Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 778
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >
Kazerooni H - - 1991
This article describes the dynamics, control, and stability of extenders, robotic systems worn by humans for material handling tasks. Extenders are defined as robot manipulators which extend (i.e., increase) the strength of the human arm in load maneuvering tasks, while the human maintains control of the task. Part of the ...
Nag P K - - 1991
This study examines the influence of different modes of load holding on the isometric strength exertion and endurance capacity. Six healthy males underwent longitudinal testing with the trunk, knee and elbow in 10 different (straight and bent) postures. The load heights (LH) of 320, 440, 850 and 1250 mm from ...
Shirazi-Adl A - - 1991
In this study, the contact loads and regions on facets of a lumbar motion segment are quantitatively determined. The analysis accounts for both material and geometric nonlinearities and treats the facet articulation as a frictionless, nonlinear, moving contact problem. The loadings consist of axial torque and lateral bending acting alone ...
McKellop H - - 1991
The motion of three different press-fit hip prosthesis femoral components was compared with that of a cemented stem and an Austin Moore noncemented hemiarthroplasty. Synthetic composite femurs were used as an experimental model to reduce the variations in shape and quality typical among cadaver femurs. Motion was measured under axial ...
Picton D C - - 1991
Previous investigations have established the displacement characteristics of the teeth under axial load in monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis). The methods employed in these investigations have been used to study the displacements under occlusal load of both conventional fixed bridges and cantilever bridges, having different numbers of abutments. Under axial load there ...
Baldissera F F Istituto di Fisiologia Umana II, Università di Milano, - - 1991
Rhythmic flexion-extensions of ipsilateral hand and foot are easily performed ("easy" association) when the two segments are moved in phase (isodirectionally), whereas great care and attention are required ("difficult" association) to move them in phase opposition. We searched for features distinguishing the two types of coupling by analyzing, on ten ...
Biewener A A - - 1991
Irrespective of body size and phylogenetic diversity, the skeletal systems of terrestrial mammals are built of tissue components having similar mechanical properties and material organization. Because of scale effects on skeletal form, therefore, larger mammals increase the effective mechanical advantage of their limbs to decrease mass-specific forces associated with the ...
Bock O - - 1990
We analysed the execution of multijoint pointing movements in humans while weight or spring loads were applied to the pointing hand. Visual feedback on arm and hand position was excluded. Movement paths, final positions, and normalized velocity profiles were found to be load-independent, except for the very first movement after ...
Berns G S - - 1990
This article describes an automated system designed to study the complete flexibility functions of the knee in vitro. The system allows five degrees of freedom with flexion angle being fixed, though adjustable from 0 to 45 deg. Loads corresponding to each of the five motions can be applied independently and ...
Hore J - - 1990
1. It has been demonstrated recently that, when suitably instructed, subjects could alter the stiffness at the elbow in response to a slowly and imperceptibly changing elastic load. Although evidence was provided in favour of this occurring via changes in gain of the reflex response to stretch, changes in the ...
Carson W L - - 1990
The three-dimensional components of force and moment within the plates and screws of a bilevel transpedicular spine implant construct subjected to different physiological loads were determined by experimental and finite element methods. The effect of pedicle screw angle and transfixation were studied. Untransfixed 0 degrees pedicle-to-pedicle (P-P) angle constructs with ...
Walker P S - - 1990
The effect of tibial component stem and post design on load distribution and on displacements at the component-bone interface was investigated. Four different configurations were tested with a flat component used as a control. Loading conditions included vertical central, vertical offset (eg, varus/valgus), shear and torque. Both artificial and cadaveric ...
Lew W D - - 1990
The objective of this study was to develop a method for obtaining a controllable and reproducible immediate postoperative mechanical state in a knee with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This method, called the force-setting technique, was demonstrated using a composite graft consisting of the middle third of the patellar ...
Kahmann R D - - 1990
The effect of externally applied spinal loads on facet mechanics before and after facet capsulectomy and disc alteration was investigated. Four control and four chymopapain-treated specimens were tested. Facet load and resultant load location were determined in the unaltered state, after facet capsulectomy, and after discectomy using a newly developed, ...
Bennett M B - - 1990
The subcalcaneal fat pads of Homo sapiens were subjected to cyclic compressive loading in a materials testing machine. Rates of loading and the absolute loads to which pads were subjected were chosen to simulate the pattern of forces that the pad would be exposed to during the ground contact phase ...
Mirka G A - - 1990
An experiment was performed to evaluate the motions of the lumbar spine during a constant load velocity lift. For the purposes of this study, a constant load velocity refers to the linear vertical velocity of the load. This vertical load velocity was controlled using a modified angular isokinetic dynamometer, which ...
McIntyre D R - - 1990
The purposes of this study were to identify the loading effects on preferred low-back motion and to determine the consistency of preferred low-back motion. Fifteen male and female volunteers served as subjects. Each subject performed four trials of repeated flexion and extension until either the subject became exhausted or for ...
Kristeva R - - 1990
The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of inertial loading on movement-related potentials (MRPs) recorded from the scalps of normal subjects while performing finger movements. Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1. MRPs preceding and accompanying the execution of voluntary, unilateral finger movements were investigated in 8 subjects under ...
Schmidt M B - - 1990
We undertook an interdisciplinary biomechanical and biochemical study to explore the extent and manner in which the total pool of proteoglycans influences the kinetic and static behavior of bovine articular cartilage in tension. Two biomechanical tests were used: (a) the viscoelastic creep test and (b) a slow constant-rate uniaxial tension ...
Wilson E P - - 1990
This study examines the effects on the hearing response in the monkey resulting from an increasing load on the stapes exerted by an implantable middle ear transducer. The transducer was placed on the distal end portion of the long process of the incus in monkeys and progressively advanced in small ...
Iwamoto H - - 1990
1. The force-velocity (P-V) relation of single frog skeletal muscle fibres was examined in non-steady-state conditions in which the load on the fibre changed continuously with time. Two such types of condition were used; in one type, the load was increased from zero to the maximum isometric force (P0) (auxotonic ...
Smeets J B JB Vakgroep Medische en Fysiologische Fysica, Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, The - - 1990
Subjects made fast goal-directed elbow flexion movements against an inertial load. Target distance was 8 or 16 cm, randomly chosen. To exert a force in the direction of the movement subjects had to activate flexors of both shoulder and elbow, but shoulder flexors did not change appreciably in length during ...
Martin P E - - 1990
In this study, designed to determine the effect of lower extremity inertia manipulation on joint kinetics and segment energetics during the swing phase, 15 male distance runners were filmed as they performed treadmill running (3.35 m s-1) under five load conditions: no added load and loads of 0.25 kg and ...
Yano T - - 1989
The work load for the treadmill test is generally controlled by changing the slope of the treadmill (vertical method). Recently a new loading method was devised in which the subject pulls a weight horizontal from behind on the treadmill (horizontal method). The present study was conducted to compare the oxygen ...
Pjanowski G J - - 1989
The load-to-gap formation, maximum load, gap present at maximum load, and failure mode were compared among four suture patterns: Bunnell-Mayer, modified Kessler, Mason-Allen, and simple interrupted. Sixty-four goat tendons were sutured with 2-0 monofilament polypropylene in one of the patterns and distracted at 92 cm/min with an electrohydraulic materials testing ...
Pead M J - - 1989
The capacity of bone to organize and reorganize its structure in response to changing mechanical demands is well recognized. However, the mechanism by which the changing mechanical environment is detected, and the means by which this information is translated into a stimulus for structural modification, are not understood. A group ...
Walmsley A D - - 1989
When operated in air, the sonic endodontic instrument produced a movement at the driver head which resulted in a large elliptical oscillation of the file. This motion had similar properties to ultrasonically operated files in that there was a distinct variability in the magnitude of the vibratory motion between files ...
Kawabe S - - 1989
Premotor times in simultaneous bilateral elbow-flexion movements were measured for 20 subjects when loads (light or heavy) were applied to both elbow joints. Premotor times for the heavy load were longer than those for the light load on both sides. The difference in premotor time between the two loads was ...
Yoganandan N - - 1989
This study is focused to evaluate the threshold of injury to an intervertebral joint based on its mechanical response. The load-deflection behavior of the intervertebral joint indicated non-linear and sigmoidal characteristics with continuously changing stiffness (a measure of the ability to withstand external force). The load corresponding to the point ...
Wilder D G - - 1989
A loading or "balance" point was sought that could serve as a functional reference for mechanically testing spinal motion segments. This point is located above the in-vitro motion segment where, when an axial compressive load is applied, the segment exhibits minimal coupled rotation. The balance point is a reliable indicator ...
Watson P - - 1989
The familiar cracking sounds produced by distraction of the metacarpophalangeal joints were studied using accelerometers and a computerized signal analysis system. The joints were distracted in a controlled manner using a motorized device which simultaneously monitored the load on the joint and its extension. The load and extension parameters and ...
Proctor C S - - 1989
The intrinsic compressive and tensile properties of normal bovine medial menisci were measured, and the variations in these properties with respect to the structural organization of the tissue and test specimen location were examined. Using a confined compression experiment, the compressive aggregate modulus and permeability of the meniscus were determined. ...
Genaidy A M - - 1989
The purpose of the present study was to determine endurance time for manual lifting tasks which were performed over a wide range of loads (5, 10, 15, and 20 kg) and frequencies (4, 6, 8, and 10 times/min) for a lift from floor to table height. Endurance time was defined ...
Bernhardt D B - - 1988
The intent of this article is to present a detailed overview of the normal prenatal and postnatal development and growth of the lower limb with special emphasis on the ankle-foot complex. The effects of physiologic load and its components of duration, timing, and direction are discussed. The results of abnormal ...
Simmons R W - - 1988
Two experiments investigated whether unexpected and differential loading of a rapid, unsighted arm movement resulted in the central nervous system (CNS) regulating limb stiffness by modifying the associated neuromuscular activity. In Experiment 1, subjects completed multiple, spring-loaded training trials until a prespecified criterion of learning was attained. On selected trials, ...
Riemersma D J - - 1988
Loads on the suspensory ligament, deep digital flexor tendon, superficial digital flexor tendon, and long digital extensor tendon of the equine hind limb were determined in ponies by use of implanted strain gauges consisting of silicone rubber tubes filled with mercury. Recordings were made simultaneously with force plate measurements and ...
Shirazi-Adl A - - 1988
A 3-D nonlinear mathematical model is used to analyze the mechanical response of a lumbar L2-3 motion segment including the posterior elements when subjected to combined sagittal plane loads. The loadings consist of axial compression force, anterior and posterior shear forces, and flexion and extension moments. The facet articulation is ...
Brooke J D - - 1988
The paper describes electrical circuitry which replaces a mechanical brake, for perturbation of the contractile load of the legs during pedalling. The turning flywheel of an ergometer is connected to an alternator, with the electrical load provided by a power resistor connected across the output terminals. A 12-V battery provides ...
Marras W S - - 1988
Many attempts have been made to describe the activity of the internal trunk-loading components (muscles and intra-abdominal pressure) in response to external forces acting on the trunk, as is often the case in the workplace. Most models that describe the activity of these internal components are static and do not ...
Enoka R M - - 1988
An exemplary short duration, high-power, weightlifting event was examined to determine whether the ability to lift heavier loads and whether variations in the level of skill were accompanied by quantitative changes in selected aspects of lower extremity joint power-time histories. Six experienced weightlifters, three skilled and three less skilled, performed ...
Goel V K - - 1988
The effect of a "pure" cyclic flexion bending moment on the three-dimensional load-displacement behavior of fresh ligamentous lumbar spine was investigated. The load-displacement behavior, for 11 L1-sacrum specimens, pre- and post-cyclic fatigue bending tests were quantified using a Selspot II system. A special fixture was designed to mount the specimen ...
Zhang L F - - 1988
This paper presents and discusses the methodology and results of studies on respiratory sensation by using a fuzzy set category judgement model and applying the concept of just noticeable difference (JND) step and equivalent sensation. A new kind of category scale, the multistage evaluation scale (MES), based on a fuzzy ...
Lanir Y - - 1988
Simultaneous measurements of load, deformation and diameter were performed on stretched collagen fiber bundle from rat tail tendon using a dynamic, electronically controlled stretch system and a novel computer based electroptical set-up. A parallel analysis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration in the bathing solution was carried out to determine whether stretching ...
Scholten P J - - 1988
The pelvis, a major load carrying component of the musculoskeletal system, is sometimes suspected as a site of mechanically provoked low back pain. Thus, studies of its basic biomechanics seem warranted. This study used biomechanical model simulations to examine how pelvic geometry and joint soft tissue properties influence relative motions ...
Goel V K - - 1987
A linear optimization model was formulated using a semi-experimental protocol to estimate the forces in the spinal elements of a lumbar motion segment subjected to an extension or lateral bending moment with and without a 120 N compressive preload. A morphometer was used to acquire the three-dimensional locations of the ...
Lee M C - - 1987
The two-dimensional mechanical properties of human pericardium from seven males undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were studied. A 25-mm square piece of parietal pericardium overlying the right ventricle was excised. An approximately 8-mm square target was marked at the center, and its dimension was measured electrooptically. When immersed in physiological ...
Keller E - - 1987
A factor analysis of 11 measures of lingual activity involved in the production of the syllable /ka/ showed that three factors can explain about 75% of the variance in the data. Measures of displacement and velocity loaded strongly on the first factor, durational measures loaded strongly on the second factor, ...
Furst E J - - 1987
Voluntary enhancement and suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was investigated in 12 normal subjects aged 23-74. Eye movements were recorded using DC electro-oculography in response to two patterns of horizontal rotation: (1) single-frequency sinusoids in the 0.05-0.8 Hz frequency range; and (2) pseudorandom waveforms consisting of a sum of ...
Robbins S E - - 1987
A number of reports indicate an extremely low running-related injury frequency in barefoot populations in contrast to reports about shod populations. It is hypothesized that the adaptations which produce shock absorption, an inherent consequence of barefoot activity and a mechanism responsible for the low injury frequency in unshod populations, are ...
Mayock D E - - 1987
The diaphragmatic force generation and electromyographic response to long-term (1 h) inspiratory resistive loading was examined in the newborn piglet during the 3rd postnatal wk of life. Minute ventilation decreased to approximately 50% of baseline level within 5 min of imposition of a severe resistive load and remained at this ...
< 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >