhelmshaven, Germany, - - 2014
Disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the stability of communities and ecosystem properties has become a major research focus in ecology in the face of anthropogenic environmental change. Dispersal plays a pivotal role in maintaining diversity in spatially subdivided communities, but only a few experiments have simultaneously investigated how dispersal and ...
Nicholson Kerry L KL Department of Ecology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 730 91, Riddarhyttan, Sweden, - - 2014
Considered as absent throughout Scandinavia for >100 years, wolves (Canis lupus) have recently naturally recolonized south-central Sweden. This recolonization has provided an opportunity to study behavioral responses of moose (Alces alces) to wolves. We used satellite telemetry locations from collared moose and wolves to determine whether moose habitat use was affected ...
Corcoran Aaron J AJ Department of Biology, Biology-Psychology Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, - - 2014
Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters-echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths-a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts ...
Naman Aous - - 2014
In this work, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce inter-frame predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint ...
Kinoshita Yuki Y Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, 610-0321, - - 2014
The prey pursuit behavior of Japanese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) was investigated by tasking bats during flight with choosing between two tethered fluttering moths. Echolocation pulses were recorded using a telemetry microphone mounted on the bat combined with a 17-channel horizontal microphone array to measure pulse directions. Flight paths ...
Weissburg Marc M School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia - - 2014
Abstract Nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) have been shown to occur in numerous systems and are regarded as important mechanisms by which predation structures natural communities. Sensory ecology-that is, the processes governing the production, propagation, and masking of cues by ambient noise-provides insights into the strength of NCEs as functions of the ...
Usherwood James R JR Royal Veterinary College, United Kingdom - - 2014
Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting 'strike' on to an acoustically targeted - potentially entirely hidden - prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the Leap and Strike. Leaping ...
Janis Christine M CM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, - - 2014
Carnivorous mammals use their forelimbs in different ways to capture their prey. Most terrestrial carnivores have some cursorial (running) adaptations, but ambush predators retain considerable flexibility in their forelimb movement, important for grappling with their prey. In contrast, predators that rely on pursuit to run down their prey have sacrificed ...
Talluto Matthew V MV Département de Biologie, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada G5L 3A1; andProgram in Ecology andDepartment of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 - - 2014
Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution ...
Shi Yin Y State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, - - 2014
When a relativistic laser pulse with a high photon density interacts with a specially tailored thin foil target, a strong torque is exerted on the resulting spiral-shaped foil plasma, or "light fan." Because of its structure, the latter can gain significant orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the opposite OAM is ...
Pekár Stano S Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic, - - 2014
It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are ...
Geritz Stefan A H SA University of Helsinki. Electronic address: - - 2014
We study the evolution of "timidity" of the prey (i.e., its readiness to seek refuge) in a predator-prey model with the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response. Using the theory of adaptive dynamics, we find that a predator-prey population at equilibrium always favours less timidity. Low levels of timidity, however, may destabilise the ...
Arnal Luc H LH Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, - - 2014
The ability to generate temporal predictions is fundamental for adaptive behavior. Precise timing at the time-scale of seconds is critical, for instance to predict trajectories or to select relevant information. What mechanisms form the basis for such accurate timing? Recent evidence suggests that (1) temporal predictions adjust sensory selection by ...
Steinberg David S DS Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708; dss25@duke.edu - - 2014
Signaling individuals must effectively capture and hold the attention of intended conspecific receivers while limiting eavesdropping by potential predators. A possible mechanism for achieving this balance is for individuals to modulate the physical properties of their signals or to alter the proportion of time spent signaling, depending upon local levels ...
Wang Zhaocheng - - 2014
Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data transmission. Due to the nonlinear transfer characteristics of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and owing the high peak-to-average-power ratio of OFDM signals, the transmitted signal has to be scaled and biased before modulating the ...
Young Philip G - - 2014
For a series of [2]rotaxane molecular shuttles possessing linear rigid rod-like axles of varying lengths between degenerate recognition sites, the activation barrier for shuttling motion was clearly shown to be constant. Moreover, dynamic NMR studies have revealed that both the entropic and enthalpic contributions to the shuttling motion remain constant ...
Michel Krijn B KB Department of Biology, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen, - - 2014
The Atlantic mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus, is an amphibious fish that successfully overcomes the numerous physical challenges of capturing prey in a terrestrial environment. However, it is unclear what changes in the morphology and function of the feeding apparatus contribute to the mudskipper's successful transition from aquatic to terrestrial capture of ...
Fritz Nora E NE 1Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Static posture imbalance and gait dysfunction are common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the impact of strength and static balance on walking has been examined, the impact of dynamic standing balance on walking in MS remains unclear. To determine the impact of dynamic balance, static balance, sensation, and ...
Lecchini David D Laboratoire d'excellence "CORAIL", CRIOBE, BP 1013, Papetoai, 98729 Moorea, French Polynesia; USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE, CRIOBE, Moorea, French Polynesia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The study investigated visual recognition of conspecifics and predators by settlement-stage coral reef fish larvae in a set of three experiments using a dual-choice aquarium (Moorea Island). Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted under artificial light conditions. Experiment 3 was conducted under natural light during new and full moon nights. ...
York Carly A CA Old Dominion University, - - 2014
Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the ...
Grimes William N WN Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
Components of neural circuits are often repurposed so that the same biological hardware can be used for distinct computations. This flexibility in circuit operation is required to account for the changes in sensory computations that accompany changes in input signals. Yet we know little about how such changes in circuit ...
Ydesen Kristina S KS Aarhus University, - - 2014
A key component in understanding the ecological role of marine mammal predators is to identify how, where and how much prey they capture in time and space. Satellite and archival tags on pinnipeds generally only provide diving and positioning information, and foraging is often inferred to take place in particular ...
Viswanathan Navin - - 2014
Perception of a speech segment changes depending on properties of surrounding segments in a phenomenon called compensation for coarticulation (Mann, 1980). The nature of information that drives these perceptual changes is a matter of debate. One account attributes perceptual shifts to low-level auditory system contrast effects based on static portions ...
Muijres Florian T FT University of Washington, Box 351800, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA 98195-1800, - - 2014
Avoiding predators is an essential behavior in which animals must quickly transform sensory cues into evasive actions. Sensory reflexes are particularly fast in flying insects such as flies, but the means by which they evade aerial predators is not known. Using high-speed videography and automated tracking of flies in combination ...
Mehdizadeh Sina S a Biomechanics and Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering , Amirkabir University of Technology , Tehran , - - 2014
Abstract A number of studies have investigated effects of speed on local dynamic stability of walking, although this relationship has been rarely investigated under changing task constraints, such as during forward and backward running. To rectify this gap in the literature, the aim of this study was to investigate the ...
Bentley Kale T KT School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA, - - 2014
1. Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. 2. We investigated the reproductive ...
Stearns Tim T Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Little is understood about how the centrosome, a complex organelle and signaling hub consisting of hundreds of components, is assembled. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Conduit et al. (2014) shed light on this issue, showing that modification and recruitment of Centrosomin to the centrosome center creates a dynamic pericentriolar matrix.
Filatov Michael - - 2014
In the past, the design of light-driven single molecule rotary motors has been mainly guided by the modification of their ground state conformational properties. Further progress in this field is thus likely to be achieved through a detailed understanding of light-induced dynamics of the system and the ways of modulating ...
Holzman Roi R Tel Aviv University, - - 2014
Fishes commonly use their lateral line system to detect moving bodies such as prey and predators. A remarkable case is the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus who evolved the ability to detect non-moving obstacles. The swimming body of A. fasciatus generates fluid disturbances, whose alteration by an obstacle can be ...
Careau Vincent V Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Science, Deakin University, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, VIC, 3216, Australia, - - 2014
The importance of studying individual variation in locomotor performance has long been recognized as it may determine the ability of an organism to escape from predators, catch prey or disperse. In ectotherms, locomotor performance is highly influenced by ambient temperature (T a), yet several studies have showed that individual differences ...
Cheney K L KL School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, - - 2014
Many taxa use conspicuous colouration to attract mates, signal chemical defences (aposematism) or for thermoregulation. Conspicuousness is a key feature of aposematic signals, and experimental evidence suggests that predators avoid conspicuous prey more readily when they exhibit larger body size and/or pattern elements. Aposematic prey species may therefore evolve a ...
Pätynen Jukka J Department of Media Technology, School of Science, Aalto University, FI-02150, Espoo, - - 2014
One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians' skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and ...
Avril Alexis - - 2014
Movements of animals have important consequences, at both the individual and population levels. Due to its important implications in the evolutionary dynamics of populations, dispersal is one of the most studied types of movement. In contrast, non-permanent extra home-range movements are often paid less attention. However, these movements may occur ...
Choi Daniel S DS Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, 37th & O Sts. N.W., Washington, DC 20057, - - 2014
We have systematically investigated the position, orientation, and polarization angle dependence of scattered light from well-characterized, indium tin oxide nanorods (ITO NRs) upon illumination with monochromatic light. Scattering signals from individual ITO NRs of horizontal and vertical configurations are probed quantitatively by examining signal response with respect to the analyzer ...
Wilms M M Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lübeck, D-23538 Lübeck, - - 2014
Breathing-induced location uncertainties of internal structures are still a relevant issue in the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Motion compensation approaches like gating or tumour tracking are usually driven by low-dimensional breathing signals, which are acquired in real-time during the treatment. These signals are only surrogates of the ...
Wang Hsin-Ping - - 2014
We demonstrated that hierarchical structures combining different scales (i.e., pyramids from 1.5 to 7.5 μm in width on grooves from 40 to 50 μm in diameter) exhibit excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-trapping characteristics. These microscaled hierarchical structures could not only improve light absorption but prevent poor electrical properties typically observed ...
Slifkin Andrew B AB Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44115, USA, - - 2014
Studies using a variety of experimental tasks have established that when humans repeatedly produce an action, fluctuations in action output are highest at the lowest frequencies and fluctuation magnitude (power) systematically declines as frequency increases. Such time series structure is termed pink noise. However, the appearance of pink noise seems ...
Bauer Barbara B Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Modeling, Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam, - - 2014
Abstract The concept that diversity promotes reliability of ecosystem function depends on the pattern that community-level biomass shows lower temporal variability than species-level biomasses. However, this pattern is not universal, as it relies on compensatory or independent species dynamics. When in contrast within-trophic level synchronization occurs, variability of community biomass ...
Liu Ce C Microsoft Research New England, - - 2014
Although multiframe super resolution has been extensively studied in past decades, super resolving real-world video sequences still remains challenging. In existing systems, either the motion models are oversimplified or important factors such as blur kernel and noise level are assumed to be known. Such models cannot capture the intrinsic characteristics ...
Ge Hongmei H Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, P. R. - - 2014
A study on the effects of light intensity (40 and 80 μE/m(2)/sec) on the components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was carried out in cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.. EPS yield increased with light intensity. However, light intensity did not significantly affect the EPS fractions and monosaccharide composition. Higher light ...
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