Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1325
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Kaufman Galen D - - 2005
Fos inducible transcription factor expression in rodent brains (rats and gerbils) during manipulations of vestibular input is reviewed. Stimuli included centripetal hypergravity, unilateral labyrinth lesion or semicircular canal plugging, rotational axis cross-coupling (Coriolis forces), high and low rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex gain adaptation, translabyrinth galvanic stimulation, pharmacological manipulation, and combinations thereof. ...
Kimpo Rhea R - - 2005
Motor learning must be capable of increasing or decreasing the amplitude of movements to meet the demands of the environment. One way to implement such opposite learned changes would be to store them with bidirectional plasticity mechanisms (i.e., long-term potentiation and depression at the same synapses). At the behavioral level, ...
Shinder Michael E - - 2005
Fos expression in vestibular brainstem and cerebellar regions was evaluated during vestibular adaptation in the Mongolian gerbil. In addition, vestibular adaptation was evaluated in both normal and compensated animals, as vestibular compensation reorganizes the vestibular pathway constraining adaptive processes. Behaviorally, discordant optokinetic and vestibular input induced appropriate high and low ...
Day Brian L - - 2005
The vestibular organs can feed perceptual processes that build a picture of our route as we move about in the world. However, raw vestibular signals do not define the path taken because, during travel, the head can undergo accelerations unrelated to the route and also be orientated in any direction ...
Lemoine Jeremy J - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study incorporated 3 objectives: 1 ) to evaluate the physical location of the center of rotation as determined by a custom mathematical algorithm, 2 ) to identify and compare the geometric center of the condylar head in radiographs with the calculated center of rotation, and 3 ) to ...
Bedell Harold E - - 2005
Previous studies indicated that less motion smear is perceived when a physically stationary target is presented during voluntary eye movements than when similar retinal-image motion occurs during steady fixation. In this study, we assessed whether the perception of motion smear is attenuated also during the involuntary vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Normal ...
Hudson Todd E TE Psychology Department, Center for Neural Science, New York University, NY 10003, - - 2005
We investigated whether pointing movements made with the torso would adapt to movement-contingent augmentation or attenuation of their spatial amplitude. The pointing task required subjects standing on a platform in the dark to orient the mid-sagittal plane of their torso to the remembered locations of just extinguished platform-fixed visual targets ...
Teu Koon Kiat - - 2006
The manner in which anatomical rotation from an individual segment contributes to the position and velocity of the endpoint can be informative in the arena of many athletic events whose goals are to attain the maximal velocity of the most distal segment. This study presents a new method of velocity ...
Barniv Yair - - 2005
In virtual environment (VE) applications, where virtual objects are presented in a see-through head-mounted display, virtual images must be continuously stabilized in space in response to user's head motion. Time delays in head-motion compensation cause virtual objects to "swim" around instead of being stable in space which results in misalignment ...
Israël I I Collège de France-CNRS, LPPA, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France. - - 2005
In self-rotation reproduction tasks, subjects appear to estimate the displacement angle and then reproduce this angle without necessarily replicating the entire temporal velocity profile. In contrast, subjects appear to reproduce the entire temporal velocity profile during linear motion stimulating the otoliths. To investigate what happens during combined rotation and translation, ...
Gurses S - - 2005
The head-neck system has multiple degrees of freedom in both its control and response characteristics, but is often modeled as a single joint mechanical system. In this study, we have attempted to quantify the perturbation parameters that would elicit nonlinear responses in a single degree-of-freedom neuromechanical system at small amplitudes ...
Ramat Stefano - - 2005
We investigated the influence of cognitive factors on the early response of the interaural translational vestibuloocular reflex (tVOR) in six normal subjects. Variables were prior knowledge of direction of head motion and the position of the fixation target relative to the head [head-fixed (HF) or space-fixed (SF)]. A manually driven ...
Pettorossi V E - - 2005
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that acoustic spatial perception during head movement is achieved by the vestibular system, which is responsible for the correct dynamic of acoustic target pursuit. OBJECTIVE: The ability to localize sounds in space during whole-body rotation relies on the auditory localization system, which recognizes ...
Meliga Philippe - - 2005
Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure against the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Head movements in a rotating environment, however, induce serious side effects: inappropriate vestibular ocular reflexes (VOR), body-tilt illusions and motion sickness induced by cross-coupled accelerations on a rotating platform. These are well predicted by a semicircular canal model. ...
Highstein Stephen M SM Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2005
The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical ...
Miyaoka S - - 2005
Accelerometers were used to measure sequential head tilt and trunk drift in 14 healthy young subjects while they performed three kinds of head task. First, maximum inclination angles in anterior, posterior, right and left directions were measured to estimate cervical ranges of motion for flexion-extension and lateral bending. The inclination ...
Jaekl P M PM Department of Psychology, Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, - - 2005
When a person moves through the world, the associated visual displacement of the environment in the opposite direction is not usually seen as external movement but rather as a changing view of a stable world. We measured the amount of visual motion that can be tolerated as compatible with the ...
Kavanagh J J - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between oscillatory dynamics of the head and trunk in each plane of motion during walking. Head and trunk accelerations of ten healthy subjects (age: 23 +/- 4 years) were measured in the vertical (VT), anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions ...
Adenot Sophie - - 2005
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is normally characterized by the gain and phase of slow-phase velocity (SPV) relative to the stimulus velocity. Although this is perfectly satisfactory for steady-state sinusoidal oscillations about a single axis, it is less useful when applied to transient responses. The well-known decay of nystagmus following a ...
Lewis Richard F - - 2005
A method to measure tilt psychophysics in nonhuman primates has been developed and tested. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to orient a light bar parallel to the direction of gravity by rotating a small steering wheel attached to the primate chair. After adequate training, they performed this task during motion ...
Yakushin Sergei B - - 2005
The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adapted in side-down and prone positions in two monkeys and tested in four planes: left-/right-side down; forward/backward; and two intermediate planes that lie approximately in the planes of the vertical semicircular canal pairs, left anterior/right posterior (LA/RP) and right anterior/left ...
Núñez-Peña M I - - 2005
Event-related potentials were recorded during a mental rotation task. Subjects were shown pairs of letter-like shapes and were asked to make a parity judgment. The shape on the left was always in its canonical position and the shape on the right could either be in its canonical position or be ...
Guerraz Michel - - 2005
Recent experiments have shown that the visual channel of balance control is susceptible to cognitive influence. When a subject is aware that an upcoming visual disturbance is likely to arise from an external agent, that is, movement of the visual environment, rather than from self-motion, the whole-body response is suppressed. ...
Merfeld Daniel M - - 2005
To compare and contrast the neural mechanisms that contribute to vestibular perception and action, we measured vestibuloocular reflexes (VOR) and perceptions of tilt and translation. We took advantage of the well-known ambiguity that the otolith organs respond to both linear acceleration and tilt with respect to gravity and investigated the ...
Merfeld Daniel M - - 2005
To investigate the neural mechanisms that humans use to process the ambiguous force measured by the otolith organs, we measured vestibuloocular reflexes (VORs) and perceptions of tilt and translation. One primary goal was to determine if the same, or different, mechanisms contribute to vestibular perception and action. We used motion ...
Klier Eliana M - - 2005
Primates are able to localize a briefly flashed target despite intervening movements of the eyes, head, or body. This ability, often referred to as updating, requires extraretinal signals related to the intervening movement. With active roll rotations of the head from an upright position it has been shown that the ...
Mars Franck - - 2005
Previous studies demonstrated that sensory stimulation could differentially affect the subjective vertical (SV) and the subjective body orientation (SBO). This suggests that the central nervous system elaborates various references of verticality in function of the task demands and of the available sensory information. In this study, we tested whether the ...
Golomer Eveline - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical training on subjective vertical perception with the different head positions in order to explore the involving of the neck proprioception. Visual field dependence was assessed using a rod and frame test on women practising judo or dance (international ...
Maruta Jun J Department of Neurology and Physiology and Biophysics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, - - 2005
Sinusoidal translation while rotating at constant angular velocity about a vertical axis (translation while rotating, TWR) produces centripetal and translational accelerations along the direction of translation and an orthogonal Coriolis acceleration due to the translation in the rotating frame. Thus, a Coriolis acceleration is produced along the bitemporal axis when ...
Yakushin Sergei B - - 2005
This study determined whether dependence of angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) gain adaptation on gravity is a fundamental property in three dimensions. Horizontal aVOR gains were adaptively increased or decreased in two cynomolgus monkeys in upright, side down, prone, and supine positions, and aVOR gains were tested in darkness by yaw ...
Dannenbaum Elizabeth - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of frequency and direction of head movement and type of vision chart on the score of a clinical test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). METHODS: The subjects were 31 healthy individuals (22 to 79 years old) and 10 patients (19 to 70 years old) with ...
Kaptein Ronald G - - 2005
A striking feature of visual verticality estimates in the dark is undercompensation for lateral body tilt. Earlier studies and models suggest that this so-called Aubert (A) effect increases gradually to around 130 degrees tilt and then decays smoothly on approaching the inverted position. By contrast, we recently found an abrupt ...
Schmäl Frank - - 2005
Both the influence of a remembered "earth-fixed" target (RT) on the vestibulo-ocular reflex and the effect of "unilateral cold caloric vestibular stimulation" on the localization of a RT have previously been proved. As "unilateral caloric stimulation" is not a physiological stimulus, the aim of the present study was to analyze ...
Stolbkov Yu K - - 2005
Intact pigeons (n=19) were rotated in the dark in the horizontal plane in different orientations relative to the axis of rotation. In central (evoking habituation) rotations, the animal's head was located on the axis of rotation; in eccentric rotations, the animal's head was 0.6 m from the axis of rotation. ...
Kaufman Galen - - 2005
Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation and brainstem Fos expression as a result of short radius cross-coupling stimuli were investigated to find neural correlates of the inherent Coriolis force asymmetry from an artificial gravity (AG) environment. Head-fixed gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, N=79) were exposed, in the dark, to 60--90 minutes of cross-coupled rotations, ...
Moore Steven T - - 2005
Rotation axes were calculated during active head movements using a motion analysis system. The mean rotation axis for 1 Hz head pitch when seated was posterior (6 mm) and inferior (21 mm) to the interaural axis, shifting 16 mm downwards when standing. During seated 2 Hz head pitch the rotation ...
Clarke A H - - 2005
The extensive remains of large sauropods, excavated in the Upper Jurassic layers of the Tendaguru region of Tanzania, East Africa by Janensch [15], include an intact fossil cast of a vestibular labyrinth and an endocast of the large Brachiosaurus brancai. The approximately 150 million year old labyrinth cast demonstrates clearly ...
Andre P - - 2005
In decerebrate cats, the electromyogram (EMG) activity of the forelimb extensor triceps brachii (TB) increases during side-down roll tilt of the whole animal (vestibulospinal reflex, VSR) at about 0.15 Hz. (+/-10 degrees ), while decreases during side up tilt. On the other hand, the TB activity increases during dorsal flexion ...
Jáuregui-Renaud K - - 2005
The influence of acute unilateral vestibular lesions on respiratory rhythm after active change of posture, was evaluated by comparing responses from patients with acute vestibular neuritis, with those from normal subjects with minor injuries other than vestibular (e.g. epistaxis, headache) and patients with chronic bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Respiratory movements of ...
Bharadwaj Shrikant R - - 2005
Position and velocity of accommodation are known to increase with stimulus magnitude, however, little is known about acceleration properties. We investigated three acceleration properties: peak acceleration, time-to-peak acceleration and total duration of acceleration to step changes in defocus. Peak velocity and total duration of acceleration increased with response magnitude. Peak ...
Lamontagne Anouk - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate and compare the coordination and stabilization of axial segments during walking with and without horizontal voluntary head turns, in healthy (n=5) and hemiparetic (n=10) subjects. METHODS: Subjects were instructed to turn the head as fast and as soon as possible in the direction ...
Peterka Robert J - - 2005
This study illustrates the use of a novel "pulse-step-sine" (PSS) rotational stimulus to identify abnormal function of the horizontal semicircular canals in human subjects with unilateral and bilateral vestibular deficits. The cyclic PSS stimulus includes a "bias component" and a "probe component". The bias component, consisting of a short duration ...
Mulavara A P - - 2005
We have previously shown that multiple, interdependent, full- body sensorimotor subsystems aid gaze stabilization during locomotion. In the present study we investigated how the full-body gaze control system responds following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict known to adaptively modify vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function. Subjects (n = 14) walked (6.4 km/h) on ...
Abadi Richard V - - 2005
We wished to examine the spatial (gain) and temporal (rise time) properties of human optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) as a function of stimulus velocity and field location. Stimuli were either M-scaled random dots or vertical stripes that moved at velocities between 20-80 deg s(-1). Three field conditions were examined: full field; ...
Hullar Timothy E - - 2005
Mammalian vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals have been divided into groups according to their discharge regularity, gain at 2-Hz rotational stimulation, and morphology. Low-gain irregular afferents terminate in calyx endings in the central crista, high-gain irregular afferents synapse more peripherally in dimorphic (bouton and calyx) endings, and regular afferents ...
Prieur J-M JM Faculté des Sciences du Sport, UMR 6152 Mouvement and Perception, CNRS and Université de la Méditerranée, 163 av. de Luminy, CP 910, 13288, Marseille cedex 09, France. - - 2005
Spatial orientation is crucial when subjects have to accurately reach memorized visual targets. In previous studies modified gravitoinertial force fields were used to affect the accuracy of pointing movements in complete darkness without visual feedback of the moving limb. Target mislocalization was put forward as one hypothesis to explain this ...
Dunbar Donald C - - 2004
The brain requires internal or external reference frames to determine body orientation in space. These frames may change, however, to meet changing conditions. During quadrupedal overground locomotion by monkeys, the head rotates on a stabilized trunk during walking, but the trunk rotates on a stabilized head during galloping. Do the ...
Ramachandran Ramnarayan - - 2005
The rotatory vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) keeps the visual world stable during head movements by causing eye velocity that is equal in amplitude and opposite in direction to angular head velocity. We have studied the performance of the VOR in darkness for sinusoidal angular head oscillation at frequencies ranging from 0.5 ...
Mouritsen Henrik - - 2004
Night-migratory songbirds are known to use a magnetic compass , but how do they detect the reference direction provided by the geomagnetic field, and where is the sensory organ located? The most prominent characteristic of geomagnetic sensory input, whether based on visual patterns or magnetite-mediated forces , is the predicted ...
Johnson Aaron P - - 2004
Using a novel suite of computer-generated visual stimuli that mimicked components of optic flow, the visual responses of the tropical land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, were investigated. We show that crabs are normally successful in distinguishing the rotational and translational components of the optic flow field, showing strong optokinetic responses to ...
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