Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 778
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Morgan Mary - - 2006
The aim of this study was to monitor structural changes in loaded rabbit digital flexor tendons in situ and ex situ via elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS). The optical setup consisted of a xenon white light source (lambda = 320-860 nm), connected to a fiber optic probe (with a source-detector separation ...
Tanaka E - - 2006
The mandibular condylar cartilage plays an important role as a stress absorber during function. However, relatively little information is available on its dynamic properties under compression. We hypothesized that these properties are region-specific and depend on loading frequency. To characterize the viscoelastic properties of the condylar cartilage, we performed dynamic ...
Hu Shaohua S Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2006
One fundamental question in cell biology is how mechanical stresses are distributed inside the cytoplasm. Recently we have developed a synchronous detection approach to map cytoplasmic displacements and stresses using yellow fluorescent protein tagged mitochondria as fiducial markers of the cytoskeleton (CSK) in response to a localized load applied via ...
Cross Graham L W - - 2006
Spatially localized stress fields produced by instrumented, sharp indentation probes are a route to testing the mechanical properties of materials at the smallest length scales. Here we provide direct experimental measurement of indentation plasticity with contact strain fields involving up to a few thousand atoms. We observe two types of ...
Zhang Ming - - 2006
This paper reports findings of experiments aiming to (1) compare the load tolerant ability over different regions of stumps of lower limb amputees, (2) study the effect of walking on the load tolerant ability, and (3) examine the distal-end weight-bearing ability supported by different interface materials. The method was to ...
Anderson Donald D DD Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2006
A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then ...
Ying Chen - - 2006
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of various tissue loads on the working characteristic of the ultrasonic scalpel, including working frequency, input admittance and reflection factor. Ex vivo animal experiments are carried out and relevant discussions of experimental results are provided. Admittance measurement results show that ...
Ebenstein Donna M - - 2006
The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory of elastic contact, extended to take viscoelastic effects into account, is used to evaluate work of adhesion and modulus of elastomeric films. In this paper, we present a comparison of five approaches to analyze quasi-static and dynamic JKR force curve data obtained using instrumented indentation. The ...
Parkinson Amy A Applied Physiology Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham , UK. - - 2006
We examined the involuntary isotonic muscle aftercontraction which follows a 1-min voluntary contraction at 60% of maximum voluntary force. Aftercontractions provide a unique paradigm for investigating the automatic postural control of the upper limb in man. Previous work has shown that the strength of these contractions in m. deltoid is ...
Adams Michael A - - 2006
There is a growing literature concerning chondrocyte responses to mechanical loading, but relatively little is known about the mechanical environment these cells experience in a living joint. Calculations indicate that high forces are applied to limb joints whenever the joints are flexed, because flexion can cause body weight to act ...
Shirazi-Adl A - - 2006
Axial compression on the spine could reach large values especially in lifting tasks which also involve large rotations. Experimental and numerical investigations on the spinal multi motion segments in presence of physiological compression loads cannot adequately be carried out due to the structural instability and artefact loads. To circumvent these ...
Cheng Te-Shiang - - 2006
This study examined the maximum acceptable weight of carriage (MAWC) for young Taiwanese males experienced in manual load carriage tasks. The elements of the examined load carriage tasks included lifting a box from the floor to the waist height, turning around while holding the box, carrying the box at the ...
Saadat Ehsan - - 2006
Understanding the changes in collagen and proteoglycan content of cartilage due to physical forces is necessary for progress in treating joint disorders, including those due to overuse. Physical forces in the chondrocyte environment can affect the cellular processes involved in the biosynthesis of extracellular matrix. In turn, the biomechanical properties ...
Kettler Annette - - 2006
The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effect of the crash pulse shape on the peak loading and the injury tolerance levels of the human neck. In a custom-made acceleration apparatus 12 human cadaveric cervical spine specimens, equipped with a dummy head, were subjected to ...
Nieminen Heikki J - - 2006
Mechano-acoustic and elastographic techniques may provide quantitative means for the in vivo diagnostics of articular cartilage. These techniques assume that sound speed does not change during tissue loading. As articular cartilage shows volumetric changes during compression, acoustic properties of cartilage may change affecting the validity of mechano-acoustic measurements. In this ...
Lees Adrian A Liverpool John Moores University, Sport and Exercise Sciences, Henry Cotton Campus, Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, United Kingdom. - - 2005
Overuse injuries to the lower extremity have often been connected with the repetitive loading of the foot and in particular its ability to absorb shock. The shock absorbing ability of the foot is thought to relate to its structure, particularly the height of the medial longitudinal arch. The purpose of ...
Sarringhaus L A - - 2005
There is much debate in behavioral primatology on the existence of population-level handedness in chimpanzees. The presence or absence of functional laterality in great apes may shed light on the origins of human handedness and on the evolution of cerebral asymmetry. The plasticity of long bone diaphyses in response to ...
Yoganandan Narayan - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to develop biomechanical corridors applicable to the small-sized female in side impacts. METHODS: Sled tests were conducted using post mortem human subjects at a velocity of 6.7 m/s. Three chestbands were used to compute deflection-time histories at the axilla, xyphoid process, and tenth rib levels. ...
Marras W S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Physiological and psychophysical studies of the effects of lifting frequency have focused on whole-body measurements of fatigue or subjective acceptance of the task and have not considered how spine loads may change as a function of lift frequency or lift time exposure. Our understanding of biomechanical spine loading has ...
McKinley T O - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Determine how stepoff incongruities of the distal tibia affect aggregate (whole-cycle) contact stresses and contact stress gradients for a complete motion cycle in human cadaveric ankles. METHOD: Ten human cadaveric ankles were subjected to quasiphysiologic forces during stance-phase range of motion. Each specimen was loaded intact, with anatomic reduction ...
Cheung Jason Tak-Man - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The plantar fascia, which is one of the major arch-supporting structures of the human foot, sustains high tensions during weight-bearing. A positive correlation between Achilles tendon loading and plantar fascia tension has been reported. Excessive stretching and tightness of the Achilles tendon are thought to be the risk factors ...
Herrington Lee - - 2006
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different relative loading levels on the EMG activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique (VMO) and Vastus Laterialis (VL). Previous research into the EMG temporal and spatial relationship between VMO and VL has increased the controversy surrounding the topic, due to ...
Cappa Paolo - - 2005
This paper describes a novel device to evaluate the mechanical properties of ankle foot orthoses (AFOs). The apparatus permits the application to AFOs of continuous three-dimensional (3D) movements between specified and settable endpoints. Using an x-y robot with a rotary stage and a six-component load cell, characteristic displacement versus reaction ...
Santaguida Pasqualina L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Mechanical lifting devices are recommended as an important intervention for reducing lifting injuries among nursing personnel; previous research suggests that spinal loads are not minimized for all device types. The purpose of this study was to describe the spinal loading pattern while performing a bed to chair transfer comparing ...
Greenwood J A - - 2006
The cycle of loading and unloading of a spherically-tipped probe against an adhesive, viscoelastic plane specimen is studied by numerical integration of the relations between crack speed and apparent surface energy previously found for a linear 3-element viscoelastic solid with a Maugis-Dugdale law of force across the crack. It is ...
Pourcelot Philippe - - 2005
The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive ...
Kellis Eleftherios - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of external load on vertical ground reaction force, and linear and angular kinematics, during squats. Eight males aged 22.1 +/- 0.8 years performed maximal concentric squats using loads ranging from 7 to 70% of one-repetition maximum on a force plate ...
Mehrotra Kanheya - - 2005
Semiconductor photocatalytic process has been studied extensively in recent years due to its intriguing advantages in environmental remediation. In this study, a two-phase swirl-flow monolithic-type reactor is used to study the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of benzoic acid in immobilized systems. Transport contributions into the observed degradation rates were determined ...
Qihua Yang - - 2005
This paper presents a four-phase high frequency amplitude-stable power supply that acts as a rotary electric field generator in biochip research and development. Four channels of high precision frequency signals are generated by DDS(Direct Digital Synthesis). Via two-stage amplifiers these signals are amplified to 50 V(p-p) output within 100 Hz--100 ...
Lim David - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine if impact responses (stiffness and damping values) of the jaw and neck are significantly different between mouthguards of varying material and manufacturing properties, in controlled conditions involving specified upper limb orientation and applied loading. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental design. SETTING: Simon Fraser University biomechanical laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve male subjects ...
Kerdok Amy E - - 2006
Accurate characterization of soft tissue material properties is required to enable new computer-aided medical technologies such as surgical training and planning. The current means of acquiring these properties in the in vivo and ex vivo states is fraught with problems, including limited accessibility and unknown boundary conditions in the former, ...
Pérez Del Palomar A - - 2006
One of the most significant characteristics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is that it is in fact composed of two joints. Several finite element simulations of the TMJ have been developed but none of them analysed the different responses of its two sides during nonsymmetrical movement. In this paper, a ...
Holt Kenneth G - - 2005
This study was designed to investigate the capability of the joints and segments to reduce transmission of forces during load carriage. Eleven subjects were required to carry a backpack loaded with 40% of their body weight and to walk at 6 speeds increasing from 0.6 to 1.6 ms(-1) in increments ...
Xiao Xinxing - - 2005
The electrical properties of n-doped Si tips have been characterized in conducting atomic force microscopy under various conditions. Si tips with SiO2 layer on them present complex electric properties: which include a larger positive threshold bias, which is different from that of its doped semiconductor material. Silicon tips after removing ...
Makienko I - - 2005
Movement-related potentials (MRP), a component of the electroencephalogram (EEG) generated during voluntary movements, are known to vary during adaptation to changing loads and to different load types. This study attempts to reveal these changes. A novel denoising algorithm based on iterative approximation was applied to the MRPs recorded from four ...
Davis Kermit - - 2005
While heavy lifting has been identified as an important risk factor for low back disorders, little is known about workplace spatial layout - the relative positions of shelves and the impact of this on spine loads. The objective of the current study was to investigate how the relative positions of ...
McKinley Todd O - - 2006
Cartilage deformation demonstrates viscoelastic behavior due to its unique structure. However, nearly all contact studies investigating incongruity-associated changes in cartilage surface stresses have been static tests. These tests have consistently measured only modest increases in contact stresses, even with large incongruities. In this study, an experimental approach measuring real-time contact ...
Chow Daniel H K - - 2005
Concerns regarding the effects of load carriage have led to recommendations that backpacks be limited to 10?-?15% of body weight, based on significant changes in physical performance. However, gait responses to backpack loads are not entirely consistent and there is a particular lack of data regarding load-bearing gait in adolescent ...
Kassi Jean-Pierre - - 2005
Pre-clinical testing of hip endoprostheses is a mandatory requirement before clinical release. Inadequate loading conditions may lead to lower elastic and plastic interface movements than those occurring post-operatively in vivo. This study investigated the influence of patient activity on the primary stability of cementless prostheses with a special emphasis on ...
Archambault Philippe S PS Centre de Recherche en Sciences Neurologiques, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, H3S 2J4, Canada. - - 2005
To address the question of how arm posture is controlled, we analyzed shoulder-elbow unloading responses in the horizontal plane for different directions of the initial load. The initial load, produced by a double-joint manipulandum, was suddenly diminished to 1of 12 randomly presented levels (60 to -10% of the initial load; ...
Sellier Damien - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aerial architecture on the dynamic characteristics of young maritime pines (Pinus pinaster Ait.) using a mechanistic approach. For this purpose, three 4-year-old saplings with prominent differences in their branching patterns were submitted to free oscillation tests. The tests were ...
Lu William W - - 2005
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro biomechanical study on lumbar intervertebral joints. OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanical properties of lumbar motion segments under pure shear loading and establish whether a simple model for functional differentiation between the anterior column and the posterior elements is applicable. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Anteroposterior shear ...
Taylor Danny D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patterns of digital cushion (DC) displacement that occur in response to vertical loading of the distal portion of the forelimb in horses. Sample Population-Forelimbs from 10 horses with normal feet. PROCEDURE: Patterns of DC displacement induced by in vitro vertical limb loading were determined. Load-induced displacement of ...
Preuschoft Holger - - 2005
In order to determine the extent to which the shape of the synapsid skull is adapted for resisting the mechanical loads to which it is subjected, block- or simple plate-shaped finite-element models were constructed and loaded with external muscle and bite forces in locations estimated to resemble points of application ...
Mavrilas D - - 2005
Bovine pericardium (BP) is a source of natural biomaterials with a wide range of clinical applications. In the present work we studied the dynamic mechanical behavior of BP in native form and under specific enzymatic degradation with chondroitinase ABC extracted a 17% of the total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The GAGs content ...
Kersting U G - - 2005
The BGN (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmithl und Gaststätten) reports 70% of job induced days off work to be connected with traumas of the ankle joint or overloading of the leg, knee and lower back, with an increased incidence in service areas outdoors (R. Grieshaber, personal communication). Workspace environments usually contain narrow passages, ...
Wrigley Allan T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: No research to date has been able to discriminate differences in lifting technique for healthy individuals who eventually develop low back pain compared to those that do not while employed in a manual materials handling industry. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ability of principal component ...
Wellen J - - 2005
Tendons exhibit viscoelastic mechanical behavior under tensile loading. The elasticity arises from the collagen chains that form fibrils, while the viscous response arises from the interaction of the water with the solid matrix. Therefore, an understanding of the behavior of water in response to the application of a load is ...
Lu Ying - - 2005
Facet joint capsules (FJC) may experience large mechanical deformation under spine motion. There has been no previous quantitative study of the relationship between capsular strain and sensory nerve activation in spine FJC in vivo. Space limitation in the cervical spine makes such a study difficult, as the facet joint must ...
Andersen T Bull - - 2005
It is believed that nurses risk the development of back pain as a consequence of sudden loadings during tasks in which they are handling patients. Forward dynamics simulations of sudden loads (applied to the arms) during dynamic lifting tasks were performed on a two-dimensional whole-body model. Loads were in the ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >