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Pattanaik Bagmi B Department of Energy - Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, - - 2014
Photosynthetic organisms adapt to environmental fluctuations of light and nutrient availability. Iron is critical for photosynthetic organismal growth, as many cellular processes depend upon iron cofactors. Whereas low iron levels can have deleterious effects, excess iron can lead to damage, as iron is a reactive metal that can result in ...
Laurier Katrien G M - - 2013
Herein, a new group of visible light photocatalysts is described. Iron(III)oxides could be promising visible light photocatalysts because of their small band gap enabling visible light excitation. However, the high electron-hole recombination rate limits the yield of highly oxidizing species. This can be overcome by reducing the particle dimensions. In ...
Joyce Christopher - - 2013
The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether significant three-dimensional (3D) trunk kinematic differences existed between a driver and a five-iron during a golf swing; and (ii) to determine the anthropometric, physiological, and trunk kinematic variables associated with clubhead speed. Trunk range of motion and golf swing kinematic ...
Kunugi Motoshi - - 2013
Chlorophyll b is found in photosynthetic prokaryotes and primary and secondary endosymbionts, although their light-harvesting systems are quite different. Chlorophyll b is synthesized from chlorophyll a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), which is a Rieske-mononuclear iron oxygenase. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of CAO among photosynthetic organisms elucidated changes ...
Evertsson Maria - - 2013
It has recently been demonstrated that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be used as magnetomotive ultrasound contrast agents. A time-varying external magnetic field acts to move the particles and, thus, the nanoparticle-laden tissue. However, the difficulty of distinguishing this magnetomotive motion from undesired movement induced in regions without nanoparticles or ...
Cheah Wee - - 2013
Climate-driven changes are expected to alter the hydrography of the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) south of Australia, in which distinct regional environments are believed to be responsible for the differences in phytoplankton biomass in these regions. Here, we report how the dynamic influences of light, iron ...
Zhou Xiaoxia - - 2012
The hierarchically porous and iron-functionalized zeolite ZSM-5 has been fabricated as a Fenton photocatalyst by a facile post-treatment process, which exhibits an excellent visible-light catalytic property in the adsorption/degradation of organic pollutants under mild reaction conditions.
Wyble Brad - - 2011
Three experiments using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tested participants' ability to detect targets in streams that are in motion. These experiments compared the ability to identify moving versus stationary RSVP targets and examined the attentional blink with pairs of targets that were moving or stationary. One condition presented RSVP ...
Sato Yamato - - 2011
Stepping over obstacles to avoid tripping is an essential component in safe and smooth locomotion. Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is completed in several steps during the approach phase toward the obstacle and stepping over the obstacle. The purpose of this study was to investigate gait modification during the approach phase ...
Fourchet François - - 2011
This study aimed to examine the effects of a 5-h hilly run on ankle plantar (PF) and dorsal flexor (DF) force and fatigability. It was hypothesised that DF fatigue/fatigability would be greater than PF fatigue/fatigability. Eight male trail long distance runners (42.5 ± 5.9 years) were tested for ankle PF and DF maximal ...
Gilbert A D - - 2011
This paper concerns the interaction of several ferromagnetic microswimmers, their motion and the resulting fluid mixing. Each swimmer consists of two ferromagnetic beads joined by an elastic link, and is driven by an external, time-dependent magnetic field. The external field provides a torque on a swimmer and, together with the ...
Appel Esther - - 2011
In this study, we compared the dorsal and ventral patterns of three vein joint types and three types of resilin patches in the wings of the dragonfly Epiophlebia superstes. The joint types were classified according to their general structure and the resilin patch types according to their arrangement at joints ...
Ten Hoopen Gert - - 2011
The multiple-look notion holds that the difference limen (DL) decreases with multiple observations. We investigated this notion for temporal discrimination in isochronous sound sequences. In Experiment 1, we established a multiple-look effect when sequences comprised nine standard time intervals (S) followed by an increasing number of comparison time intervals (C), ...
Zhao Liang - - 2011
In diverse biological flight systems, the leading edge vortex has been implicated as a flow feature of key importance in the generation of flight forces. Unlike fixed wings, flapping wings can translate at higher angles of attack without stalling because their leading edge vorticity is more stable than the corresponding ...
Rhea Christopher K - - 2011
During locomotion over uneven terrain, gait must be adapted to avoid a trip. In the event of a foot-obstacle contact, the body reactively responds to the perturbation. However, it is unknown if any proactive adjustments are made in subsequent strides to reduce the likelihood of another contact, and how long ...
Harvey Alison M - - 2011
This study aimed to assess the effect of lateral heel studs on foot-ground interaction in the horse by quantifying foot slip during stance whilst cantering on a grass surface. It was hypothesised that using studs would decrease foot slip distance on the ground conditions tested. Nine horses were ridden with ...
Schmidt André - - 2011
Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch ...
Alagic Zlatan - - 2011
Abstract Conclusion: The findings from this study extend the use of the local application of D-methionine (D-met) to protect against acoustic trauma and demonstrate that D-met slowly diffuses from the perilymph. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of D-met on auditory function and morphology after ...
Isobe Yoshiaki - - 2011
Metabolic activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a center of biological rhythm, is higher during the daytime than at night. The rhythmic oscillation in the SCN is feedback controlled by the Clock/Bmal1 heterodimer binding to the E-box in target genes (e.g., Arg-vasopressin). Similar transcriptional regulation by Npas2/Bmal1 heterodimer formation operates ...
Jensen Kenneth - - 2011
Plants are light-driven "green" factories able to synthesize more than 200,000 different bio-active natural products, many of which are high-value products used as drugs (e.g. artemisinin, taxol and thapsigargin). In the formation of natural products, cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases play a key role in catalyzing regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations that ...
Boiteau G - - 2011
The observation of insects and other small organisms entangled in the habitat after the addition of vertical or trailing electronic tags to their body has generated concerns on the suitability of harmonic radars to track the dispersal of insects. This study compared the walking behavior of adult Colorado potato beetle ...
Poyton Robert O - - 2011
Currently, light therapies are widely used in both human and veterinarian medicine. The application of light to clinical therapeutics includes: photodynamic therapy, used to kill cancer cells; UVA therapies, used to treat a variety of skin diseases; and photobiomodulation, used to promote cell growth and recovery from injury. Photobiomodu-lation uses ...
Thompson Stewart - - 2011
Detection of light in the eye contributes both to spatial awareness (form vision) and to responses that acclimate an animal to gross changes in light (irradiance detection). This dual role means that eye disease that disrupts form vision can also adversely affect physiology and behavioral state. The purpose of this ...
Trexler E Brady - - 2011
In the retina, rod bipolar (RBP) cells synapse with many rods, and suppression of rod outer segment and synaptic noise is necessary for their detection of rod single-photon responses (SPRs). Depending on the rods' signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the suppression mechanism will likely eliminate some SPRs as well, resulting in decreased ...
Kerov Vasily - - 2011
Diffusion and light-dependent compartmentalization of transducin are essential for phototransduction and light adaptation of rod photoreceptors. Here, transgenic Xenopus laevis models were designed to probe the roles of transducin/rhodopsin interactions and lipid modifications in transducin compartmentalization, membrane mobility, and light-induced translocation. Localization and diffusion of EGFP-fused rod transducin-α subunit (Gα(t1)), ...
Yu Y F - - 2010
This paper reports a pure angular momentum generator using a ring resonator surrounded by a group of nano-rods. The evanescent waves of the circulating light in the ring are scattered by the nano-rods and generate a rotating electromagnetic field, which has only angular momentum but no linear momentum along the ...
Do Michael Tri Hoang - - 2010
Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the ...
Johnson Juliette - - 2010
Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones. Direct light stimulation of ipRGCs can regulate many nonimage-forming visual functions such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and pupil responses, and can intensify migraine headache in adults. In mice, ipRGCs are light responsive as ...
Naarendorp Frank - - 2010
Visual thresholds of mice for the detection of small, brief targets were measured with a novel behavioral methodology in the dark and in the presence of adapting lights spanning ∼8 log(10) units of intensity. To help dissect the contributions of rod and cone pathways, both wild-type mice and mice lacking ...
Okawa Haruhisa - - 2010
The high sensitivity of scotopic vision depends on the efficient retinal processing of single photon responses generated by individual rod photoreceptors. At the first synapse in the mammalian retina, rod outputs are pooled by a rod "ON" bipolar cell, which uses a G-protein signaling cascade to enhance the fidelity of ...
Viénot Françoise - - 2010
In addition to rods and cones, the human retina contains melanopsin which has been identified recently in the body and dendrites of a few ganglion cells. The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are good candidates for controlling the tonic pupil aperture but their spectral sensitivity is close to those ...
Debats Nienke B - - 2010
In the present study, we sought to unravel how exploratory movements affect length perception of rods that are held in and wielded by hand. We manipulated the mechanical rod properties--mass (m), first moment of mass distribution (M), major principal moment of inertia (I(1))--individually, allowing us to assess the relative contribution ...
Volbrecht Vicki J - - 2010
Studies investigating the effect of rods on unique hue loci in the peripheral retina generally obtain measures at two time points associated with the dark adaptation function - the cone plateau and the rod plateau. In comparison, this study used a color-naming procedure to identify the loci of unique green ...
Martínez-Pabón María C - - 2010
This study aimed to determine whether the variations in the occurrence of gram-negative enteric rods as detected through a longitudinal follow up with three consecutive visits, may be associated with the periodontal clinical status. Clinical and demographic parameters from 63 untreated chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects and 45 healthy controls (HC) ...
Altimus Cara M - - 2010
In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs are not ...
Cachafeiro Maité - - 2010
C57/Bl6, Cpfl1(-/-) (cone photoreceptors function loss 1; pure rod function), Gnat1a(-/-) (rod α-transducin; pure cone function), and Rpe65(-/-);Rho(-/-) double-knockout mice were studied to distinguish the respective contributions of the different photoreceptor (PR) systems that enable light perception and mediate a visual reflex in adult Rpe65(-/-) mice, with a simple behavioral ...
Fukuda Yumi - - 2010
The mechanisms by which melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) regulate circadian rhythms in humans have not been established. To understand mRGC characteristics and their role independent of effects due to the rods and cones, mRGC responses should be induced or measured independent of cone and rod responses. In the present ...
Fukuda Yumi - - 2010
The mechanisms by which melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) regulate circadian rhythms in humans have not been established. To understand mRGC characteristics and their role independent of effects due to the rods and cones, mRGC responses should be induced or measured independent of cone and rod responses. In the present ...
Fukuda Yumi - - 2010
The mechanisms by which melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) regulate circadian rhythms in humans have not been established. To understand mRGC characteristics and their role independent of effects due to the rods and cones, mRGC responses should be induced or measured independent of cone and rod responses. In the present ...
Lobanova Ekaterina S - - 2010
The remarkable ability of our vision to function under ever-changing conditions of ambient illumination is mediated by multiple molecular mechanisms regulating the light sensitivity of rods and cones. One such mechanism involves massive translocation of signaling proteins, including the G-protein transducin, into and out of the light-sensitive photoreceptor outer segment ...
Lall Gurprit S - - 2010
Photoreceptive, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) encode ambient light (irradiance) for the circadian clock, the pupillomotor system, and other influential behavioral/physiological responses. mRGCs are activated both by their intrinsic phototransduction cascade and by the rods and cones. However, the individual contribution of each photoreceptor class to irradiance responses remains unclear. ...
Okawa Haruhisa - - 2010
The sensitivity of receptor cells places a fundamental limit upon the sensitivity of sensory systems. For example, the signal-to-noise ratio of sensory receptors has been suggested to limit absolute thresholds in the visual and auditory systems. However, the necessity of optimally processing sensory receptor signals for behaviour to approach this ...
Herrmann Rolf - - 2010
The rate of synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells has been long known to depend on conditions of ambient illumination. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate and regulate transmission at this ribbon synapse are poorly understood. We conducted electroretinographic recordings from dark- and light-adapted mice lacking the abundant photoreceptor-specific ...
Burns Marie E - - 2010
The absorption of photons in rods and cones of the retina activate homologous biochemical signaling cascades that lead to the electrical changes that subserve the first steps in vision. Persistent activity of the cascade interferes with the ability of the photoreceptor to signal the absorption of subsequent photons, ultimately limiting ...
Sato Masaki - - 2010
In the light-adapted vertebrate retina, nitric oxide (NO) modulates synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and second-order neurons. Although NO is believed to be a mediator of adaptation, its effect on photoreceptors in situ is not known yet. Therefore, we studied rod and cone activities in rat eyes in situ, using the ...
Bozku? Hakan - - 2010
OBJECT: It is unclear how the biomechanics of dynamic posterior lumbar stabilization systems and traditional rigid pedicle screw-rod systems differ. This study examined the biomechanical response of a hinged-dynamic pedicle screw compared with a standard rigid screw used in a 1-level pedicle screw-rod construct. METHODS: Unembalmed human cadaveric L3-S1 segments ...
Chen Ching-Kang - - 2010
The Ca(2+)-binding protein recoverin is thought to regulate rhodopsin kinase and to modulate the lifetime of the photoexcited state of rhodopsin (Rh*), the visual pigment of vertebrate rods. Recoverin has been postulated to inhibit the kinase in darkness, when Ca(2+) is high, and to be released from the disk membrane ...
Kefalov Vladimir J - - 2010
The visual pigment in vertebrate photoreceptors is a G protein-coupled receptor that consists of a protein, opsin, covalently attached to a chromophore, 11-cis-retinal. Activation of the visual pigment by light triggers a transduction cascade that produces experimentally measurable electrical responses in photoreceptors. The interactions between opsin and chromophore can be ...
Docherty Sharon - - 2010
Perception of subjective visual vertical (SVV) and horizontal (SVH) has traditionally been measured by rotating a mechanical rod either with or without a frame present. The computerised rod and frame (CRAF) system has previously only been used to measure SVV. We have expanded the use of this system by testing ...
Koutalos Yiannis - - 2010
The mobility of all-trans-retinol makes a crucial contribution to the rate of the reactions in which it participates. This is even more so because of its low aqueous solubility, which makes the presence of carrier proteins and the spatial arrangement of cellular membranes especially relevant. In rod photoreceptor outer segments, ...
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