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Kaigai N - - 2013
The stomach develops as the local widening of the foregut after Carnegie stage (CS) 13 that moves in a dramatic and dynamic manner during the embryonic period. Using the magnetic resonance images of 377 human embryos, we present the morphology, morphometry, and three-dimensional movement of the stomach during CS16 and ...
Freeman Kate S - - 2013
Objective-To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs. Animals-Six 6-month-old Beagles. Procedures-A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 ...
Ohgita Takashi - - 2013
The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) participates in the secretion of bacterial proteins called effectors, although the detailed mechanism of effector secretion remains unclear. T3SA and flagellum were shown to branch from a common ancestor and also show structural similarity. In addition, both T3SA-dependent effector secretion and flagellar rotation were ...
Schirillo James A - - 2013
In studies of lightness and color constancy, the terms lightness and brightness refer to the qualia corresponding to perceived surface reflectance and perceived luminance, respectively. However, what has rarely been considered is the fact that the volume of space containing surfaces appears neither empty, void, nor black, but filled with ...
Mayer Monique N - - 2013
Objective-To measure respiratory motion of the thoracic wall region in dogs using a real-time motion tracking system and compare the amount of respiratory motion between dogs positioned with and without a vacuum-formable cushion. Animals-8 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs (median weight, 23 kg). Procedures-Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in sternal and ...
Li Xintong - - 2013
A key goal of visual processing is to develop an understanding of the three-dimensional layout of the objects in our immediate vicinity from the variety of incomplete and noisy depth cues available to the eyes. Binocular disparity is one of the dominant depth cues, but it is often sparse, being ...
Foss K - - 2013
The optimal treatment of cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) is controversial, with the owner's and clinician's perception of gait improvement often being used as outcome measures. These methods are subjective and suffer from observer bias. To establish kinematic gait parameters utilizing digital motion capture in normal Doberman Pinschers and compare them with ...
Paixão Fabiano C - - 2012
The association between anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor and AC biosusceptometry (ACB) to evaluate gastrointestinal motility is presented. The AMR-ACB system was successfully characterized in a bench-top study, and in vivo results were compared with those obtained by means of simultaneous manometry. Both AMR-ACB and manometry techniques presented high temporal cross ...
Sanders Robert D RD Department of Anaesthetics, Intensive Care & Pain Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Consciousness is subjective experience. During both sleep and anesthesia, consciousness is common, evidenced by dreaming. A defining feature of dreaming is that, while conscious, we do not experience our environment; we are disconnected. Besides inducing behavioral unresponsiveness, a key goal of anesthesia is to prevent the experience of surgery (connected ...
Fonken Laura K - - 2012
With the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century, human and nonhuman animals became exposed to high levels of light at night for the first time in evolutionary history. This divergence from the natural environment may have significant implications for certain ecological niches because of the important influence ...
He Sailing S Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Sensing Technologies, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, China. - - 2012
It was claimed that the incident light can be gradually slowed down and finally trapped in a tapered metamaterial waveguide. Here we show that the energy incident from the input port of the tapered metamaterial waveguide will be totally reflected (instead of being trapped) due to the strong intermodal coupling ...
Ron Eldar - - 2011
Current illusory contour models do not predict the disappearance of the Kanizsa illusion due to specific spatial luminance distributions within the inducers. We suggest that these stimulus conditions are characterized by an insufficient amount of induced brightness. Our model's core assumption is that contour edge detection of the Kanizsa illusion ...
Tsai David - - 2011
The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal ...
Suzuki Kota - - 2011
Recent theories suggest that error is detected based on the process generating an appropriate response from the presented stimulus, including stimulus processing (e.g. encoding and evaluation) and activation of the appropriate response. This study examines the effects of stimulus processing (related to stimulus deviance) and activation of the appropriate response ...
Lawrence Bonnie M BM Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. - - 2011
The relationship between the latencies of saccadic eye movements and the number of response alternatives is complex. Previously, we have found a decrease in exogenous saccade latencies with an increase in the number of response alternatives (i.e., an anti-Hick's effect). In the present study, we examined the effect of bottom ...
Fujimoto Sawako - - 2011
Crayfish showed avoidance reactions when mechanical stimulation was applied to their tailfan. The response pattern of the avoidance reaction was dependent on crayfish size. Small crayfish showed an escape-like dart response while larger crayfish displayed a defensive-like turn response. We show that the response pattern to the same sensory stimulus ...
Smith Janette L - - 2011
Several studies have linked increases in the N2 and P3 components to response conflict, evoked when multiple incompatible responses are simultaneously activated. However, these studies confound a change of response with a change of stimulus identity, and often a change in stimulus probability also. In two experiments, additional trial types ...
Lakhani Bimal - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Extremely rapid movements are frequently executed in response to novel, potentially threatening stimuli. The mechanism by which these sophisticated responses are generated is a topic of debate. The current study investigates: 1) the importance of stimulus-response congruence in rapid responses and 2) the relationship between the autonomic nervous system ...
Nishimura Akio - - 2011
Tlauka and McKenna ( 2000 ) reported a reversal of the traditional stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effect (faster responding to a stimulus presented on the same side than to one on the opposite side) when the stimulus appearing on one side of a display is a member of a superordinate unit ...
Long Rowena L - - 2011
Karrikinolide (KAR(1)) is a smoke-derived chemical that can trigger seeds to germinate. A potential application for KAR(1) is for synchronizing the germination of weed seeds, thereby enhancing the efficiency of weed control efforts. Yet not all species germinate readily with KAR(1), and it is not known whether seemingly non-responsive species ...
Fiedler Anja A Department of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, University of Tübingen, Friedrichstrasse 21, 72072 Tübingen, Germany. - - 2011
When a single brief flash is accompanied by two auditory beeps, participants often report perceiving two flashes. The present experiment examined whether the perception of illusory redundant flashes can result in faster responses as compared to the perception of a single flash, because previous research has shown such a redundancy ...
Stahlman W David - - 2011
Responses to innocuous stimuli often habituate with repeated stimulation, but the mechanisms involved in dishabituation are less well studied. Chan et al. (2010b) found that hermit crabs were quicker to perform an anti-predator withdrawal response in the presence of a short-duration white noise relative to a longer noise stimulus. In ...
Jirenhed Dan-Anders - - 2011
Classical conditioning of a motor response such as eyeblink is associated with the development of a pause in cerebellar Purkinje cell firing that is an important driver of the overt response. This conditioned Purkinje cell response is adaptively timed and has a specific temporal profile that probably explains the time ...
Mullins R J - - 2011
Cite this as: R. J. Mullins and C. A. Camargo Jr, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2011 (41) 766-768.
Whitting John W - - 2011
: Evidence suggests a link between decreased dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) and injury risk during landings. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of weight-bearing DROM on ankle mechanics during drop landings. : Forty-eight men (mean ± SD = 22.5 ± 4.7 yr) were measured for ...
Dierks Tracy A - - 2011
Investigate lower extremity kinematics in runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome during a prolonged run. For this study, 20 runners with PFP and 20 uninjured controls performed a prolonged run on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. The run ended based on HR, perceived exertion, or level of knee pain. ...
Toda H - - 2011
Background The scapular resting alignment is one of typical quantitative clinical evaluation of the scapular kinematics. The scapular alignment could be affected by the feature of clavicle morphology, but not studied by previous study. Objective To investigate the correlation between clavicle length and three-dimensional scapular resting alignment. Design Descriptive study. ...
Futarmal S - - 2011
The aims of this study were to compare test-retest variability and accuracy measures between (1) manual palpation and a novel palpometer and (2) different force levels. Sixteen clinicians were instructed to target 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kg on a force meter using manual palpation and the new palpometer (adjustable spring-coil ...
Tranberg Roy - - 2011
Invasive methods are more reproducible and accurate than non-invasive ones when it comes to recording knee kinematics, but they are usually less accessible and less safe, mainly due to risk of infection. For this reason, non-invasive methods with passive markers are widely used. With these methods, varying marker sets based ...
Churchill Nathan W - - 2012
Subject-specific artifacts caused by head motion and physiological noise are major confounds in BOLD fMRI analyses. However, there is little consensus on the optimal choice of data preprocessing steps to minimize these effects. To evaluate the effects of various preprocessing strategies, we present a framework which comprises a combination of ...
Volosyak I - - 2011
Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems use brain activity as an input signal and enable communication without movement. This study is a successor of our previous study (BCI demographics I) and examines correlations among BCI performance, personal preferences, and different subject factors such as age or gender for two sets of SSVEP ...
Mateus Jaime J Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. - - 2011
Head turns performed while rotating about another axis result in a cross-coupled stimulus (CCS) to the vestibular system. The CCS causes a tumbling sensation, and the magnitude of the tumbling sensation is dependent on the type of head turn (HT) that is performed. Asymmetric CCS responses to different rotational directions ...
Molis Michelle R - - 2011
This study examined the influence of presentation level and mild-to-moderate hearing loss on the identification of a set of vowel tokens systematically varying in the frequency locations of their second and third formants. Five listeners with normal hearing (NH listeners) and five listeners with hearing impairment (HI listeners) identified synthesized ...
Egan Louisa C - - 2011
Von Hippel & Trivers reason that the potential benefits of successfully deceiving others provide a basis for the evolution of self-deception. However, as self-deceptive processes themselves provide considerable adaptive value to an individual, self-deception may have evolved as an end in itself, rather than as the means to an end ...
Metcalf C - - 2011
Dynamic finger joint motion is difficult to measure using optical motion analysis techniques due to the limited surface area allowed for adequate marker placement. This work describes an extension of a previously validated kinematic measurement technique using a reduced surface marker set and outlines the required calculations based on a ...
Paffen Chris L E - - 2011
During binocular rivalry, the percept alternates between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. A central question in studies on binocular rivalry is whether its dynamics are affected by attention. Here we approach this question by studying how set size affects the number of alternations reported from a rivalry-inducing display. The results show ...
Barsoum Wael K - - 2011
Pain secondary to instability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to be major cause of early failure. In this study, we focused on the effect of instability in TKA on the proximal tibio-fibular joint (PTFJ). We used a robotics model to compare the biomechanics of the PTFJ in ...
Tang Jin Bo - - 2011
We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the ...
Yang Nicholas H - - 2010
Subject-specific three-dimensional finite element models of the knee joint were created and used to study the effect of the frontal plane tibiofemoral angle on the stress and strain distribution in the knee cartilage during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Knee models of three subjects with different tibiofemoral angle ...
Tang Y M - - 2010
Ankle sprain injury is very common in sports and the use of ankle support is crucial. This research investigated the effect of an ankle brace in reducing the ankle angular displacement and angular velocity during sudden supination. In the experiment, 11 healthy males were tested. The bracing condition, semi-rigid ankle ...
Wadsworth Daniel P - - 2010
To investigate the effects of uniquely processed titanium-permeated garments (Aquatitan) on the performance of and recovery from a high-intensity intermittent exercise. In a crossover, 14 nationally and regionally competing male soccer/hockey players performed two 5-d trials composed of a Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test on day 1, followed by 4 d ...
Wong Aaron L - - 2011
Neural systems that control movement maintain accuracy by adaptively altering motor commands in response to errors. It is often assumed that the error signal that drives adaptation is equivalent to the sensory error observed at the conclusion of a movement; for saccades, this is typically the visual (retinal) error. However, ...
Brochard Sylvain - - 2011
The most recent non-invasive methods for the recording of scapular motion are based on an acromion marker (AM) set and a single calibration (SC) of the scapula in a resting position. However, this method fails to accurately measure scapular kinematics above 90° of arm elevation, due to soft tissue artifacts ...
Acker Stacey - - 2011
The accuracy of estimating the relative pose between knee replacement components, in terms of clinical motion, is important in the study of knee joint kinematics. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the single-plane fluoroscopy method in calculating the relative pose between the femoral component and ...
Burt Jennifer S - - 2010
Colored target words were presented with distractor nonwords in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) effect on T2 accuracy was larger when T1 was a difficult (low-frequency) word than when it was a high-frequency word. In Experiment 2 the effect of T1 ...
Colombage Senarath M - - 2011
A road traffic accident of an unusual nature is presented. The driver of a pickup cab sustained fatal injuries by a large piece of concrete (missile) set in motion consequent to a car crashing onto the centre island of a highway.
Wilken Jason - - 2010
The purpose of the current study was to assess kinematic coupling within the foot in individuals across a range of arch heights. Seventeen subjects participated in this study. Weight-bearing lateral radiographs were used to measure the arch height, defined as angle between the 1st metatarsal and the calcaneus. A kinematic ...
Akhter Ijaz - - 2010
Existing approaches to nonrigid structure from motion assume that the instantaneous 3D shape of a deforming object is a linear combination of basis shapes. These basis are object dependent and therefore have to be estimated anew for each video sequence. In contrast, we propose a dual approach to describe the ...
Audenaert Emmanuel A - - 2011
The purpose of our study was to 3-dimensionally assess cam engagement in male patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement during motion. A total of 13 hips with cam-type impingement were investigated. Patient anatomy and clinical range of motion were determined. After 3-dimensional segmentation and reconstruction, the dynamic behavior of the cam ...
Bosga Jurjen - - 2010
In this study, we investigate how two persons (dyads) coordinate their movements when performing cyclical motion patterns on a rocking board. In keeping with the Leading Joint Hypothesis (Dounskaia, 2005), the movement dynamics of the collaborating participants were expected to display features of a prime mover with low movement variability. ...
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