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Results 301 - 350 of 1150
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Elson R A - - 2008
We believe there is a degree of inaccuracy in the usual methods of evaluation of range at the hip in the sagittal plane, ie, flexion-extension. We describe a simple method of measuring more accurately the range of hip flexion-extension, presuming such ranges of motion should relate to the anatomic position ...
Ettema Gertjan - - 2009
We examined the influence of cadence in cycling technique by quantifying phase relationships for a number of important variables at the crank and lower extremity joints. Any difference in the effect of cadence on force, effectiveness, and power phases would indicate an essential change in coordination pattern. Cycle kinetics was ...
Colombo Vera - - 2008
It is unclear which aspects of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) anatomy and/or kinematics determine shape and location of disk-compressive areas (stress field). The aim of this study was a quantitative analysis of TMJ anatomy to predict stress field path direction. Twenty-five asymptomatic TMJs (12 females and 13 males, aged 20-38 ...
Burton N J - - 2008
Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is the most common cause of forelimb lameness in juvenile medium and large breed dogs; however methods of assessing the disruption to their gait remain subjective. The purpose of this study was to objectively quantify the mechanical disruptions to gait in dogs with arthroscopically confirmed ...
Ludvig Daniel D Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. - - 2008
Joint stiffness defines the dynamic relationship between the position of the joint and the torque acting about it. Joint stiffness is viewed as consisting of two components: reflex and intrinsic stiffness. However, when subjects attempt to maintain the position of a joint constant, such as in upright stance, voluntary torque ...
Darcy Shon P - - 2008
Obtaining accurate values of joint tissue loads in human subjects and animals in vivo requires exact 3D-reproduction of joint kinematics and comparisons of in vivo motions between subjects and animals, and also necessitates an accurate reference position. For the knee, passive flexion-extension of isolated joints by hand has been assumed ...
Dillon Michael - - 2008
Previous studies have found that ankle dorsiflexion increases in persons with partial foot amputation walking shod or in "below-ankle" devices compared with walking barefoot. However, a logical biomechanical explanation for these findings has not been offered. The purpose of this project was to determine whether marker location might explain the ...
Yamasaki Hiroshi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: How the central nervous system (CNS) organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT) which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, ...
Nimbarte Ashish D - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our understanding of finger functionality associated with the specific muscle is mostly based on the functional anatomy, and the exact motion effect associated with an individual muscle is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine phalangeal joints motion of the index finger generated by each ...
Koehle Michael J - - 2008
In the commonly used SIMM software, which includes a complete musculoskeletal model of the lower limbs, the reaction forces at the knee are computed. These reaction forces represent the bone-on-bone contact forces and the soft tissue forces (e.g. ligaments) other than muscles acting at the joint. In the knee model ...
Orishimo Karl F - - 2008
Early mobilization exercises are advocated following Achilles tendon (AT) repair, but forces on the repair during passive range of motion are unknown. The extent to which these forces change with flexion of the knee is also not known. Estimated AT forces were measured using 3 models: cadaveric, uninjured subjects, and ...
Cloete Teunis T Biomedical Engineering Research Group, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, South - - 2008
In order for gait analysis to be established as part of routine clinical diagnoses, an accurate, flexible and user-friendly motion capture system is required. Commonly used optical, mechanical and acoustic systems offer acceptable accuracy and repeatability, but are often expensive and restricted to laboratory use. Inertial motion capture has seen ...
Lundgren P - - 2008
The aim of this work was to use bone anchored external markers to describe the kinematics of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform, first and fifth metatarsals during gait. Data were collected from six subjects. There was motion at all the joints studied. Movement between the talus ...
Hurkmans E J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the inter- and intrarater reliability and agreement of instrumented knee joint proprioception measurement in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy subjects; to assess the effect of variations in the measurement procedure on agreement parameters. METHODS: Proprioception was measured by a computer-controlled knee angular motion-detecting device in ...
Teece Rachael M - - 2008
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the 3-dimensional motions occurring between the scapula relative to the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint during humeral elevation in the scapular plane. BACKGROUND: Shoulder pathology is commonly treated through exercise programs aimed at correcting scapular motion abnormalities. However, little is known regarding ...
Wilkens Kenneth J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Kneeling following total knee arthroplasty can be a difficult task, impairing the activities of patients to varying degrees. Little is known about the biomechanical effects of kneeling following total knee replacement. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of kneeling on patellofemoral joint contact areas and ...
Richter Martinus M Klinik Für Unfallchirurgie, Orthopädie und Fusschirurgie, Klinikum Coburg, Ketschendorfer Strasse 33, 96450 Coburg, Germany. - - 2007
An investigation was carried out into possible increased forces, torques, and altered motions during load-bearing ankle motion after implantation of two different total ankle prostheses. We hypothesized that the parameters investigated would not differ in relation to the two implants compared. We included two different ankle prostheses (Hintegra, Newdeal, Vienne, ...
Davis Kenneth E - - 2007
Unlike the knee, range of motion has been of questionable value in evaluating clinical outcome after THA. We retrospectively analyzed the ranges of motion (flexion, abduction, adduction, external rotation, internal rotation, and flexion contracture) of 1383 patients (1517 hips) having primary THA. We recorded Harris hip score components for walking ...
Liu-Barba David - - 2007
Knowledge of the coupled motions, which develop under compressive loading of the knee, is useful to determine which degrees of freedom should be included in the study of tibiofemoral contact and also to understand the role of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in coupled motions. The objectives of this study ...
Bertomeu José María Baydal - - 2007
This study aims to present a new concept of a knee hinge based on a crossed four-bar linkage mechanism which has been designed to optimally follow a motion curve representing the knee kinematics in the position at which the knee hinge should be placed. The methodology used to determine the ...
Ullrich B - - 2008
The purpose of this work was to investigate whether different modes of long-term competitive physical activity cause functional differences in the moment-knee angle relation of the M. quadriceps femoris (QF). Therefore, a sample (n = 40) of young male competitive endurance runners, cyclists, triathletes and tennis players performed isometric maximal ...
Pfeifer R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Salter innominate osteotomy of the pelvis is widely used to improve the coverage of the femoral head in developmental dysplasia of the hip, but the biomechanical and geometric changes after this osteotomy are not well understood. METHODS: A CT dataset of an 8-year-old child with severe dysplasia of both ...
Pohl Michael B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between ...
Furuya Shinichi S Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. - - 2008
The present study investigated the expert-novice difference in the organization of upper-limb movement for the key-depression on the piano. Kinematic and electromyographic recordings were made while experts (N = 7) and novices (N = 7) of classical-piano players performed a right hand octave keystroke to produce four different sound dynamics. ...
Oh Hyun-Seong - - 2007
Nano-stages are used in many ultra-precision systems, such as scanning probe microscope (SPM), optical fiber aligners, ultra-precision cutting, measuring and optical systems. Generally, ultra-precision machining and measuring are achieved using a nano-scale motion stage actuated using Piezo-electric actuators (PZT), and the importance of and demands for the motion stage increase ...
Whittington Ben B Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of passive mechanisms to lower extremity joint kinetics in normal walking at slow, comfortable, and fast speeds. Twenty healthy young adults participated in a passive testing protocol in which the relaxed lower limb was manipulated through full sagittal hip, knee, ...
Ishida Akimasa - - 2008
During an upright stance of humans, it is usually assumed that a stiffer ankle joint contributes to stabilize the stance. To show that under certain conditions a stiffer ankle joint can reduce the stability, the frequency responses of the moment and the angle of the ankle joint against external disturbances ...
Lin Hui-Ting - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The resting position is frequently used by clinicians in the examination and early treatment of patients with joint impairments. However, there is a lack of research on the kinematic characteristics of the resting position of the glenohumeral (GH) joint. The aim of this study was to define ...
Kester Mark A - - 2007
A novel sequentially irradiated and annealed bearing material (X3), characterized for use in knee arthroplasty, has been developed. Attention was directed to mechanical strength properties, oxidation resistance, and the ability to reduce wear. Material properties such as ultimate tensile and yield strength were unaffected by the sequential cross-linking process. Elongation ...
Howard Ryan A - - 2007
Although alterations in knee joint loading resulting from injury have been shown to influence the development of osteoarthritis, actual in vivo loading conditions of the joint remain unknown. A method for determining in vivo ligament loads by reproducing joint specific in vivo kinematics using a robotic testing apparatus is described. ...
Lewek Michael D MD Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2007
The biomechanical characteristics of stiff knee gait following neurological injury include decreased knee flexion velocity at toe-off, which may be due to exaggerated quadriceps activity. The neuromuscular mechanism underlying this abnormal activity is unclear, although hyperexcitable heteronymous reflexes may be a source of impaired coordination. The present study examines the ...
Ng F Y - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare the range of motion after standard version posterior stabilised TKR and high-flexion version TKR in patients receiving bilateral total knee replacement. Thirty-five patients were recruited. The range of motion of the knees was measured clinically with a goniometer in both the pre-operative ...
Lyu Shaw-Ruey - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the kinematic relationship between medial plica and medial femoral condyle during knee motion. METHODS: I prospectively selected 30 knees which had different size of medial plica from patients underwent arthroscopic surgery over a one-year-period. I located the inner margins of these ...
Mornieux Guillaume - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to use a hypoxic stress as a mean to disrupt the normal coordinative pattern during cycling. Seven male cyclists pedalled at three cadence (60, 80, 100 rpm) and three power output (150, 250, 350 W) conditions in normoxia and hypoxia (15% O2). Simultaneous measurements ...
Reeves N D - - 2008
In this study, we aimed to establish the joint moment and joint range of motion requirements of stair descent and the demands relative to maximal capacities in elderly and young adults. Participants descended a custom-built standard dimension four-step staircase, at their self-selected speed in a step-over manner. Kinetic data were ...
Scott Jacob - - 2007
The human proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) and its relationship to overall knee joint mechanics have been largely unexplored. This study describes force/displacement data from experiments done on four human cadaveric knee specimens and general conclusions obtained with the help of a statistical modeling technique. Specimens were rigidly affixed at the ...
Girard Olivier - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of restricted knee motion during the serve in tennis players of different performance levels. Thirty subjects distributed in 3 groups (beginner, B; intermediate, I; elite, E) performed 15 flat first serves with normal (normal serve, S(N)) and restricted (restricted serve, ...
Cleffken Berry - - 2007
An accurate and reproducible measurement method for joint motion is essential for classification of success or failure in therapeutic intervention. Digital goniometry is increasingly used as a method of classification for knee joint excursion. The reliability of goniometry however remains debatable. Aim of the study was to determine both intra- ...
Khan W S - - 2007
We describe the influence of the angle of immobilisation during partial weight-bearing on the forces across the extensor mechanism of the knee. Gait analysis was performed on eight healthy male subjects with the right knee in an orthotic brace locked at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees and 30 degrees, ...
Pieniazek Marek - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Analysis of hand therapy programmes used in various hand therapy centres shows that the programmes primarily aim to restore a maximum range of motion, although basic activities of daily living do not often require full joint mobility. This report of our investigations, which commenced in 2003, presents the results ...
Rubenson Jonas - - 2007
Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) ...
Hubbard Tricia J - - 2007
Although dozens of individual mechanical and functional insufficiencies have been reported in those with chronic ankle instability (CAI), no authors to date have examined the relationship of the insufficiencies to each other. Therefore, studying both the functional and mechanical insufficiencies in the same experimental design will provide valuable information. To ...
Smith Stacey M - - 2008
Axial tibiofemoral joint contact forces were non-invasively determined for two high range of motion (high flexion) squatting activities. An electromagnetic motion tracking system and a non-conductive force platform were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. An innovative scaling method was used to model subject-specific muscle group moment arms. One ...
Selfe James - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Most previous work on the use of knee bracing and taping has focussed on sagittal plane movement. However, most bracing and taping techniques aim to modify patellar movement in the coronal and transverse planes. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of patellar bracing and taping on the three-dimensional mechanics ...
Kongsgaard M - - 2007
AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength (MVC) was determined unilaterally in both legs. ...
Sigward Susan M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Excessive knee valgus moments are considered a risk factor for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes, however, little is known about the biomechanical factors that contribute to this loading pattern. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity kinematics, foot position and ground reaction forces ...
Zelle J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Knee models often do not contain thigh-calf contact which occurs in deep knee flexion. Thigh-calf contact is expected to reduce muscle forces and thereby affects internal stresses in the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to measure thigh-calf contact forces. Two deep knee flexion activities were selected: ...
Bunderson Nathan E NE Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30332, - - 2007
Maintaining the postural configuration of a limb such as an arm or leg is a fundamental neural control task that involves the coordination of multiple linked body segments. Biological systems are known to use a complex network of inter- and intra-joint feedback mechanisms arising from muscles, spinal reflexes and higher ...
Rees Sven S - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on musculotendinous unit (MTU) stiffness of the ankle joint. Twenty active women were assessed for maximal ankle range of motion, maximal strength of planter flexors, rate of force development, and ankle MTU stiffness. Subjects ...
Billuart F - - 2007
The clinical tolerance of rotator cuff tears is extremely variable, so the question is, what is the role of the deltoid in the shoulder stability? First of all, ex vivo experiments are necessary to analyse its effect. The aims of this study were: (1) to propose a testing protocol to ...
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