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Clarke Stephen E SE Departments of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, - - 2014
Object saliency is based on the relative local-to-background contrast in the physical signals that underlie perceptual experience. As such, contrast-detecting neurons (ON/OFF cells) are found in many sensory systems, responding respectively to increased or decreased intensity within their receptive field centers. This differential sensitivity suggests that ON and OFF cells ...
Seagraves Kelly K University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; Janelia Farm Research Campus, - - 2014
The cricket's auditory system is a highly directional pressure difference receiver whose function is hypothesised to depend on phase relationships between the sound waves propagating through the auditory trachea that connects the left and right hearing organs. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of experimentally constructed phase shifts ...
González-Badillo Juan José JJ a Faculty of Sport , Pablo de Olavide University , Seville , - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the effect on strength gains of two isoinertial resistance training (RT) programmes that only differed in actual concentric velocity: maximal (MaxV) vs. half-maximal (HalfV) velocity. Twenty participants were assigned to a MaxV (n = 9) or HalfV (n = 11) group ...
Rossi Alejandra A Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA; Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, - - 2014
Our brains readily decode human movements, as shown by neural responses to face and body motion. N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) are earlier and larger to mouth opening movements relative to closing in both line-drawn and natural faces, and gaze aversions relative to direct gaze in natural faces (Puce and Perrett, ...
Berry Meredith S MS Utah State - - 2014
The present experiment investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on resistance to disruption of remembering and response rates. Pigeons were exposed to a variable-interval (VI), delayed-matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure with two components (rich and lean, distinguished by differing discriminative stimuli and hopper presentation duration). Completion of a VI 20 s schedule resulted ...
Hogri Roni R Psychobiology Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel, - - 2014
The cerebellum is necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and execution of adaptively timed conditioned motor responses following repeated paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. The underlying plasticity depends on the convergence of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli signals relayed to the cerebellum by the pontine nucleus ...
Logan David D University of Maryland, College - - 2014
In human and animal locomotion, sensory input is thought to be processed in a phase dependent manner. Here we use full-field transient visual scene motion towards or away from subjects walking on a treadmill. Perturbations were presented at three phases of walking to test 1) whether phase dependence is observed ...
Calen Walshe R R Psychology Department, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In two experiments we investigated the control of fixation durations in naturalistic scene viewing. Empirical evidence from the scene onset delay paradigm and numerical simulations of such data with the CRISP model [Psychological Review 117 (2010) 382-405] have suggested that processing related difficulties may lead to prolonged fixation durations. Here, ...
Marusich Laura R - - 2014
Objective: We use psychophysical methods to examine the maximum time intervals over which discrete events can be temporally integrated into the percept known as apparent motion. We hypothesized that the maximum time interval would be shorter in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than it would be in a ...
Weber Joanna F JF Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada, - - 2014
Chondrocyte sensitization and desensitization to mechanical stimuli are complex phenomena that have not been fully described. In this study, we investigated the temporal response of chondrocytes to dynamic mechanical loading and whether changes in calcium signaling could be used a predictor of the biosynthetic response. Cell-seeded agarose gels pre-incubated with ...
Kuroda Toshikazu T West Virginia - - 2014
The discriminative functions of the response-reinforcer relation may contribute to the changes in response rates that occur when reinforcement is delayed. These properties were investigated in three experiments with pigeons using a discrete-trials conditional discrimination procedure. A concurrent variable-interval schedule was arranged on two side keys during a sample component. ...
Mahoney Jeannette R JR The Department of Neurology, Division of Cognitive & Motor Aging, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New - - 2014
Individuals are constantly bombarded by sensory stimuli across multiple modalities that must be integrated efficiently. Multisensory integration (MSI) is said to be governed by stimulus properties including space, time, and magnitude. While there is a paucity of research detailing MSI in aging, we have demonstrated that older adults reveal the ...
Vallence Ann-Maree AM The Robinson Institute, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intracortical facilitatory and inhibitory processes in the primary motor cortex (M1) play an important role in both the preparation and execution of motor tasks. Here we aimed to (1) confirm the existence of, and further characterise, intracortical facilitation at long conditioning-test stimulus intervals at subthreshold conditioning stimulus (CS) intensities and ...
Abadi Richard V RV Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK, - - 2014
Past studies, using pairings of auditory tones and visual flashes, which were static and coincident in space but variable in time, demonstrated errors in judging the temporal patterning of the visual flashes-the sound-induced flash illusion. These errors took one of the two forms: under-reporting (sound-induced fusion) or over-reporting (sound-induced fission) ...
van de Water Steven S Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were ...
Kremers Jan - - 2014
L- and M-cone driven on- and off- ERG responses and their interactions were examined using full field stimuli with sawtooth temporal profiles. The effects of temporal frequency and contrast were studied. ERG recordings were obtained from 21 trichromatic, 1 protanopic, and 1 deuteranopic subjects. ERGs to L-cone increments and decrements ...
Cao Dingcai - - 2014
This study investigated S-cone discrimination using a test annulus surrounded by an inner and outer adapting field with systematic manipulation of the adapting l=L/(L+M) or s=S/(L+M) chromaticities. The results showed that different adapting l chromaticities altered S-cone discrimination for a high adapting s chromaticity due to parvocellular input to the ...
McKeefry Declan - - 2014
Electroretinograms (ERGs) elicited by transient, square-wave L- and M-cone isolating stimuli were recorded from human trichromatic (n=19) and dichromatic (n=4) observers. The stimuli were generated on a four primary LED stimulator and were equated in terms of cone modulation (cone contrast=0.11) and retinal illuminance (12,000 trolands). L- and M-cone isolated ...
Murray I J - - 2014
The link between chromatic constancy (compensation for hue and saturation shifts) and lightness constancy (compensation for a change in surface reflectance) was tested theoretically by computing cone contrasts and by asymmetric matching experiments. The effect of a thin achromatic line (a frame) around the test sample was tested empirically. When ...
Serkh Kirill K Department of Applied Mathematics, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America; Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of - - 2014
Jet lag arises from a misalignment of circadian biological timing with the timing of human activity, and is caused by rapid transmeridian travel. Jet lag's symptoms, such as depressed cognitive alertness, also arise from work and social schedules misaligned with the timing of the circadian clock. Using experimentally validated mathematical ...
Hoeller Oliver O Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2014
Adaptation is the ability of a system to respond and reset itself even in the continuing presence of a stimulus. On one hand, adaptation is a physiological necessity that enables proper neuronal signaling and cell movement. On the other hand, adaptation can be a source of annoyance, as it can ...
Deme Andrea A Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: - - 2014
Studies addressing the identification of sung vowels concern mainly the effect of the fundamental frequency (f0) and conclude that correct vowel identification decreases with increasing pitch. In one experiment, the impact of consonantal environment on the intelligibility of the vowels in high-pitched singing was also studied. The results of that ...
Lightfoot Guy G * Department of Medical Physics & Clinical Engineering, Royal Liverpool University Hospital , Liverpool , - - 2014
Objective: To identify whether the use of a notch filter significantly affects the morphology or characteristics of the newborn auditory brainstem response (ABR) waveform and so inform future guidance for clinical practice. Design: Waveforms with and without the application of a notch filter were recorded from babies undergoing routine ABR ...
Boldt Robert R Institute of Biomedicine/Physiology, University of Helsinki, POB 63, 00014, Helsinki, - - 2014
Two-point discrimination threshold is commonly used for assessing tactile spatial resolution. Since the effect of temporal features of cutaneous test stimulation on spatial discrimination ability is not yet well known, we determined whether the ability to discriminate between two stimulus locations varies with the interstimulus interval (ISI) of sequentially presented ...
Macdonald Brett B Centre for Psychophysics, Psychophysiology, and Psychopharmacology, Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Single-trial data from autonomic and ERP measures were used to capture the rapidly decreasing initial responses characteristic of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to repeated stimuli. Stimulus-response patterns were compared to determine central analogues of autonomic indices of processes leading to the OR, and the OR itself. Participants were presented with ...
Smith Benjamin J BJ Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, PO Box 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada, - - 2014
To quantify the direct contribution of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) on individual components of the mouse electroretinogram (ERG). Dark- and light-adapted ERGs from mice 8 to 12 weeks after optic nerve transection (ONTx, n = 14) were analyzed through stimulus response curves for a- and b-waves, oscillatory potentials (OPs), positive and negative scotopic ...
Anson E E Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, - - 2014
Previous studies have suggested distinct control of gait characteristics in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions in response to visual input. Responses were larger to a ML visual stimulus, suggesting that vision plays a larger role in stabilizing gait in the ML direction. Here, we investigated responses of the ...
Marhöfer David J DJ Sektion Funktionelle Sehforschung, Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Killianstr. 5, 79106, Freiburg, Germany, - - 2014
The P300 event-related potential reflects high-level cognitive processing; it is also sensitive to attentional modulation, impeding its use in malingering detection. Can this be overcome by particularly salient stimuli, e.g., motion or faces? In 11 subjects, we ran two concurrent, uncorrelated oddball sequences ("main sequence" and "distractor sequence"). We modulated ...
Temesi John - - 2014
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely-used investigative technique in motor cortical evaluation. Recently, there has been a surge in TMS studies evaluating lower-limb fatigue. TMS intensity of 120-130% resting motor threshold (RMT) and 120% active motor threshold (AMT) and TMS intensity determined using stimulus-response curves during muscular contraction have ...
Cox M A MA Department of Psychological Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Vanderbilt University, WH 008, 111 21st Ave S, Nashville, TN 37240, United - - 2014
Contour adaptation (CA) is a recently described paradigm that renders otherwise salient visual stimuli temporarily perceptually invisible. Here we investigate whether this illusion can be exploited to study visual awareness. We found that CA can induce seconds of sustained invisibility following similarly long periods of uninterrupted adaptation. Furthermore, even fragmented ...
Fujita Kazuhisa K University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
I propose a model that replicates the kinetics of a rapidly-adapting mechanosensitive current generated by a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. When the DRG neuron is mechanically stimulated, an ionic current called a mechanosensitive current flows across its membrane. The kinetics of mechanosensitive currents are broadly classified into three types; ...
Vyazovska O V OV Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, National Academy of Sciences of - - 2014
We deployed the Multiple Necessary Cues (MNC) discrimination task to see if pigeons can simultaneously attend to four different dimensions of complex visual stimuli. Specifically, we trained nine pigeons (Columba livia) on a go/no go discrimination to peck only 1 of 16 compound stimuli created from all possible combinations of ...
Sulykos István I Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address: - - 2014
The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the perceptual experience of brightness changes. The percept could be based on either real contrast or illusory brightness changes. In the illusory condition, we used Craik-Cornsweet-O'Brien (CCOB) stimuli. ...
Takahashi Hidetoshi - - 2014
People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have enhanced auditory perception, however, acoustic startle response to weak stimuli has not been well documented in this population. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the basic profile of acoustic startle response, including peak startle latency and startle magnitude ...
Perry Gavin G Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, 70 Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, Wales, - - 2014
A rich pattern of responses in frequency, time and space are known to be generated in the visual cortex in response to faces. Recently, a number of studies have used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to try to record these responses non-invasively - in many cases using source analysis techniques based on the ...
Gray Michael J MJ City College of New - - 2014
In the natural environment, humans make saccades almost continuously. In many eye movement experiments however, observers are required to fixate for unnaturally long periods of time. The resulting long and monotonous experimental sessions can become especially problematic when collecting data in a clinical setting, where time can be scarce and ...
Landwehr Klaus K Psychologisches Institut, Universität Mainz, 55099, Mainz, Germany, - - 2014
For a replication and expansion of a previous experiment of mine, 14 newly recruited participants provided haptic and verbal estimates of the lengths of the two lines that make up Titchener's ⊥. The stimulus was presented at two different orientations (frontoparallel vs. horizontal) and rotated in steps of 45 deg around ...
Hellström Ake A Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden, - - 2014
Two experiments were conducted to study effects of modality, temporal position, and their interaction on comparisons of successive stimuli. In Experiment 1, intramodal (tone-tone and line-line) and crossmodal (tone-line and line-tone) stimulus pairs, with two interstimulus intervals (ISIs), 400 and 2,000 ms, were presented. Participants indicated which stimulus was the ...
Qian Yi Y Physics Department & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, - - 2014
The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on the number of scans in covariance spectroscopy has been systematically analyzed for the first time with the intriguing relationship of SNRcov∝n/2, which is different from that in FT2D spectrum with SNRFT∝n. This relationship guarantees the signal-to-noise ratio when increasing the number of scans.
Spagna Alfredo A Department of Psychology, Sapienza, Università di Roma, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The Attention Network Test (ANT) generates measures of three attention networks: alerting, orienting and executive control. Arrows have been generally used as imperative stimuli in the different versions of this paradigm. However, it is unknown whether the directional nature of these stimuli can modulate the efficiency of the executive control ...
Lamminmäki Satu S 1Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory and MEG Core, and 2Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto Neuroimaging, School of Science, Aalto University, Espoo, - - 2014
Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears' inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very ...
Mathur Ankit A Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, 4059, - - 2014
PURPOSE. To investigate effects of luminance and accommodation stimuli on pupil size and pupil center location and their implications for progressive addition lens wear. METHODS. Participants were young and older adult groups (n=20, 22±2 years, age range 18-25 years; n=19, 49±4 years, 45-58 years). A wave aberrometer included a relay ...
Remacle Angélique A Department of Psychology, Cognition and Behavior, University of Liège , - - 2014
Objectives. To evaluate the impact on voice of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Methods. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level varied: 60-65 dB(A) for the first session, and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. Ten expert judges evaluated the breathiness ...
Templeton Jeffrey A JA Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, - - 2014
Reinforcement is a key component of slot machine play. Multi-line video slot-machine play can lead to "losses disguised as wins" (LDWs) which are credit gains that total less than the wager on the spin. LDWs only occur on multi-line games, with their frequency increasing with the number of lines played. ...
Tapia Evelina E Department of Psychology, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 405 N. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL, 61801, USA, - - 2014
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used ...
Calandruccio Lauren L Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina - - 2014
Masked speech perception can often be improved by modulating the masker temporally and/or spectrally. These effects tend to be larger in normal-hearing listeners than hearing-impaired listeners, and effects of temporal modulation are larger in adults than young children [Hall et al. (2012). Ear Hear. 33, 340-348]. Initial reports indicate non-native ...
Rhebergen Koenraad S KS Department of Clinical and Experimental Audiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The - - 2014
The Speech Reception Threshold [SRT, (dB SNR)] is often used as an outcome measure to quantify the acuity for speech perception in noise. The majority of studies observe speech intelligibility in noise at a fixed noise level. However, the observed SNR might be an ambiguous outcome measure because it is ...
Jackson Helen M HM Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, - - 2014
The discrimination of bandpass-filtered harmonic (H) from inharmonic (I) tones (produced by shifting all components of the H tones upwards by a fixed amount in Hz) could be based on shifts in the pattern of ripples in the excitation pattern (EP) or on changes in the temporal fine structure evoked ...
Allen Emily J EJ Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota - - 2014
Variations in the spectral shape of harmonic tone complexes are perceived as timbre changes and can lead to poorer fundamental frequency (F0) or pitch discrimination. Less is known about the effects of F0 variations on spectral shape discrimination. The aims of the study were to determine whether the interactions between ...
Fogerty Daniel D Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina - - 2014
The present study investigated the importance of overall segment amplitude and intrinsic segment amplitude modulation of consonants and vowels to sentence intelligibility. Sentences were processed according to three conditions that replaced consonant or vowel segments with noise matched to the long-term average speech spectrum. Segments were replaced with (1) low-level ...
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