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Alius Manuela G MG Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, - - 2014
The blink reflex component of the startle response is potentiated during processing of exteroceptive unpleasant stimuli. In contrast, blink magnitudes are often inhibited during interoceptive challenges. We measured respiration, blink magnitudes, and the P3 component to the acoustic startle probes in 34 participants while breathing against a mild resistance (mask-with-tubing) ...
de Jong Maartje C MC Helmholtz Institute and - - 2014
The way we perceive the present visual environment is influenced by past visual experiences. Here we investigated the neural basis of such experience dependency. We repeatedly presented human observers with an ambiguous visual stimulus (structure-from-motion) that can give rise to two distinct perceptual interpretations. Past visual experience is known to ...
Robertson Caroline E CE 1 Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, NIMH, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA2 Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge CB2 8AH, UK - - 2014
Individuals with autism are often characterized as 'seeing the trees, but not the forest'-attuned to individual details in the visual world at the expense of the global percept they compose. Here, we tested the extent to which global processing deficits in autism reflect impairments in (i) primary visual processing; or ...
Rausch Manuel M Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Can participants make use of the large number of response alternatives of visual analogue scales (VAS) when reporting their subjective experience of motion? In a new paradigm, participants adjusted a comparison according to random dot kinematograms with the direction of motion varying between 0° and 360°. After each discrimination response, ...
Dzhelyova Milena - - 2014
The human brain is frequently exposed to individual faces across a wide range of different apparent sizes, often seen simultaneously (e.g., when facing a crowd). Here we used a sensitive and objective fast periodic visual stimulation approach while recording scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) to test the effect of size variation on ...
Lewis Dawna E - - 2014
This study examined children's ability to follow audio-visual instructions presented in noise and reverberation. Children (8-12 years) with normal hearing followed instructions in noise or noise plus reverberation. Performance was compared for a single talker (ST), multiple talkers (MT) and multiple talkers with competing comments (MTC). Working memory was assessed ...
Barry Robert J RJ Centre for Psychophysics, Psychophysiology, and Psychopharmacology, Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, and School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study examined the occurrence of preferred EEG phase states at stimulus onset in an equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo task with a fixed interstimulus interval, and their effects on the resultant event-related potentials (ERPs). We used a sliding short-time FFT decomposition of the EEG at Cz for each trial to assess ...
Wu Jyh Ming - - 2014
We demonstrated a single microwire photodetector first made using VO2 microwire that exhibtedt high-responsivity (Rλ) and -external quantum efficiency (EQE) under varying light intensities. The VO2 nanowires/microwires were grown and attached on the surface of the SiO2/Si (100) substrate. The SiO2 layer can produce extremely low densities of long VO2 ...
Sofroniew Nicholas J NJ Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia - - 2014
During many natural behaviors the relevant sensory stimuli and motor outputs are difficult to quantify. Furthermore, the high dimensionality of the space of possible stimuli and movements compounds the problem of experimental control. Head fixation facilitates stimulus control and movement tracking, and can be combined with techniques for recording and ...
Raghunandan Avesh A Michigan College of Optometry, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI - 49307, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
When monocular Vernier targets are presented with binocular disparate elements, an increase in vertical separation elevates alignment thresholds and also shifts its perceived visual direction towards the visual direction of the binocular disparate surround. This observation has been termed binocular capture. There is increasing evidence that this shift in the ...
Varlet Manuel - - 2014
Every day, we visually coordinate our movements with environmental rhythms. Despite its ubiquity, it largely remains unclear why certain visual rhythms or stimuli facilitate such visuomotor coordination. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether the velocity profile of a rhythmic stimulus modulated the emergence and stability of ...
Tyler Richard - - 2014
Recent evidence has suggested that amplitude modulated tones might have some advantages over broadband noise. 56 subjects were required to listen to 'S-Tones' at a carrier frequency matched at the tinnitus pitch (amplitude modulation rate of 40 Hz) and to broadband noise. Subjects rated their tinnitus loudness before, during and ...
Welsh Timothy N TN Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Centre for Motor Control, University of Toronto, 55 Harbord Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 2W6, Canada, - - 2014
It is widely held that the spatial compatibility effect emerges because the irrelevant spatial dimension of the target stimulus activates a response simultaneous to the activation of a response to the relevant stimulus dimension. The non-target response facilitates response planning on compatible trials, but interferes with response planning on incompatible ...
Pfeiffer Carl C Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122, - - 2014
It is experimentally shown that bianisotropic metasurfaces allow for extreme polarization control of light with high performance. A metasurface providing asymmetric transmission (i.e., polarization conversion) of circularly polarized light is reported at a wavelength of 1.5  μm. The experimental transmittance and extinction ratio are 50% and 20:1, which represents an order ...
Reichenbach Tobias - - 2014
Most sounds of interest consist of complex, time-dependent admixtures of tones of diverse frequencies and variable amplitudes. To detect and process these signals, the ear employs a highly nonlinear, adaptive, real-time spectral analyzer: the cochlea. Sound excites vibration of the eardrum and the three miniscule bones of the middle ear, ...
Dzhafarov Ehtibar N EN Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA, - - 2014
Loosely derived from the sorites "paradox" attributed to the 4th century BCE Greek philosopher Eubulides, comparative soritical sequence of stimuli is defined as an enumeration of several stimuli, x 1, x 2, …, x n , such that, when these stimuli are presented pairwise, any two of them with consecutive ...
Ross Bernhard B University of Toronto - - 2014
When two tones with slightly different frequencies are presented to both ears, they interact in the central auditory system and induce the sensation of a beating sound. At low difference frequencies, we perceive a single sound, which is moving across the head between the left and right ears. The percept ...
Podlesnik Christopher A CA The University of - - 2014
Behavioral momentum theory asserts Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relations govern the persistence of operant behavior. Specifically, resistance to conditions of disruption (e.g., extinction, satiation) reflects the relation between discriminative stimuli and the prevailing reinforcement conditions. The present study assessed whether Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relations govern resistance to disruption in pigeons by arranging both ...
Cook Richard - - 2014
The extent to which different stimulus elements move together, namely their relative phase, is a central visual feature of many social and physical systems; characterizing everything from the oscillations of a walker's limbs to the alternating lights at pedestrian crossings. The experiments described here provide the first evidence of a ...
Itatani Naoya N Cluster of Excellence Hearing4all, Animal Physiology and Behavior Group, Department for Neuroscience, School for Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany - - 2014
Segregating streams of sounds from sources in complex acoustic scenes is crucial for perception in real world situations. We analyzed an objective psychophysical measure of stream segregation obtained while simultaneously recording forebrain neurons in the European starlings to investigate neural correlates of segregating a stream of A tones from a ...
Behnia Rudy R Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York 10003-6688, - - 2014
The algorithms and neural circuits that process spatio-temporal changes in luminance to extract visual motion cues have been the focus of intense research. An influential model, the Hassenstein-Reichardt correlator, relies on differential temporal filtering of two spatially separated input channels, delaying one input signal with respect to the other. Motion ...
Popova E E Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Medical University, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria. Electronic address: - - 2014
In order to evaluate the site of action of picrotoxin (antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors) on the electroretinographic (ERG) b- and d-waves, in this study we compared its effects on the intensity-response function of the ERG waves in intact light adapted frog eyecup preparations with its effects in eyecups, where ...
Skosnik Patrick D PD Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Previous work in animals and humans has shown that exogenous cannabinoids disrupt time-locked, evoked gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz). However, no studies to date have examined the effect of cannabis on non time-locked, induced gamma oscillations during more complex Gestalt perception. The current study therefore utilized electroencephalography (EEG) to examine gamma oscillations ...
Boremanse Adriano A Psychological Sciences Research Institute and Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, 10 Place du Cardinal Mercier, Louvain la Neuve, 1348, - - 2014
In order to isolate the repetition suppression effects for each part of a whole-face stimulus, the left and right halves of face stimuli were flickered at different frequency rates (5.88 or 7.14 Hz), changing or not changing identity at every stimulation cycle. The human electrophysiological (electroencephalographic) responses to each face half ...
Geißler Gunnar - - 2014
Objectives To compare the Naida CI UltraZoom adaptive beamformer and T-Mic settings in a real life environment. Methods Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in a moderately reverberant room, using the German Oldenburger sentence test. The speech signal was always presented from the front loudspeaker at 0° azimuth and fixed ...
Fox Marÿke M Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK, - - 2014
To compare the modified signal-to-noise ratio (SNR*) of multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) responses elicited by a cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor in normal subjects. An LCD monitor and CRT monitor were luminance and contrast matched. Luminance stability and the effect of viewing angle on ...
Song Inkyung I Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, - - 2014
Neutral cues, after being reliably paired with noxious events, prompt defensive engagement and amplified sensory responses. To examine the neurophysiology underlying these adaptive changes, we quantified the contrast-response function of visual cortical population activity during differential aversive conditioning. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded while participants discriminated the orientation ...
Labkovsky Elena E Department of Psychology, Institute for Neuroscience, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, - - 2014
In simply guilty (SG), countermeasure-using guilty (CM), and innocent (IN) subjects, a new concealed information test, the P300-based Dual Probe Complex Trial Protocol was tested in a mock crime scenario. It combines an oddball protocol with two stimuli (probe, irrelevant) and another with three stimuli (probe, irrelevant, target) into one ...
Ono Seiji S Department of Ophthalmology, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Smooth pursuit eye movements allow us to maintain the image of a moving target on the fovea. Smooth pursuit consists of separate phases such as initiation and steady-state. These two phases are supported by different visual-motor mechanisms in cortical areas including the middle temporal (MT), the medial superior temporal (MST) ...
Bunsawat Kanokwan K 1Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 2Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA 3Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 4Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 5Department of Physical Therapy, Wichita State University, Wichita, - - 2014
Persons with Down Syndrome (DS) exhibit altered autonomic function at rest and in response to adrenergic stimuli. It is unknown if a subset of persons with DS that have similar heart rate responses to a task would have similar responses in heart rate variability (HRV). To compare cardiac autonomic function ...
Formenti Alessandro A DEPT-Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Via Mangiagalli, 32, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Respiratory neuromuscular activity needs to adapt to physiologic and pathologic conditions. We studied the conditioning effects of sensory fiber (putative Ia and II type from neuromuscular spindles) stimulation on the fictive respiratory output to the diaphragm, recorded from C4 phrenic ventral root, of in-vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from rats. The ...
Nagy Balázs Vince BV Neuroscience and Behavior, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, - - 2014
Electroretinographic measurement instruments allow the variation of several stimulation parameters enabling to study a wide range of retinal processes. The purpose of the present study was to measure human flicker electroretinograms (ERGs) varying temporal modulation, temporal frequency and mean luminance in the photopic and higher mesopic ranges where the change ...
Bardy Fabrice F HEARing Co-operative Research Centre, Australia. Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia. National Acoustic Laboratories, NSW, - - 2014
Objective. To evaluate the viability of disentangling a series of overlapping 'cortical auditory evoked potentials' (CAEPs) elicited by different stimuli using least-squares (LS) deconvolution, and to assess the adaptation of CAEPs for different stimulus onset-asynchronies (SOAs). Approach. Optimal aperiodic stimulus sequences were designed by controlling the condition number of matrices ...
Ichinose Tomomi T http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9233-9762 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, and Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, and Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 - - 2014
In the visual system, diverse image processing starts with bipolar cells, which are the second-order neurons of the retina. Thirteen subtypes of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different features of image signaling and to initiate distinct signal-processing streams. Although morphologically identified, the functional roles of ...
Zaman Jonas J Research Group on Health Psychology University of Leuven, - - 2014
Claims have been made that breathing is in part controlled by feedforward regulation. In a classical conditioning paradigm, we investigated anticipatory increases in the inspiratory motor drive as measured by inspiratory occlusion pressure (P100). In an acquisition phase, an experimental group (N=13) received a low-intensity resistive load (5cmH2O/l/s) for three ...
Tong Xiuhong X Psychology Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, - - 2014
Using a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm, this study examined second graders' brain responses to Cantonese speech. We aimed to address the question of whether a change in a consonant or lexical tone could be automatically detected by children. We measured auditory mismatch responses to place of articulation and voice onset time ...
Verleger Rolf R Dept. of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
It has been proposed that the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) reflects linking of responses to target stimuli. This proposal was tested by disconnecting the temporal link between target stimuli and responses, and by applying residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) for separating the ERP components into stimulus-locked, response-locked, and "intermediate" ...
Mottram Thomas M TM School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, United - - 2014
It is well reported that movement times to the first target in a two-target sequence are slower than when a single target response is required. This one-target advantage has been shown to emerge when the two-target sequence is performed with the same limb and when the first and second segments ...
Venter Pieter J PJ Bioengineering, Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, Pretoria, South Africa, - - 2014
Literature often refers to a 300 pps limit for cochlear implant (CI) electrical stimulation, above which pulse rate discrimination deteriorates or above which rate pitch is not perceived to increase. The present study investigated the effect on pulse rate difference limens (PRDLs) when using compound stimuli in which identical pulse ...
Sanjuán Juaristi Julio J Unidad de Neurofisiología Experimental, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España. Electronic address: - - 2014
By using appropriate instrumentation, we have found that cochlear microphonics (CM) advance or delay their appearance, depending on the sound pressure that generates them. This time variation is on the order of microseconds. We have not found any reference to this behaviour, which is why we make the finding known. ...
Matsui Takemi T Department of Management Systems Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University , 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo , - - 2014
Abstract The authors have developed a non-contact system which estimates changes in salivary α-amylase (sAA ratio) induced by stress. Before and after stressful sound exposure, a single 24 GHz compact radar which is attached to the back of a chair measures the low frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability and ...
Gillen Caitlin C School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7, - - 2014
Antisaccades entail decoupling the spatial relations between stimulus and response and executing a saccade to a target's mirror-symmetrical location. The indirect spatial relations require that a relative target percept supports antisaccade sensorimotor transformations. Here, we sought to identify whether the percept supporting antisaccades results in a respective over- and undershooting ...
Kattner Florian F Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, - - 2014
Direct ratio scaling (e.g., magnitude estimation; Stevens, 1956, American Journal of Psychology) is a widely used approach in psychophysics resting on the assumption that participants are able to refer to sensations with numbers that are valid on a ratio scale. Only recently, the necessary conditions of commutativity and multiplicativity have ...
Sandberg Kristian K Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit, Hammel Rehabilitation and Research Center, Voldbyvej 15, 8450 Hammel, Denmark; Cognitive Neuroscience Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, Building 10G, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
During binocular rivalry, visual perception alternates spontaneously between two different monocular images. Such perceptual reversals are slowed or halted if stimuli are presented intermittently with inter-stimulus intervals larger than ~400ms - a phenomenon called stabilization. Often, the neural correlates of reversal and stabilization are studied separately, and both phenomena in ...
Ho Cristy C Crossmodal Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
We report a study designed to investigate the extent to which speeded behavioral responses following tactile stimulation are influenced by differences in neural conduction latencies at different body sites and/or by the characteristics of the compatibility between the cue and effector. The results showed that it may not be particularly ...
Lei Shaobo S Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, - - 2014
Purpose. The post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) is produced by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). We aimed to refine the testing conditions for PIPR by investigating whether a greater PIPR can be induced using full-field light stimuli of shorter duration and lower intensity than that produced by existing protocols that ...
Velez Mariel M - - 2014
Abstract Linearly polarized light serves as an important cue for many animals, providing navigational information, as well as directing them towards food sources and reproduction sites. Many insects detect the celestial polarization pattern, or the linearly polarized reflections off of surfaces, such as water. Much progress has been made towards ...
Wang Chin-An CA Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, - - 2014
The sudden appearance of a novel stimulus initiates a series of responses to orient the body for appropriate actions, including not only shifts of gaze and attention, but also transient pupil dilation. Modulation of pupil dynamics by stimulus properties is less understood, although its effects on other components of orienting ...
von Reyn Catherine R CR Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, Virginia, - - 2014
We discovered a bimodal behavior in the genetically tractable organism Drosophila melanogaster that allowed us to directly probe the neural mechanisms of an action selection process. When confronted by a predator-mimicking looming stimulus, a fly responds with either a long-duration escape behavior sequence that initiates stable flight or a distinct, ...
Wühr Peter P Institut für Psychologie, Technische Universität Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Strasse 50, 44227, Dortmund, Germany, - - 2014
We used variants of the Simon task to investigate whether repetitions and alternations in short keypress sequences are represented by spatial or relational codes. With spatial coding, either absolute or relative location would be used for coding the second response in a sequence. With relational coding, the second response would ...
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