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Results 451 - 500 of 1325
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Maruyama Motoyoshi - - 2004
The present study was conducted to examine adaptive gain changes of vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) after exposure to a vertical visual-vestibular mismatch in cats. The visual-vestibular mismatch was induced by oscillating the animals for an hour about an inter-aural axis at frequencies of 0.16 and 0.32 Hz with the peak ...
Bockisch Christopher J CJ Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zürich, Frauenklinikstr. 26, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland. - - 2005
We describe in detail the frequency response of the human three-dimensional angular vestibulo-ocular response (3-D aVOR) over a frequency range of 0.05-1 Hz. Gain and phase of the human aVOR were determined for passive head rotations in the dark, with the rotation axis either aligned with or perpendicular to the ...
Diekmann Volker V Sektion Neurophysiologie, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 Ulm - - 2004
We investigated the behaviour of vision-deprived human subjects who try to maintain their horizontal alignment in space on a rotating platform by stepping about their own axis in counter-direction ('podomotor counter-rotation'), and we ask which of two alternative hypotheses best explains this behaviour. (1) The feedback hypothesis assumes that the ...
Trousselard Marion - - 2004
Without relevant visual cues, the Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) is biased in roll tilted subjects toward the body axis (Aubert or A-effect). This effect is generally ascribed to changes in the vestibular and somatosensory inputs following a body tilt. This study focused on the contribution of interoception and tactile cues ...
Fushiki Hiroaki - - 2004
The rotation axis of horizontal postrotatory nystagmus (PRN) changes as the head is tilted, so that it becomes directed toward gravity (spatial reorientation). Here, we examined the vertical PRN orientation during roll tilt in cats. Unlike the case in horizontal PRN, in vertical PRN no significant cross-coupled components emerged to ...
Beck James C - - 2004
We quantitatively studied the ontogeny of oculomotor behavior in larval fish as a foundation for studies linking oculomotor structure and function with genetics. Horizontal optokinetic and vestibuloocular reflexes (OKR and VOR, respectively) were measured in three different species (goldfish, zebrafish, and medaka) during the first month after hatching. For all ...
Hlavacka F - - 2004
To investigate to time course of sensory-motor adaptation to microgravity, we tested spatially-directed voluntary head movements before, during and after short spaceflight. We also tested the re-adaptation of postural responses to sensory stimulation after space flight. The cosmonaut performed in microgravity six cycles of voluntary head rotation in pitch, roll ...
van Riet R P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the effect of radial head shape and orientation on elbow kinematics in the otherwise intact elbow. DESIGN: Biomechanical study, analyzing simulated active motion of cadaveric arms. BACKGROUND: A discrepancy exists between the noncircular anatomy of the radial head and radial head ...
Xiang Yongqing - - 2004
The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased or decreased with monkeys in a side down position, and the gains were tested with the axis of rotation tilted in 10 degrees increments from left- to right-side-down. Gain changes, expressed as a percentage of the preadapted values, ...
Peterka Robert J - - 2004
A caloric stimulus evokes primarily a horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) when subjects are in a supine or prone orientation with the horizontal semicircular canal plane oriented vertically. In both monkeys and humans, the magnitude of VOR eye movements is greater in the supine than in the prone orientation, indicating that ...
Farooq S J - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few studies have investigated normal response characteristics of torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN). The authors have investigated the effect of stimulus velocity and central/peripheral stimulation on tOKN. METHODS: Torsional OKN was elicited using a sinusoidal grating rotating at velocities of 3 degrees /s to 1000 degrees /s in clockwise and ...
Israël I - - 2004
As the vestibular system is the only sensory organ whose primary function is self-motion detection, we examined the conditions under which the otoliths, which detect the linear acceleration of the head, could be used to estimate traveled distance. In order to isolate the contribution of the otoliths (with the somatosensory ...
Courtine Grégoire G ERM 207 INSERM Motricité & Plasticité, UFR STAPS, Université de Bourgogne, 21078, Dijon, France. - - 2004
Recovery of locomotor function was investigated in seven cosmonauts exposed to microgravity for 6 months. Crew members executed a locomotor task with visual cues (eyes open, EO) and without them (eyes closed, EC). The locomotor task consisted of ascending a two-step staircase, jumping down from a 30-cm high platform, and ...
Vallis Lori Ann LA Gait Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Human Biology and Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. - - 2004
During locomotion we routinely make voluntary head movements, similar to those made during steering tasks, in order to scan our environment and obtain information about objects in the environment and our proximity to these objects. Given the importance that head segment orientation during locomotion has received in the recent literature, ...
Manzoni D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the direction of head tilt coded by the population response of Purkinje (P) cells located in the cerebellar anterior vermis is modified by the relative position of the body with respect to the head. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In decerebrate cats, the responses of P cells to ...
Vidal Manuel - - 2004
Spatial navigation in the presence of gravity restricts one's displacement to two-dimensional (2D) planes. Therefore, self-motion only includes translations and yaw rotations. In contrast, in weightlessness, one can translate and turn in any direction. In the first experiment, we compared the ability to memorize a virtual three-dimensional (3D) maze after ...
Manzoni D - - 2004
It is known that proprioceptive signals modify the spatial organization of the postural reflexes, thus leading to body stability. The neurophysiological basis of this phenomenon are at present unknown. The present report documents that, in decerebrate cat, body-to-head rotation in the horizontal plane modified the preferred response direction to labyrinthine ...
Moskvitin A A - - 2004
We describe here an original working experimental apparatus for non-invasive objective recording of the magnitudes of defensive responses to tactile stimulation in the ground snail. The apparatus includes a tracking device that ensures that the snail's position relative to a light and photodiode remains constant as it ascends a cylinder ...
Keshner Emily A EA Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Room 1406-E809, 345 East Superior Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2004
This study examined whether the head of elderly subjects was less stable in space when the trunk was free to move than when the trunk was fixed to a linearly moving platform. Fourteen healthy elderly subjects were seated on a linear sled with their trunk either fixed to the seat ...
Roy Jefferson E - - 2004
The ability to distinguish sensory inputs that are a consequence of our own actions from those that result from changes in the external world is essential for perceptual stability and accurate motor control. To accomplish this, it has been proposed that an internal prediction of the consequences of our actions ...
Jaeger R - - 2004
To investigate the dynamic effects of external forces on the displacement of the otolith membrane and subsequent neuronal responses of otoliths, we performed numerical analyses of otolith membrane displacements. In these studies we included the full geometry of the human otolith maculae, including their 3D curvature. The first part focuses ...
McCollum Gin - - 2004
Organizational structures intrinsic to nervous systems can be more precisely analyzed and compared with other logical structures once they are expressed in mathematical languages. A standard mathematical language for expressing organizational structure is that of groups. Groups are especially well suited to organizational structures involving multiple symmetries such as spatial ...
Féry Yves-André - - 2004
In conditions of slow passive transport without vision, even tenuous inertial signals from semi-circular canals and the haptic-kinaesthetic system should provide information about changes relative to the environment provided that it is possible to command the direction of the body's movements voluntarily. Without such control, spatial updating should be impaired ...
Maurice M - - 2004
We studied the cervico-ocular reflex (COR) alone and in combination with the optokinetic (OKN) reflex in head-fixed pigeons. We analyzed these responses in two behavioral conditions: (1) animals were hung in a harness ("resting" condition); and (2) animals were additionally submitted to a frontal airflow that provoked a flight posture ...
Hoppenbrouwers Mieke - - 2004
The subjective visual vertical was measured in 38 healthy subjects. The head was alternately roll-tilted to the right and to the left, and the start position of the light bar was alternately set clockwise and counterclockwise. When the head is tilted less than 60-70 degrees a deviation of the subjective ...
Dunbar Donald C - - 2004
This study investigated the patterns of rotational mobility (> or =20 degrees ) and stability (< or =20 degrees ) of the head and trunk in wild Indian monkeys during natural locomotion on the ground and on the flat-topped surfaces of walls. Adult hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) and bonnet macaques ...
Munhall K G - - 2004
People naturally move their heads when they speak, and our study shows that this rhythmic head motion conveys linguistic information. Three-dimensional head and face motion and the acoustics of a talker producing Japanese sentences were recorded and analyzed. The head movement correlated strongly with the pitch (fundamental frequency) and amplitude ...
Kimchi Tali - - 2004
Path integration allows animals to navigate without landmarks by continuously processing signals generated through locomotion. Insects such as bees and ants have evolved an accurate path integration system, assessing and coding rotations with the help of a general directional reference, the sun azimuth. In mammals, by contrast, this process can ...
Keusch S S Department of Neurology, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, - - 2004
The aim of this study was to characterize the error pattern of continuously tracking the perceived earth-vertical during roll rotations from upright to right or left ear-down and from right or left ear-down to upright. We compared the tracking responses of two paradigms, which either continuously activated the otoliths organs ...
Cromwell Ronita - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Head stability is the dynamic process of maintaining an equilibrium position of the head-in-space. Individuals with vestibular deficits restrict head movements during dynamic activities in an effort to adapt to vestibular loss. However, this strategy does not provide them with a successful means for adaptation during dynamic ...
Tangorra James L - - 2004
A method was developed to identify the linear, system level dynamics of the horizontal, angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) as it stabilized vision during head-free tracking of a visual target. Small amplitude, broad spectrum, stochastic torque perturbations were applied to the head while the subject tracked an unpredictable, moving target with ...
Horowitz Seth S - - 2004
The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is an aerial-feeding insectivorous species that relies on echolocation to avoid obstacles and to detect flying insects. Spatial perception in the dark using echolocation challenges the vestibular system to function without substantial visual input for orientation. IR thermal video recordings show the complexity of ...
Shallo-Hoffmann J - - 2004
We investigated the nystagmus of a 12-year-old boy with suspected X-linked congenital nystagmus (CN) and exophoria to determine the underlying mechanisms and component signals in the 'dual-velocity' and other slow phases of his Asymmetric (a)Periodic Alternating Nystagmus (APAN). Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) were performed on the waveforms and residual data ...
Barnes G R - - 2004
We compared the predictive behavior of smooth pursuit (SP) and suppression of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) in humans by examining anticipatory smooth eye movements, a phenomenon that arises after repeated presentations of sudden target movement preceded by an auditory warning cue. We investigated whether anticipatory smooth eye movements also occur ...
Ohberg Fredrik - - 2003
This paper presents an assessment tool for objective neck movement analysis of subjects suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Three-dimensional (3-D) motion data is collected by a commercially available motion analysis system. Head rotation, defined in this paper as the rotation angle around the instantaneous helical axis (IHA), is used ...
Haque Asim A Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid, St Louis, MO 63110, - - 2004
Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the three semicircular canals of the vestibular system whose innervating primary afferent fibers encode movement information in specific head planes. In order to further investigate the nature of vestibular central processing of rotational motion in rhesus monkeys, it was first necessary to ...
Green Andrea M - - 2003
The ability to simultaneously move in the world and maintain stable visual perception depends critically on the contribution of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) to gaze stabilization. It is traditionally believed that semicircular canal signals drive compensatory responses to rotational head disturbances (rotational VOR), whereas otolith signals compensate for translational movements [translational ...
Yakushin Sergei B - - 2003
Alterations in the gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) are dependent on the head position in which the gain changes were produced. We determined how long gravity-dependent gain changes last in monkeys after four hours of adaptation, and whether the adaptation is mediated through the nodulus and uvula ...
Eggers Sscott D Z - - 2003
We studied short-term (30 min) adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in five normal humans using a "position error" stimulus without retinal image motion. Both before and after adaptation a velocity gain (peak slow-phase eye velocity/peak head velocity) and a position gain (total eye movement during chair rotation/amplitude of chair ...
Katayama Naomi - - 2003
Otolithic influence on optokinetic eye-movements (visual-vestibular interaction) was investigated using oscillation of a lateral linear acceleration-step combined with optokinetic stimulation. According to our preliminary study using a 40-deg/s optokinetic stimulus speed at 0.3 and 0.5 G acceleration-steps, the interaction was characterized by a linear addition during the agonistic stimulus condition, ...
Jaggi-Schwarz K - - 2003
When tilted subjects are asked to set a luminous line to the perceived earth-vertical in a dark surrounding, they systematically underestimate the true direction of earth-vertical at large tilt angles, a phenomenon first described by Aubert (A-phenomenon). At small tilt angles, subjects usually overestimate the direction of earth-vertical. Overestimation has ...
Schneider E - - 2003
The eye movement component that rotates around the line of sight, i.e., the ocular torsion, is in many aspects different from horizontal and vertical eye movements. While ocular torsion is mediated only by reflexive pathways like the torsional vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes (TVOR and OKN, respectively), horizontal and vertical components ...
Bock Otmar O Institute of Physiology, German Sport University, Carl-Diem-Weg 6, 50927 Köln, Germany. - - 2003
The mechanisms for adaptation to visual rotation were investigated by exposing subjects to different rotation angles in a stepwise fashion. We found that response direction continuously changed to compensate for the imposed rotation, but this change was limited to 90 deg. Larger changes were accomplished by inverting both spatial axes ...
Kelders W P A - - 2003
The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) is an ocular stabilization reflex that is elicited by rotation of the neck. It works in conjunction with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) in order to prevent visual slip over the retina due to self-motion. The gains of the VOR and OKR ...
Blouin Jean-Sébastien - - 2003
When seated subjects are submitted to a linear acceleration, reports indicate that the kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) responses of the head-neck system can be modulated with the magnitude of the linear acceleration. There is no evidence, however, that head kinematics or neck EMG activity can be modulated when specific knowledge ...
Ching Emily S C - - 2003
We analyze velocity fluctuations in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The velocity measurements were taken at the center of an aspect-ratio-one convection cell filled with water. The measured probability density functions of the velocity difference over a time interval tau are found to change with tau, indicating that the velocity fluctuations are ...
Jones Gavin E G GE Department of Defense Spatial Orientation Center, Otolaryngology Department, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Dr. Ste 200, CA 92134, San Diego, - - 2003
This study provides the first systematic examination of the effects of intratympanic gentamicin instillation on vestibulo-ocular responses of guinea pigs during both Earth-vertical yaw axis and off-vertical axis rotation. A scleral search coil was sutured to the right eye of pigmented female guinea pigs prior to trans-bullar instillation of a ...
Jarchow T - - 2003
The perception of body position is mainly mediated by otolith information and visual cues. It has been shown, however, that proprioceptive sources are also involved. To distinguish between the contributions of the vestibular and nonvisual extra-vestibular information to graviception, we tested the effects of a stimulus that leaves the vestibular ...
Lewis Richard F RF Department of Otolaryngology and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles St., Boston, MA 02114, USA. - - 2003
The gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) normally depends on the distance between the subject and the visual target, but it remains uncertain whether vergence angle can be linked to changes in VOR gain through a process of context-dependent adaptation. In this study, we examined this question with an adaptation ...
Yakushin Sergei B SB Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 East 100th Street, Box 1135, New York, NY 10029, USA. - - 2003
We determined the spatial dependence of adaptive gain changes of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) on gravity in five human subjects. The gain was decreased for 1 h by sinusoidal oscillation in pitch about a spatial vertical axis in a subject-stationary surround with the head oriented left-side down. Gains ...
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