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Wang Pu - - 2012
Spatial heterogeneity in light supply is common in nature. Many studies have examined the effects of heterogeneous light supply on growth, morphology, physiology and biomass allocation of clonal plants, but few have tested those effects on intraspecific competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (no competition) or nine ramets ...
Kiapour Ali - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Study Design. Finite element (FE) method was used to compare the biomechanics of L3-S1 lumbar spine with graded facetectomy before and after placement of Dynesys.Objective. To evaluate the biomechanics of Dynesys as a function of graded bilateral facetectomies.Summary of Background Data. Spinal fusion or posterior dynamic stabilization systems are ...
Ludwig Vera U - - 2011
Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question ...
Jokstad Asbjorn - - 2011
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Effectiveness of laser in dentinal hypersensitivity treatment: a systematic review. Sgolastra F, Petrucci A, Gatto R, Monaco A. J Endod 2011;37(3):297-303. REVIEWER: Asbjorn Jokstad, DDS, PhD. PURPOSE/QUESTION: Do patients with dentinal hypersensitivity subjected to laser light application compared to placebo "light experience" reduced hypersensitivity or ...
Zhuang Xiujuan - - 2011
Semiconductor alloy nanowires with spatially graded compositions (and bandgaps) provide a new material platform for many new multifunctional optoelectronic devices, such as broadly tunable lasers, multispectral photodetectors, broad-band light emitting diodes (LEDs) and high-efficiency solar cells. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on composition graded semiconductor alloy ...
Fanelli Francesca - - 2012
Light is a very important signal for fungi since it influences many different physiological responses. We analyzed the influence of light of varying wavelength and intensity on growth, conidiation and biosynthesis of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), B(2) (FB(2)), and B(3) (FB(3)) by Fusarium verticillioides ITEM 10027. Wavelengths across the visible spectrum, ...
Pfingst Kane A - - 2011
Within a single train of same-duration (standard) stimuli, an occasional longer-duration (deviant) sound elicits mismatch negativity (MMN) with a peak latency (measured relative to sound onset) reflecting the standard duration representation. When two such trains are presented in a dichotic paradigm, a separate duration representation arises for each train. We ...
Lee R A - - 2012
Modern video laryngoscopes (VLSs) provide a superior view of the glottis, facilitating easier intubations. This study evaluates the forces applied to the maxillary incisors when using various VLSs and a Macintosh blade. Fifty consecutive surgery patients were randomly assigned to receive laryngoscopy from a pair of four blades investigated in ...
Sekar K K Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, - - 2012
Whether consciousness is an all-or-none or graded phenomenon is an area of inquiry that has received considerable interest in neuroscience and is as of yet, still debated. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study we used a single stimulus paradigm with sub-threshold, threshold and supra-threshold duration inputs to assess whether stimulus perception ...
Powell Douglas W - - 2011
The medial longitudinal arch plays a major role in determining lower extremity kinematics. Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of the arch structure in response to load. The purpose of this study was to examine arch function in high- and low-arched feet during a vertical loading condition. Ten ...
Lai Tzu-Yun - - 2011
The present study aims to investigate whether second language (L2) learners of Mandarin will be affected by vowel height sequences and post-vocalic nasals in perceiving Mandarin tones. A total of 101 stimuli from a female native speaker of Mandarin were recorded for constructing the main experiment. Eight Mandarin L2 learners ...
Peng Jian - - 2011
The dynamics of vegetation coverage and associated driving forces are one of the key issues in global environmental change. In the study, taking Lijiang County as a case, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was used to quantify vegetation coverage change in mountain areas of Northwestern Yunnan, China, with the application ...
Bier Ethan E Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0349, USA. - - 2011
Patterning of the dorsoventral axis by graded BMP signaling is conserved in the evolution of animals. However, this system has also proven to be highly adaptable, as is now highlighted by its short-range function in the leech Helobdella.
Lee Eui Chul - - 2011
PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, ...
Thompson Patrick D - - 2011
Although linguistic traditions of the last century assumed that there is no link between sound and meaning (i.e., arbitrariness), recent research has established a nonarbitrary relation between sound and meaning (i.e., sound symbolism). For example, some sounds (e.g., /u/ as in took) suggest bigness whereas others (e.g., /i/ as in ...
Abe Y - - 2011
Tracking controllers produce realistic motion in simulations by mimicking an input motion. However, current time-indexed trackers adhere strictly to the input motion's timing, causing a lack of robustness. A new phase-indexed tracker for 2D characters can deviate from the input motion's timing. Compared to time-indexed tracking with a state-of-the-art nonlinear ...
Barnes Andrew A The Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. - - 2011
Differences in the location and incidence of lower extremity injuries have been reported between high and low arched individuals. These differences might be related to functional differences between the two foot types. In particular, the characteristics of the medial longitudinal arch may influence foot function. The purpose of this study ...
Dreosti Elena E MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, - - 2011
Retinal bipolar cells have been assumed to generate purely graded responses to light. To test this idea we imaged the presynaptic calcium transient in live zebrafish. We found that ON, OFF, transient and sustained bipolar cells are all capable of generating fast 'all-or-none' calcium transients modulated by visual stimulation.
Gao Wei - - 2011
A novel frequency-locked loop (FLL) based on the beat method is proposed in this paper. Compared with other frequency feedback loops, this FLL is a digital loop with simple structure and very low noise. As shown in the experimental results, this FLL can be used to reduce close-in phase noise ...
Mò¸ller Henrik - - 2011
As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount ...
Svede Aiga - - 2011
This study was undertaken to investigate how subjectively measured fixation disparity can be explained by (1) the convergent-divergent asymmetry of vergence dynamics (called dynamic asymmetry) for a disparity vergence step stimulus of 1° (60 arc min), (2) the dark vergence, and (3) the nonius bias. Fixation disparity, dark vergence, and ...
Ren Kun - - 2011
Light transport in a graded photonic crystal is studied using the finite-difference time-domain technique. The photonic crystal consists of a square lattice of elliptical dielectric rods. Within a frequency window, light can propagate inside the photonic crystal with the beam width nearly unchanged. The propagation direction can be easily manipulated ...
Amphawan Angela - - 2011
With rapidly growing bandwidth demands in Local Area Networks, it is imperative to support next generation speeds beyond 40Gbit/s. Various holographic optimization techniques using spatial light modulators have recently been explored for adaptive channel impulse response improvement of MMF links. Most of these experiments are algorithmic-oriented. In this paper, a ...
Den Otter A R - - 2011
Although it is likely that foveal information on treads provides important sensory cues for stair walking, it is unclear how gaze stabilization on treads contribute to gait control on stairs. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which (i) stair walking depends on foveal information on ...
Stins J F - - 2011
The present experiment was conducted to examine the expectation that emotion stimuli influence the initiation and execution of voluntary stepping, a highly coordinated activity involving a sequence of medio-lateral and anterio-posterior weight shifts. Thirty participants made forward (approach) or backward (avoidance) steps on a forceplate in response to the valence ...
Meager J J - - 2011
The behavioural responses of wild (predator-experienced) and hatchery-reared (predator-naive) cod Gadus morhua to standardized mechano-acoustic (MA) stimuli were compared in the laboratory. Wild fish responded mainly with freezing and fast-start escapes away from the stimulus, whereas hatchery-reared fish often ignored or approached the stimulus. Wild fish also had stronger responses, ...
Fasano Alfonso - - 2011
The effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gait coordination and freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which modulation of symmetry and coordination between legs by subthalamic deep brain stimulation alters the frequency and ...
Crowell Harrison Philip - - 2011
tibial stress fractures, which are among the most common running related injuries, have been associated with increased lower extremity loading (i.e., peak positive acceleration of the tibia, vertical force impact peak, and average and instantaneous vertical force loading rates) during initial contact. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy ...
Estupiñan D C DC Dept. de Química, Univ. Nacional de Colombia AA 14490 Bogotá, - - 2011
The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored ...
Chauzat Marie-Pierre - - 2011
The frequency of occurrence and relative concentration of 44 pesticides in apicultural (Apis mellifera) matrices collected from five French locations (24 apiaries) were assessed from 2002 to 2005. The number and nature of the pesticides investigated varied with the matrices examined-living honeybees, pollen loads, honey, and beeswax. Pollen loads and ...
Dylewicz Rafal - - 2011
We describe a new technique for random surface texturing of a gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diode wafer through a mask-less dry etch process. This involves depositing a sub-monolayer film of silica nanospheres (typical diameter of 200 nm) and then subjecting the coated wafer to a dry etch process with enhanced ...
Luyten Laura - - 2011
Contextual conditioning in rats is typically quantified using startle amplitude or freezing time. Our goal was to create a robust contextual conditioning protocol combining both startle amplitude and freezing time as measures of contextual anxiety. Comparison of 0.8 mA - 250 ms shocks with an established shock configuration (0.3 mA ...
Robbins Daniel W - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repetition maximum (RM) loads and training patterns on acute neuromuscular responses in the upper body. Markers of fatigue were monitored under a descending pattern (DP), in which repetitions decreased in subsequent sets, and an ascending pattern (AP), in which ...
Cosman Joshua D - - 2010
The onset of motion captures attention during visual search even if the motion is not task relevant, which suggests that motion onsets capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. However, we have recently shown that stimulus-driven attentional capture by abruptly appearing objects is attenuated under conditions of high perceptual load. In ...
Cheng S - - 2011
The electromyographic (EMG) activity of human upper airway muscles, particularly the genioglossus, has been widely measured, but the relationship between EMG activity and physical movement of the airway muscles remains unclear. We aimed to measure the motion of the soft tissues surrounding the airway during normal and loaded inspiration on ...
Christou Evangelos A - - 2011
The purpose was to determine the influence of movement variability and level of muscle activation on the accuracy of targeted movements performed with the index finger by young and older adults. Twelve young (27.4 ± 4.4 years) and 12 older adults (74.5 ± 8.9 years) attempted to match the end position of an index ...
Marchi Damiano - - 2010
This study proposes a new way to use metatarsals to identify locomotor behavior of fossil hominins. Metatarsal head articular dimensions and diaphyseal strength in a sample of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and humans (n = 76) are used to explore the relationships of these parameters with different locomotor modes. Results show ...
Jiang Lin - - 2010
Bi(2)WO(6) nanoparticles loaded on a spherical MCM-48 mesoporous molecular sieve with a high photocatalytic activity in the visible-light range was synthesized for the first time using a facile one-step process.
Lattanza Lisa L - - 2010
Posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) of the elbow results from injury to the lateral collateral ligament complex from trauma or iatrogenic injury. The lateral pivot-shift test (PST) is standard for diagnosing PLRI, but its subjectivity affects diagnosis and makes it difficult to train young surgeons. A well-controlled investigation has not been ...
Theilmeier Andreas - - 2010
Moving patients or other care activities with manual patient handling is characterized by high mechanical load on the lumbar spine of healthcare workers (HCWs). During the patient transfer activity, the caregivers exert lifting, pulling, and pushing forces varying over time with respect to amplitude and direction. Furthermore, the caregivers distinctly ...
Hwang Ing-Shiou - - 2011
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of low-level loading on digit tracking and the associated physiological tremors in the moving and the stationary digits. Sixteen healthy adults conducted positional tracking with the middle finger under the loaded and unloaded conditions; meanwhile, trajectory of the middle finger, electromyographic activities ...
Rowson Steven - - 2010
To investigate the effects of footwear on Achilles tendon tension by directly measuring Achilles tendon tension and dorsiflexion range of motion. A total of 48 matched pair tests were performed comparing the effects of shoe type (high-top vs low-top) for each shoelace configuration (tied vs untied). These were performed using ...
Wyndow Narelle - - 2010
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common injury in running sports. While the exact aetiology of Achilles injury is still unclear, foot orthoses are often effectively employed in the conservative management of the condition. Foot orthoses have traditionally been provided for people with AT on the basis that they may reduce ...
Tseng Hsien-Yu - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of load carrying methods, stair slopes and walking speeds on heart rate and walking postures. Nine participants climbed up and down stairs with various stair slopes (24°, 30° and 36°), walking speeds (72, 96, and 132 steps per minute), and ...
Dai Boyi - - 2010
Lifting loads that have a horizontal velocity (e.g. lifting from a conveyor) is often seen in industry and it was hypothesised that the inertial characteristics of these loads may influence lifting technique and low back stress. Seventeen male participants were asked to perform lifting tasks under conditions of four horizontal ...
Sariali Elhadi - - 2010
Edge-loading generates higher wear rates in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip prosthesis (THP). To investigate the friction coefficient (FC) in these conditions, three alumina ceramic (Biolox Forte) 32 mm-diameter components were tested using a hip friction simulator. The cup was positioned with a 75 degrees abduction angle to achieve edge-loading conditions. The ...
Buckingham Gavin G Centre for Brain and Mind, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. - - 2010
When lifting objects of identical mass but different sizes, people perceive the smaller objects as weighing more than the larger ones (the 'size-weight' illusion, SWI). While individual's grip and load force rates are rapidly scaled to the objects' actual mass, the magnitude of the force used to lift these SWI-inducing ...
Furst Laura - - 2010
The photoredox-mediated direct intermolecular C-H functionalization of substituted indoles, pyrroles, and furans with diethyl bromomalonate is described, utilizing the visible light-induced reductive quenching pathway of Ru(bpy)(3)Cl(2). An analysis of reductive quenchers and mechanistic considerations has led to an optimized protocol for the heteroaromatic alkylations, providing products in good yields and ...
Gordon Keith E - - 2010
Humans with spinal cord injury (SCI) modulate locomotor output in response to limb load. Understanding the neural control mechanisms responsible for locomotor adaptation could provide a framework for selecting effective interventions. We quantified feedback and feedforward locomotor adaptations to limb load modulations in people with incomplete SCI. While subjects airstepped ...
Hsieh Sung-Chih - - 2010
Nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are extensively used in endodontic treatment because of their outstanding mechanical properties. However, unexpected fracture of NiTi rotary instruments occurs during endodontic procedures. Therefore, a reliable method to detect the structural status of a used NiTi instrument is needed. The aim of this study is to use ...
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