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Jimenez Angelica A a Department of Chemistry , Texas Southern University , Houston , Texas , - - 2014
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted ...
Honza Marcel M Institute of Vertebrate Biology, AS CR, KvÄ›tná 8, 603 65, Brno, Czech Republic, - - 2014
Certain light environments may hinder egg discrimination by hosts of foreign eggs, which could in some circumstances lead to the acceptance of non-mimetic eggs by hosts. We measured light parameters at red bishop (Euplectes orix) nests and used a model of avian visual processing to quantify the detectability of eggs ...
Conrad Karen S KS 0000000330482226 Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, - - 2014
Three major classes of flavin photosensors, light oxygen voltage (LOV) domains, blue light sensor using FAD (BLUF) proteins and cryptochromes (CRYs), regulate diverse biological activities in response to blue light. Recent studies of structure, spectroscopy and chemical mechanism have provided unprecedented insight into how each family operates at the molecular ...
Rea Mark S MS Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , Troy, NY , - - 2014
Although circadian disruption is an accepted term, little has been done to develop methods to quantify the degree of disruption or entrainment individual organisms actually exhibit in the field. A variety of behavioral, physiological and hormonal responses vary in amplitude over a 24-h period and the degree to which these ...
Morin Lawrence P LP Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA - - 2014
Brief exposure of mice to nocturnal light causes circadian rhythm phase shifts, simultaneously inducing locomotor suppression, a drop in body temperature, and associated sleep. The exact nature of the relationship between these light-induced responses is uncertain, although locomotor suppression and phase shift magnitudes are related to stimulus irradiance. Whether stimulus ...
Findlay Neil J NJ WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XL, - - 2014
A novel BODIPY-containing organic small molecule is synthesized and employed as a down-converting layer on a commercial blue light-emitting diode (LED). The resulting hybrid device demonstrates white light emission under low-current operation, with color coordinates of (0.34, 0.31) and an efficacy of 13.6 lm/W; four times greater than the parent ...
Webb K F KF Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellow, Institute of Biophysics, Imaging & Optical Science (IBIOS), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, - - 2014
Phase contrast microscopy allows the study of highly transparent yet detail-rich specimens by producing intensity contrast from phase objects within the sample. Presented here is a generalized phase contrast illumination schema in which condenser optics are entirely abrogated, yielding a condenser-free yet highly effective method of obtaining phase contrast in ...
Okello Robert C O RC Greenhouse Horticulture, Wageningen UR, PO Box 644, 6700, AP, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Horticulture and Product Physiology Group, Wageningen UR, PO Box 630, 6700, AP, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Centre for Crop Systems Analysis, Wageningen UR, PO Box 430, 6700, AK, Wageningen, The - - 2014
Light affects plant growth through assimilate availability and signals regulating development. Effects of light on tomato fruit growth were studied using cuvettes with light emitting diodes providing white, red or blue light to individual tomato trusses for different periods during the day. Hypotheses tested were: 1) light-grown fruits are stronger ...
Zhang Xiao - - 2014
As one of the most rapidly evolving branches of solid state lighting technologies, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are gradually replacing conventional lighting sources due to their advantages in energy saving and environmental protection. At the present time, commercially available white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are predominantly phosphor based (e.g. a ...
Pfeffer Martina M Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie, Institut für Anatomie II, Fachbereich Medizin, Goethe-Universität , Frankfurt/Main , Germany - - 2014
Behavior, physiological functions and cognitive performance change over the time of the day. These daily rhythms are either externally driven by rhythmic environmental cues such as the light/dark cycle (masking) or controlled by an internal circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which can be entrained to the light/dark cycle. Within ...
Yu Chunghyeon C Department of Bionanotechnology and Department of Applied Chemistry, Hanyang University, Republic of Korea. - - 2014
A visible light-induced process for selective difluoroalkylation of unactivated alkenes has been developed. The choice of base is crucial for governing the chemoselectivity of the process to produce difluoroalkylated alkanes and alkenes.
Lee Eunsu - - 2014
Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within a thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel matrix effectively convert the photo energy of visible light of modest intensity into thermal energy, providing the efficient means to trigger changes in volumetric swelling of hydrogels. However, long irradiation time (on the order of minutes) and modest volume ...
Dixit Anand S AS Avian Environmental Endocrinology and Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
Experiments were performed on the subtropical population of male Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) to examine the mediation of the circadian rhythms in photoperiodic regulation of reproductive responses. In the first experiment, photosensitive sparrows were exposed to different resonance light dark cycles viz. 6L/6D, 6L/18D, 6L/30D, 6L/42D, 6L/54D and 6L/66D ...
Cohen Joanna E JE Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study assessed cessation and brand switching among smokers in Ontario, Canada after tobacco companies' voluntary removal of 'light' and 'mild' descriptors from cigarette packages. We analyzed longitudinal data on brand preference and cessation from a cohort of smokers (n=632) in the Ontario Tobacco Survey in Canada from 2006 to ...
Schirmer Aaron E AE Northeastern Illinois University, United States - - 2014
Many behaviors and physiological processes oscillate with daily, or circadian rhythms that are synchronized to environmental cues (e.g., light onset), but persist with periods of approximately 24 hours in the absence of such cues. We used a multilevel experimental approach to assess whether circadian rhythms modulate several aspects of the ...
Gomez Doris D CNRS MNHN, Brunoy, France; - - 2014
Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviours. Yet, their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is only known in humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). ...
Makki Rabih R Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138-1204 (USA) - - 2014
It is well known that a large number of catalyst-carrying beads immersed in an oscillatory chemical medium (Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction) display collective oscillatory behavior. Using a light sensitive version of BZ, we show that this collective behavior can be entrained to an external light source with an oscillatory intensity. Thus, the ...
Song Lu L Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), CAS Key Laboratory for Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, 100190 - - 2014
We described herein a catalyst-free visible-light photolytic protocol for the imidation of arenes and heteroarenes. N-Bromosaccharin was identified as a viable and chemoselective nitrogen radical precursor that undergoes controllable homolytic cleavage under ambient light irradiation. The reaction can be applied to a number of arenes and heteroarenes with good chemo- ...
Li Kai K Department of Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, - - 2014
In this paper, we reported for the first time that Rhodobacter azotoformans was capable of synthesizing a spectral variant of peripheral light-harvesting complex (LH3), besides a high light form (LH2), in response to low light intensity. Carotenoid components in these complexes were analyzed by absorption spectra, high-pressure liquid chromatography and ...
Fleetham Tyler T Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85284, - - 2014
Efficient deep-blue-emitting tetradentate platinum complexes with a narrow spectral bandwidth are presented, which demonstrate CIEx ≈ 0.15 and CIEy < 0.1. Ultimately, an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 24.8% peak external quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates of (0.147, 0.079) is fabricated using PtON7-dtb.
Tang Bin B School of Textile Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073, - - 2014
Silver nanoprisms were transformed into nanodecahedra through photoinduction of ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) quantum dots (QDs). Subsequently, the silver nanodecahedra were reconverted to silver nanoprisms under sodium lamp if there was sufficient citrate in the reaction system. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optical ...
Liu Ying Y School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332-0245, - - 2014
Two-dimensional finite-element simulation of the piezo-phototronic effect in p-n-junction-based devices is carried out for the first time. A charge channel can be induced at the p-n junction interface when strain is applied, given the n-side is a piezoelectric semiconductor and the p-type side is non-piezoelectric semiconductor. This provides the first ...
Chang Zhi-Xian ZX The Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of MOE, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China. zhouwh@henu.edu.cn - - 2014
CZTS exhibited apparently phase-dependent photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light. Possible factors for the phase-dependent photocatalytic activity of CZTS were discussed in detail.
Lara Francisco F *MSc †PhD Grupo de Ciencias de la Visión, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain (all authors); and Grupo de Investigación en Optometría, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain - - 2014
We evaluate the effect of pupil size on objectively measured amplitude of accommodation (AA). Pupil diameter and wavefront aberrometry were obtained in 15 eyes when stimulus swept across the range of clear vision in steps of 0.5 diopters. Wavefront refraction techniques were used to compute objective AA as the maximum ...
Zhou Hongwei H Key Laboratory of Microgravity, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.15 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China and National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.15 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of - - 2014
Absolute coagulation rate constants were determined by independently, instead of simultaneously, using static and dynamic light scattering with the requested optical factors calculated by T-matrix method. The aggregating suspensions of latex particles with diameters of 500, 700, and 900 nm, that are all beyond validity limit of the traditional Rayleigh-Debye-Gans ...
Hirata Shuzo S Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552, - - 2014
In materials showing reverse saturable absorption (RSA), the optical absorbance increases as the power of the light incident on them increases. To date, RSA has only been observed when very intense light sources, such as short-pulse lasers, are used. Here, we show that hydroxyl steroidal matrices embedding properly designed aromatic ...
Burnell Owen W OW Southern Seas Ecology Laboratories, Darling Building (DP418), School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia, - - 2014
Increased availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean can enhance the productivity and growth of marine plants such as seagrasses and algae, but realised benefits may be contingent on additional conditions (e.g. light) that modify biotic interactions between these plant groups. The combined effects of future CO2 and differing light ...
Kianianmomeni Arash - - 2014
The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri makes use of none less than 13 photoreceptors, which are mostly expressed in a cell-type specific manner. This gives reason to believe that trasncriptome pattern of each cell type could change differentially in response to environmental light. Here, the cell-type specific changes of various ...
Liang Yao Y School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. - - 2014
We report an integrated compact technique that can "spin" and "twist" light on a silicon photonics platform, with the generated light beams possessing both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). It demonstrates the potential of SAM/OAM optics for on-chip integration.
van Diepen Hester C HC Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, Mailbox S5-P, 2300 RC, Leiden, The - - 2014
Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive stimulant worldwide. It reduces sleep and sleepiness by blocking access to the adenosine receptor. The level of adenosine increases during sleep deprivation, and is thought to induce sleepiness and initiate sleep. Light-induced phase shifts of the rest-activity circadian rhythms are mediated by light-responsive ...
Rocca Nicoletta La NL Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Padova, Via U. Bassi 58b, 35121, Padova, - - 2014
Antarctic algae play a fundamental role in polar ecosystem thanks to their ability to grow in an extreme environment characterized by low temperatures and variable illumination. Here, for prolonged periods, irradiation is extremely low and algae must be able to harvest light as efficiently as possible. On the other side, ...
Rootman Dan B DB Jules Stein Eye Institute, Division of Orbital and Oculoplastic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, - - 2014
The blue hue of skin overlying injected hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in certain cases has been hypothesized in the literature as related to the Tyndall effect. This investigation aims to understand the relevant optical concepts and to discuss the plausibility of this assertion. Theoretic and physical aspects of relevant optical ...
Petersen Jan J Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien-Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, - - 2014
Controlling the flow of light with nanophotonic waveguides has the potential of transforming integrated information processing. Due to the strong transverse confinement of the guided photons, their internal spin and their orbital angular momentum get coupled. Using this spin-orbit interaction of light, we break the mirror symmetry of the scattering ...
Doud Devin F - - 2014
Compact waveguide-based photobioreactors with high surface area-to-volume ratios and optimum light-management strategies have been developed to achieve high volumetric productivities within algal cultures. The light-managing strategies have focused on optimizing sunlight collection, sunlight filtration, and light delivery throughout the entire bioreactor volume by using light-directing waveguides. In addition to delivering ...
Yoo Chan C Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, 305-806, Korea; Department of Biological Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 305-701, - - 2014
Microalgae cultures show wide range of pH depending on the availability of light and CO2 for their strain specific photosynthesis. Thus, the modulation of light irradiation and CO2 supply can be applied for the pH control of microalgae cultures. The optimal pH of Ettlia sp. YC001, for phototrophic growth and ...
Karnell Michael - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to examine the response characteristics of a new generation phototransducer and to test new recording and processing procedures when used with endoscopy to track velopharyngeal closure during normal speech. Integrated phototransducer/endoscopy response linearity was laboratory tested using a wide range of simulated velopharyngeal orifice ...
Bisoyi Hari Krishna HK Liquid Crystal Institute and Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Kent State University , Kent, Ohio 44242, United - - 2014
Conspectus Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such ...
Teng Pang-Yu PY Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1855 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, United - - 2014
Purpose:Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), defined by the ratio of oxygen metabolism (MO2) to delivery (DO2) determines the level of compensation of MO2 by DO2. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that inner retinal OEF remains unchanged during light flicker under systemic normoxia and hypoxia in rats due to ...
Whalen Daniel M DM Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2014
In this issue of Structure, Liu and colleagues report the structure of the TNF superfamily member LIGHT bound to decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). Both LIGHT and DcR3 interact with multiple binding partners. The authors identify a conserved interaction important for affinity as well as additional interactions that can be targeted ...
Tomimatsu Hajime H Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan - - 2014
Understory plants in tropical forests often experience a low-light environment combined with high CO2 concentration. We hypothesized that the high CO2 concentration may compensate for leaf carbon loss caused by the low light, through increasing light-use efficiency of both steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic properties. To test the hypothesis, we examined ...
Taylor Stephanie R SR Dept. of Computer Science, Colby College, Waterville, ME USA 04901. Electronic address: - - 2014
Circadian clocks are biological oscillators that regulate daily behaviors in organisms across the kingdoms of life. Their rhythms are generated by complex systems, generally involving interlocked regulatory feedback loops. These rhythms are entrained by the daily light/dark cycle, ensuring that the internal clock time is coordinated with the environment. Mathematical ...
Jo Wan-Kuen - - 2014
In this study, one-dimensional rod-shaped titania (RST) and nitrogen-doped RST (N-RST) with different ratios of N to Ti were prepared using a hydrothermal method and their applications for purification of indoor toxic organic contaminants in a plug-flow reactor were examined under visible or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The surface characteristics of ...
Rashid J - - 2014
InVO4/TiO2 composite was synthesized via amalgamation of InVO4 with TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powders. Application of the produced composite was evaluated as a catalyst for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in synthetic wastewater solutions. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses and ...
Fletcher Laura M LM *MS †PhD Vision Sciences Laboratory, Psychology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (all - - 2014
A major factor limiting the visibility of distant targets is veiling attributed to atmospheric scattering, known commonly as haze. It has been suggested that yellow filters (in this case, the macular pigments, MPs) could selectively absorb this haze, thus extending visual range. This study is an empirical test of the ...
Lee Sunghun S WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, - - 2014
The image demonstrates the bright white color emission from a combination of orange and blue emission using three horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes, which abstracts a tandem white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using exciplex-forming co-hosts. J.-J. Kim and co-workers report on page 5864 high-efficiency orange and tandem white OLEDs using horizontally ...
Baek Seung-Wook SW Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791, Republic of Korea. - - 2014
Silicon solar cells mainly absorb visible light, although the sun emits ultraviolet (UV), visible, and infrared light. Because the surface reflectance of a textured surface with SiNX film on a silicon solar cell in the UV wavelength region (250-450 nm) is higher than ∼27%, silicon solar-cells cannot effectively convert UV ...
Sarau George G Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. - - 2014
The scattering in the light emission wavelength of semiconductor nano-emitters assigned to nanoscale variations in strain, thickness, and composition is critical in current and novel nanotechnologies from highly efficient light sources to photovoltaics. Here, we present a correlated experimental and theoretical study of single nanorod light emitting diodes (nano-LEDs) based ...
Kang Qing Q International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan. - - 2014
Efficient photochemical oxygen generation is achieved using phosphorus-doped H2MoO5 under visible light illumination. Under optimized conditions, an extremely high apparent quantum yield of 94% is obtained under 410 nm light illumination.
Fish Laura J LJ Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Duke Cancer Institute Box 2715 Durham, NC 27710University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, 1300 S 2nd Street suite 300, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454University of Minnesota Center for Health Equity and Department of Medicine, 717 Delaware St, S.E. Room 158, Minneapolis, MN 55414 - - 2014
An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (<=10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of ...
Magdaong Nikki M - - 2014
Rhodopin, rhodopinal and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll ...
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