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Rego E Hesper EH Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, - - 2015
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a method that can double the spatial resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions by using spatially structured illumination light. In this chapter, we introduce the basic principles of SIM and describe in detail several different implementations based on either a diffraction grating or ...
Lütolf Fabian - - 2014
An innovative class of coupling gratings for efficiently redirecting light beams is described. They are based on symmetric binary gratings equipped with an asymmetric high refractive index coating. This kind of structure exhibits a grating blaze effect and produces high diffraction efficiencies. Coupling gratings based on the described principle have ...
Wang Bo - - 2014
New non-rare-earth based oxide red phosphor discovery is of great interest in the field of energy-efficient LED lighting. In this work, a novel blue-light activated CaMg2Al16O27: Mn4+ (CMA: Mn4+) phosphor, showing strong red emission peaked at ~655 nm under 468 nm excitation, is prepared by a solid-state reaction route. The ...
Mykytiuk T V - - 2014
Lasing in induced cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) containing highly photosensitive azo chiral dopant (ChD) and pyrromethene laser dye was investigated. Due to the absence of excitation energy transfer from the dye molecules to the molecules of ChD in such a system, a low lasing threshold was achieved. When using violet ...
Aki Shoma - - 2014
In this study, we, for the first time, developed a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D-PhC) optical sensor using nanoimprint lithography (NIL), which can perform highly-sensitive, fast, and selective ion sensing based on ion extraction. Concerning the principle of response, present plasticized PVC-based PhC works as a ...
Evans Roger R Nursing - - 2014
The United Nations has been criticised for being slow to react to the latest Ebola outbreak in West Africa. But it is now making up for lost time with a concerted response to help the countries most affected.
Lin Keng-Te KT Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University , 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, - - 2014
In this study, we demonstrated that the improvement of detection capability of cadmium sulfide (CdS) photoconductors in the ultraviolet (UV) regime is much larger than that in the visible regime, suggesting that the deep UV laser-treated CdS devices are very suitable for low-light detection in the UV regime. We determined ...
Marcinkowski R R Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-iMinds Medical IT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent, - - 2014
The majority of current whole-body PET scanners are based on pixelated scintillator arrays with a transverse pixel size of 4 mm. However, recent studies have shown that decreasing the pixel size to 2 mm can significantly improve image spatial resolution. In this study, the performance of Digital Photon Counter (DPC) from Philips ...
Pak A A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, - - 2014
In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of ...
Barboza R R Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago, Chile INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, 1361 Route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne, - - 2014
Homeotropic nematic liquid crystal cells with a photosensitive wall and negative dielectric anisotropy exhibit, under the influence of local illumination, stable vortexes with swirling arms that are trapped at the illuminated area. Close to the Fréedericksz transition an amplitude equation is derived, which allows us to understand the origin of ...
Teng Long - - 2014
A simple and efficient compensation method for the full correction of both the anisotropic and isotropic nonuniformity of the light phase retardance in a liquid crystal (LC) layer is presented. This is achieved by accurate measurement of the spatial variation of the LC layer's thickness with the help of a ...
Digaum Jennefir L - - 2014
Spatially-variant photonic crystals (SVPCs), in which the orientation of the unit cell changes as a function of position, are shown to be capable of abruptly controlling light beams using just low index materials and can be made to have high polarization selectivity. Multi-photon direct laser writing in the photo-polymer SU-8 ...
Fini C C Laboratory of Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio, via dei Vestini 33, 66100 Chieti Scalo, Italy; ITAB, Foundation G. d'Annunzio, via dei Vestini 33, 66100 Chieti Scalo, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2015
Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, ...
Kim Yang Doo - - 2014
We report an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with a hydrogen silsesquioxane as a scattering material, for enhancing light extraction efficiency. A tetragonal photonic crystal was used as pattern type, and fabricated using a direct printing technique. Planarization was accomplished using TiO<sub>2</sub> solgel solution, having a refractive index identical to ...
Hyman Rachel M - - 2014
Liquid crystal over silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator technology has become dominant in industries such as pico-projection, which require high-quality reflective microdisplays for intensity modulation of light. They are, however, restricted from being used in wider optical applications, such as computer-generated holography, adaptive optics, and optical correlation, due to their ...
England Grant G School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA - - 2014
Recently, diffraction elements that reverse the color sequence normally observed in planar diffraction gratings have been found in the wing scales of the butterfly Pierella luna. Here, we describe the creation of an artificial photonic material mimicking this reverse color-order diffraction effect. The bioinspired system consists of ordered arrays of ...
Park Jongchan - - 2014
We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from ...
Choudhary Amit - - 2014
Study of the liquid crystal (LC) director around nanoparticles has been an important topic of research very recently, since it allows design and fabrication of next-generation LC devices that are impossible in the past. In our experiment, alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were dispersed in nematic LC. Analysis of the LC ...
Okano Kunihiko K Department of Applied Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan). - - 2014
A periodic stripe pattern is found in the nematic phase close to the smectic phase of photoresponsive achiral liquid-crystalline compounds. The origin of the stripe patterns can be ascribed to an extremely large bent elastic constant K33 . In addition, we succeeded in controlling the pattern by the following two ...
Kathman Nicholas D ND Case Western Reserve University, USA - - 2014
In the arthropod brain, the central complex (CX) receives various forms of sensory signals and is associated with motor functions, but its precise role in behavior is controversial. The optomotor response is a highly conserved turning behavior directed by visual motion. In tethered cockroaches, 20% procaine injected into the CX ...
Guo Min M Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. - - 2014
Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic ...
Hoogkamer Wouter W 1 Movement Control and Neuroplasticity Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, - - 2014
Summary.-In a recent work on locomotor symmetry while walking on a split-belt treadmill, Lauzière and co-workers determined the perception threshold of gait symmetry in a sample of healthy elderly. In addition, they aimed to determine which particular gait parameters affect the symmetry of the perception threshold. Although only temporal and ...
Panezai Spozmai - - 2014
A dual-plane in-line digital holographic method is proposed with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) for recording holograms at two slightly displaced planes. The computer-generated chirp-like complex reflectance is displayed on the LCOS SLM to adapt the object beam at two planes for recording two holograms ...
Rotenberg Eli E Advanced Light Source, MS 6-2100, E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, - - 2014
The scientific opportunities for microARPES and nanoARPES techniques are discussed, and the benefits to these techniques at diffraction-limited light sources are presented, in particular the impact on spectromicroscopic ARPES (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) of upgrading the Advanced Light Source to diffraction-limited performance. The most important consideration is whether the space-charge broadening, ...
Zhou Zhi-Yuan - - 2014
Light with helical phase structures, carrying quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM), has many applications in both classical and quantum optics, such as high-capacity optical communications and quantum information processing. Frequency conversion is a basic technique to expand the frequency range of the fundamental light. The frequency conversion of OAM-carrying light ...
Wang Da-Wei DW Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, - - 2014
We propose a superradiant metrology technique to achieve the Heisenberg limit superresolving displacement measurement by encoding multiple light momenta into a three-level atomic ensemble. We use 2N coherent pulses to prepare a single excitation superradiant state in a superposition of two timed Dicke states that are 4N light momenta apart ...
Vera Luisa María LM Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia , Murcia , Spain - - 2014
Since fish show daily rhythms in most physiological functions, it should not be surprising that stressors may have different effects depending on the timing of exposure. In this study, we investigated the influence of time of day on the stress responses, at both physiological and cellular levels, in gilthead sea ...
Mushtaq Mian Yahya MY Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The - - 2014
We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A ...
Ferreira de Souza Leonardo B LB Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, CDU, 50740-540 Recife, PE, Brazil; Department of Physics, Catholic University of Pernambuco, 50050-900 Recife, PE, - - 2014
This study investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and the photo-transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) signals in quartz single crystals showing a strong TL peak near 300°C after being sensitized by irradiation with 25kGy of gamma rays and heating at 400°C. Natural and sensitized samples were prepared from two crystals with different ...
Cheung K Mc KM Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong - - 2014
We describe a modified fulcrum design to overcome limitations of a traditional fulcrum. The modified fulcrum is a triangular prism-shaped foam with rounded and padded edges. The 3 faces of the fulcrum represent 3 different heights (17.0 cm, 17.5 cm, and 21.0 cm). For fulcrum bending radiographs of the thoracic ...
Yanase K K Institute for Marine Science, University of Auckland, 160 Goat Island Rd, Leigh 0985, New - - 2014
Detailed swimming kinematics of the yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi were investigated after unilateral ablation of superficial neuromasts (SNs). Most kinematic variables, such as tail-beat frequency, stride length, caudal fin-beat amplitude and propulsive wavelength, were unaffected but lateral amplitude at the tip of the snout (A0 ) was significantly increased in ...
Ammari Habib H Department of Mathematics and Applications, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 75005 Paris, France; - - 2014
This paper aims at advancing the field of electro-sensing. It exhibits physical mechanisms underlying shape perception for weakly electric fish. These fish orient themselves at night in complete darkness by using their active electrolocation system. They generate a stable, relatively high-frequency, weak electric field and perceive the transdermal potential modulations ...
Ladich Friedrich F Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bony fishes have evolved a diversity of sound generating mechanisms and produce a variety of sounds. By contrast to sound generating mechanisms, which are lacking in several taxa, all fish species possess inner ears for sound detection. Fishes may also have various accessory structures such as auditory ossicles to improve ...
Knickle D C DC Centre for Fisheries Ecosystems Research, Fisheries and Marine Institute of Memorial University of Newfoundland, P. O. Box 4920, St John's, NL, A1C 5R3, - - 2014
The spatial and temporal movement patterns of sympatric juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua and Greenland cod Gadus ogac were studied using high-resolution radio-acoustic positioning in a coastal area of Newfoundland during the summers of 2009 and 2010. A total of 20 fish (10 G. ogac and 10 G. morhua) were ...
Aizpurua Ostaizka O University of The Basque Country, - - 2014
Formerly thought to be a strictly insectivorous trawling bat, recent studies have shown that Myotis capaccinii also preys on fish. To determine if differences exist in bat flight behaviour, prey handling, and echolocation characteristics when catching fish and insects of different sizes, we conducted a field experiment focused on the ...
Youngerman Eric D ED Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The maneuverability demonstrated by the weakly electric ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) is a result of its highly flexible ribbon-like anal fin, which extends nearly three-quarters the length of its body and is composed of approximately 150 individual fin rays. To understand how movement of the anal fin controls locomotion we ...
Braun Christopher B CB Department of Psychology, Hunter College, CUNY, New York, NY, - - 2014
The octavolateralis systems of fishes include the vestibular, auditory, lateral line, and electrosensory systems. They are united by common developmental and neuro-computational features, including hair cell sensors and computations based on cross-neuron analyses of differential hair cell stimulation patterns. These systems also all use both spectral and temporal filters to ...
Dooling Robert J RJ Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, - - 2014
In this paper we describe the masking of pure tones in humans and birds by man-made noises and show that similar ideas can be applied when considering the potential effects of noise on fishes, as well as other aquatic vertebrates. Results from many studies on humans and birds, both in ...
Collin Shaun P SP School of Animal Biology and the Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, W. A., - - 2014
Vision and photoentrainment in fishes are vital for feeding, avoiding predation, spatial orientation, navigation, social communication and the synchronization of many homeostatic functions such as activity patterns and sleep. The camera-like (image-forming) eyes of fishes are optimized to provide a clear view of their preferred ecological niche, while non-visual photoreceptors ...
Shen S C - - 2014
Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. ...
Walz Henriette H Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität - - 2014
Although communication signals often vary continuously on the underlying signal parameter, they are perceived as distinct categories. We here report the opposite case where an electrocommunication signal is encoded in four distinct regimes, although the behaviour described to date does not show distinct categories. In particular, we studied the encoding ...
Takeuchi Yuki Y Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Ocular melatonin production exhibits a daily rhythm with a decrease during photophase and an increase during scotophase (nocturnal pattern) in teleost fish due to day-night changes in the activity of the rate-limiting melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Acute light exposure during scotophase suppresses AANAT activity and melatonin production in ...
Xiong Grace G Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2014
Studies of center of mass (COM) motion are fundamental to understanding the dynamics of animal movement, and have been carried out extensively for terrestrial and aerial locomotion. But despite a large amount of literature describing different body movement patterns in fishes, analyses of how the center of mass moves during ...
Zahid Malik - - 2014
The study focused on the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity in the spiny eel, M. pancalus, kept under different photoperiodic conditions. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the light intensity dependent effect on circadian rhythmicity of the locomotor activity in spiny eel. Three groups of fish were entrained to ...
Xu Guang-Hui GH Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China - - 2014
The Halecomorphi are a major subdivision of the ray-finned fishes. Although living halecomorphs are represented solely by the freshwater bowfin, Amia calva, this clade has a rich fossil history, and the resolution of interrelationships among extinct members is central to the problem of understanding the origin of the Teleostei, the ...
Hawkins Anthony D - - 2014
The behavior of wild, pelagic fish in response to sound playback was observed with a sonar/echo sounder. Schools of sprat Sprattus sprattus and mackerel Scomber scombrus were examined at a quiet coastal location. The fish were exposed to a short sequence of repeated impulsive sounds, simulating the strikes from a ...
McIver Eileen L EL Cornell University, - - 2014
Toadfishes are among the best-known groups of sound producing (vocal) fishes and include species commonly known as toadfish and midshipman. Although midshipman have been the subject of extensive investigation of the neural mechanisms of vocalization, this is the first comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the spectro-temporal characters of their acoustic signals ...
Coffin Allison B AB Washington State University Vancouver, - - 2014
We investigated the roles of the swim bladder and the lateral line system in sound localization behavior by the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Reproductive female midshipman underwent either surgical deflation of the swim bladder or cryoablation of the lateral line and were then tested in a monopolar sound source ...
Shelton Ryan M RM UNC Chapel Hill, United - - 2014
An undulatory pattern of body bending in which waves pass along the body from head to tail is a major means of creating thrust in many fish species during steady locomotion. Analyses of live fish swimming have provided the foundation of our current understanding of undulatory locomotion, but our inability ...
Venmathi Maran B A BA Marine Ecosystem Research Division, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, P. O. Box 29, Ansan, Seoul, 425-600, Korea, - - 2014
Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around ...
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