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Results 501 - 550 of 778
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Wu J Z - - 1998
The composition and amount of extracellular matrix produced by chondrocytes are thought to be influenced by the stress and strain states in the vicinity of the chondrocytes. During daily activities, such as walking and running, articular joints are loaded dynamically. In the present study, a solution is proposed to simulate ...
Buschmann M D - - 1998
Experimental and theoretical methods were used to investigate the linearity of the stress response of articular cartilage to ramp and sinusoidal tests in confined compression, as well as the role of cartilage-porous platen and lateral confinement boundary conditions in determining material responses. With respect to linearity, we posed the question ...
Sparto P J - - 1998
The evaluation of the effect of lifting belts on multijoint coordinated lifting performance has been limited. Thirteen subjects participated in two experiments: (a) fatiguing repetitive sagittal lifting and (b) asymmetric lifting. Both experiments were performed with and without the use of a common flexible lifting belt to determine the effect ...
Pedersen D R - - 1998
The motions of counterface articulation against the bearing surface of the acetabular liner strongly influence polyethylene wear debris production in contemporary total hip arthroplasty. However, the available body of relevant articular force and motion information is largely confined to resultant load excursions measured relative to instrumented femoral components, and/or to ...
Goh J-H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in lumbosacral spine forces under varying backpack loads. DESIGN: A biomechanical model was used to determine the changes in peak forces in the L5/S1 joint with increasing backpack loads during level walking. BACKGROUND: Most studies involving varying external backpack loads have been concerned mainly with ...
Jansen R D - - 1998
PURPOSE: To abstract the essential elements of chiropractic prone leg checking and subject them to controlled, experimental parametric testing. DESIGN: Controlled, objective, repeated-measure analysis of the dynamic response of leg positions to distractive and compressive loading conditions. SETTING: Research laboratory in a chiropractic college. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five compression and 30 distraction ...
Wang J-L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The dynamic response and load sharing amongst passive elements of an L2-L3 motion segment during axial compressive cyclic loading was investigated. DESIGN: A validated viscoelastic nonlinear finite element model of L2-L3 was used for a detailed stress/strain analysis during axial cyclic loading. BACKGROUND: The repetitive loading of the spine ...
Purslow P P - - 1998
Collagen fibres form cross-helical, cross-ply or quasi-random feltworks in extensible connective tissues; strain-induced reorientation of these networks gives rise to the non-linear mechanical properties of connective tissue at finite strains. Such tissues are also generally viscoelastic (i.e. display time-dependent properties). The hypothesis that time-dependent reorientation of collagen fibres is responsible ...
Sparto P J - - 1997
STUDY DESIGN: A repetitive lifting test in the sagittal plane was performed with a submaximal load at a maximal lifting rate to understand the effects of fatigue on kinematic and kinetic measures of performance. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of fatigue during a highly repetitive lifting task, in terms of ...
Steinmeyer J - - 1997
This study describes the effect of load magnitude, frequency and duration on proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and loss in mature bovine articular cartilage explants. Cultured full thickness cartilage discs were subjected to a continuously applied, uniaxial compressive cyclic load. The loads were applied using a sinusoidal waveform of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 ...
Simonian P T - - 1997
In an attempt to understand better the contribution of the anteroinferior and posterosuperior popliteomeniscal fasciculi to lateral meniscus stability, we objectively evaluated the stability of the lateral meniscus before and after sequentially sectioning these fasciculi. In the biomechanical model, we attempted to account for the inherent limitations of arthroscopic evaluation ...
Takarada Y - - 1997
The relation between the eccentric force developed during a countermovement and the mechanical power output was studied in squatting exercises under nominally isotonic load (50% of 1-repetition maximum). The subjects (n = 5) performed squatting exercises with a countermovement at varied deceleration rates before lifting the load. The ground reaction ...
Serina E R - - 1997
Repeated loading of the fingertips has been postulated to contribute to tendon and nerve disorders at the wrist during activities associated with prolonged fingertip loading such as typing. To fully understand the pathomechanics of these soft tissue disorders, the role of the fingertip pulp in attenuating the applied dynamic forces ...
Hsiang S M - - 1997
Co-ordination of various components of the human body during the course of lifting are very complex and difficult to control. This study hypothesized that strategies used to control the motion patterns of the external load may be applied to control co-ordination and also to control the level of compressive force ...
Raposio E - - 1997
The aim of the present study was to evaluate quantitatively the change in stiffness of scalp flaps determined by increased loads of tension. Data were collected by stepwise loading 20 scalp flaps, created by a reversed-Y incision down to and through the galea aponeurotica together with undermining. In the layer ...
Lee M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of the responses to spinal posteroanterior loading has involved measuring the gradient of the linear region of the force-displacement relationship between 30 N and 100 N of applied force. However, forces applied during manual assessment of stiffness may reach 300 N. This study investigated whether the force-displacement relation ...
Yingling Vanessa R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load rate on the mechanical characteristics of spinal motion segments under compressive loading. DESIGN: An in vitro experiment using a porcine model which ensured a homogeneous population for age, weight, genetic background and physical activity. BACKGROUND: Spinal motion ...
Kurtz S M - - 1997
Mechanical interactions between the polyethylene liner and the metal-backing play an important role in the load transfer and debris-generation mechanisms of an acetabular component. Insert thickness, cup orientation, and insert-shell interface conditions affect the resulting contact stresses at the articulating and backside surfaces of the polyethylene component. The objective of ...
Khalsa P S - - 1997
It has been hypothesized that applied mechanical or osmotic loads which decrease cartilage volume by 5% or more are sufficient to relieve all collagen tensile forces, and that further changes in the applied load are completely supported by changes in proteoglycan osmotic pressure. In this view, cartilage should behave mechanically ...
van Wendel de Joode B - - 1997
In a population of male workers in two ship maintenance companies (n = 32), a workplace survey was conducted in order to quantify their physical load. Postural load was measured by using the Ovako Working posture Analyzing System. During 7480 observations, working postures, exertion of force and working activities were ...
Rolf C - - 1997
This paper presents the pilot procedures of a new in vivo experimental method for measures of local bone deformation on tibia. The tibia transducer consists of a strain gauge mounted on a surgical staple, and was designed to measure local bone deformation. Pilot measurements were undertaken during two standardized conditions ...
Oztürk N - - 1997
The study was carried out to determine the differences in the low-frequency dynamic mechanical properties of the guinea pig aorta and portal vein. Experiments were performed at five passive load levels in the aorta and at four levels in the portal vein. Sudden stretches 65 s in duration were imposed ...
Holbein M A - - 1997
Stability of the body during manual material handling is an important issue in the prevention of falls and over-exertion injuries. This research investigated stability limits while standing and holding loads in different positions relative to the body. Theoretically, the stability region is the full base of support defined by the ...
Boyd T F - - 1997
To provide a scientific basis for the design of bicycle pedals which possibly alleviate over-use knee injuries, two hypotheses were tested in the present study. The two hypotheses were: (1) that the three-dimensional pedal constraint loads; and (2) that the three-dimensional intersegmental knee loads would be reduced more significantly by ...
Sanders J E - - 1997
Instrumentation was developed to apply controlled biaxial (normal and shear) forces to the skin of a human or animal subject. The instrument mimicked any reference waveform within the constraints of a bandwidth of 15 Hz, a maximum force of 20 N, and displacement ranges of 15 mm for the normal ...
Barker M K - - 1997
In locomotive activities, areas of cartilage in both the hip, and especially the knee, experience periods of complete unloading between loading cycles as contact is lost between opposing articulating surfaces. During these periods these cartilage sites experience load-free recovery. Therefore, it was decided to model as closely as possible the ...
Cornwall MW - - 1997
INTRODUCTION:: Little information exits concerning the effect, if any, foot orthoses have upon how the foot is loaded during normal walking. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the initiation of forefoot loading with different densities of foot orthoses. METHODS:: Ten volunteers (5 ...
Newman D J - - 1997
This Note describes the dynamic load sensors (DLS) spaceflight experiment that measured middeck astronaut-induced disturbances during the 14-day STS-62 Space Shuttle mission in March 1994. The DLS experiment was flown in conjunction with the reflight of the Middeck 0-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE). The objective of MODE was to investigate effects ...
Chai P - - 1997
Maximal load-lifting capacities of six ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) were determined under conditions of burst performance. Mechanical power output under maximal loading was then compared with maximal hovering performance in hypodense gas mixtures of normodense air and heliox. The maximal load lifted was similar at air temperatures of 5 and ...
Flanagan J R - - 1997
We investigated the issue of whether or not the CNS makes use of an internal model of the motor apparatus in planning and controlling arm movements. In particular, we tested the ability of subjects to predict different hand-held loads by examining grip force adjustments used to stabilize the load in ...
Bergmann G - - 1997
In some diseases affecting only 1 hip joint, it is necessary to keep the contact force between femoral head and acetabulum (hip joint force) permanently low at the affected side. Six subjects were examined while they were walking and carrying a load in 1 or 2 hands. It was determined ...
Flanagan J R - - 1997
In this paper, we report the results from two experiments in which subjects were required to discriminate horizontal load forces applied to a manipulandum held with a precision grip. The roughness (and hence friction) of the grip surfaces and required grip force were manipulated. In the first experiment, subjects were ...
Newton R U - - 1997
Although explosive power in lower-body movements has been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research examining such movements in the upper body. This study aimed to investigate the influence of load and the stretch shortening cycle (SSC) on the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation that occurs during maximal effort ...
Haynes R C - - 1997
This study was directed at establishing the influence of dynamic loading situations on the sliding characteristics of the Gamma locking nail (Howmedica). It was postulated that the changing regions of load contact area that occur within the sliding mechanism during flexion and extension would favourably modify the jamming behaviour observed ...
Wetzler M J - - 1996
Suture anchors have simplified anterior capsule labral reconstruction. During rehabilitation the shoulder goes through many repetitions of range of motion exercises. These exercises will repetitively submaximally load the anchor and in theory should reduce the pullout strength of the suture anchor. No published reports exist on the fatigue strengths and ...
de Looze M P - - 1996
In manual materials handling jobs a reduction in the weight of materials often concurs with an increase in handling frequency. The effect of weight and inversely related frequency on spinal load was studied in two bricklaying tasks: building the skin and the floor of a steel ladle. In both tasks ...
Gottlieb G L - - 1996
1. Experiments were performed to characterize the trajectories, net muscle torques, and electromyogram (EMG) patterns when subjects performed voluntary elbow flexions against different compliant loads. Subjects made movements in a single-joint manipulandum with different loads generated by a torque motor. Some series of movements were performed under entirely known and ...
Walsh S M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to validate an in vitro method of testing first metatarsophalangeal joint mechanics. DESIGN: We compared the orientation of the resultant moment of hallucal plantarflexion in cadaveric specimens undergoing loading of the flexor hallucis longus to the plane of the active great toe plantarflexion ...
Kumar S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the spinal compression can be used as a criterion for the safety of the back. DESIGN: Various lifting strength activities were analysed using a 3-D biomechanical model to determine spinal compression forces. BACKGROUND: Despite many standards being set and the use of varied strategies, low-back injuries ...
Suh J K - - 1996
To study the effect of dynamic mechanical force on cartilage metabolism, many investigators have applied a cyclic compressive load to cartilage disc explants in vitro. The most frequently used in vitro testing protocol has been the cyclic unconfined compression of articular cartilage in a bath of culture medium. Cyclic compression ...
Winter D A - - 1996
1. Control of posture in quiet stance has been quantified by center of pressure (COP) changes in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and medial-lateral (M/L) directions from a single force platform. Recording from a single force platform, researchers are unable to recognize two separate mechanisms that become evident when two force platforms ...
Wickström G - - 1996
A method for evaluation of the physical load on the lumbar spine in industrial work is presented. It is suitable for identification of high spinal loads and their time duration. The method is based on biomechanical analysis of video-recordings. It takes into account the posture of the body as such, ...
Cole G K - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to estimate lower extremity joint impact loading in running and the influences of muscles on this loading. DESIGN: A 2D simulation model that included skeletal motion, muscles, and soft-tissue movement was developed in this study. BACKGROUND: Our understanding of joint impact loading ...
Dye S F - - 1996
The knee can be characterized as a complex set of asymmetrical moving parts acting together as a living biologic transmission. The purpose of this system is to accept, transfer, and dissipate loads generated at the ends of the long mechanical lever arms of the femur and tibia. In this analogy, ...
Viceconti M - - 1996
Hip joint simulators were developed for predicting, by attempting to duplicate in vitro physiological loads and motion, the wear rate that total hip replacements are likely to show in vivo. From a theoretical point of view, loading and motion cycles of hip joints could be closely reproduced by three rotation ...
Vernazza S - - 1996
The question was addressed in this study as to whether the kinematic synergy responsible for equilibrium control during upper trunk movements may involve an actual evaluation of the weight of the body segments. Five adult subjects were asked to bend the upper trunk forward or backward to an angle of ...
Robert G - - 1996
This paper examines the detailed pattern of hormonal and affective response to natural variations in work demands, in relation to a taxonomy of adaptive response based on Frankenhaeuser's (1986) psychobiological analysis of coping modes and Hockey's (1993) regulatory control model. Two junior doctors were monitored every day over a 7-week ...
Buckwalter J A - - 1996
One of the most important advances in the promotion of musculoskeletal healing has come from understanding that treatment of injuries with prolonged rest may delay recovery and adversely affect normal tissues and that controlled early resumption of activity can promote restoration of function. Experimental studies of the past several decades ...
Allread W G - - 1996
This study investigated trunk kinematic differences between lifts performed using either one hand (unsupported) or two hands. These effects were studied while beginning the lifts from different asymmetric starting positions and while lifting different load weights. Each subject lifted a box from a lower to an upper platform under one- ...
McGill S M - - 1996
Measurement of spinal shrinkage (stadiometry) has been suggested to be a convenient measure of low-back load in workplace settings. This report documents three separate experiments that collectively form a central theme: Is the measurement of spinal shrinkage a suitable assessment technique to quantify the cumulative effect of loading on the ...
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