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Results 301 - 350 of 937
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Chin Sanghoon - - 2006
Slow & fast light with null amplification or loss of a light signal is experimentally demonstrated. This novel method for producing zero-gain slow & fast light takes advantage of the great flexibility of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers to generate synthesized gain spectra. Generation of optical delays and advancements ...
Li Wan-Ju - - 2007
Many musculoskeletal tissues exhibit significant anisotropic mechanical properties reflective of a highly oriented underlying extracellular matrix. For tissue engineering, recreating this organization of the native tissue remains a challenge. To address this issue, this study explored the fabrication of biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds composed of aligned fibers via electrospinning onto a ...
Yavuz Yunus - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A fiber optic light source is the central part of endoscopic surgery. However, the light generation process causes heat transmission from a source to tip of a scope. In this study, we measured the amount of heating and pathologic effects of direct contact with the tip of scopes on ...
Liu Zhigang - - 2006
We propose a novel implementation of true-time delay (TTD) using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) and a broadband light source. The air-guiding PBGFs are experimentally studied and used in the TTD module for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The proposed approach shows the advantages of simple ...
Bassi Andrea - - 2006
We demonstrate the feasibility of white-light time-resolved optical mammography. The instrumentation is based on supercontinuum light generated in photonic crystal fiber and 32-channel parallel time-correlated single-photon-counting detection. Total measurement time is of the order of 10 min for typical clinical applications. Preliminary measurements performed on volunteers show the ability of ...
Ayotte Guylaine - - 2006
One way to improve the performance of scintillation dosimeters is to increase the light-collection efficiency at the coupling interfaces of the detector system. We performed a detailed study of surface preparation of scintillating fibers and their coupling with clear optical fibers to minimize light loss and increase the amount of ...
Tan Qing Q Boston University Hearing Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2006
To better understand how the auditory system extracts speech signals in the presence of noise, discrimination thresholds for the second formant frequency were predicted with simulations of auditory-nerve responses. These predictions employed either average-rate information or combined rate and timing information, and either populations of model fibers tuned across a ...
Hirshberg Abraham - - 2007
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). In the present study we investigated the effect of inflammation in the OKC wall on the polarization colors of Picrosirius red-stained collagen fibers. 50 cases of OKC were selected and separated into two groups ...
Thapa Rajesh - - 2006
Saturated absorption spectroscopy is performed on the acetylene nu(1) + nu(3) band near 1532 nm inside photonic bandgap fibers of small (approximately 10 microm) and large (approximately 20 microm) core diameters. The observed linewidths are narrower in the 20 microm fiber and vary from 20 to 40 MHz depending on ...
Zhu Zhaoming - - 2006
Slow-light delay via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibers is usually achieved with delay-dependent amplification that degrades system performance. To address this problem, we propose a SBS slow-light method that makes use of two widely separated anti-Stokes absorption resonances, and achieve nearly transparent slow light in an optical fiber. ...
Cole Jonathan - - 2006
Human hairy but not glabrous skin has unmyelinated (C) tactile (CT) afferents that project to insular cortex. We studied two subjects with the rare sensory neuronopathy syndrome who lack A-beta fibers but have relatively preserved C-fiber function. Weak monofilaments were detected on hairy skin alone. Hence, the ability to detect ...
Konstantaki Maria - - 2006
A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) humidity sensor is reported utilizing poly(ethylene oxide)/cobalt chloride (PEO/CoCl2) as a hybrid hygrosensitive cladding coating. A thin overlay of the material is deposited on the LPFG and with exposure to different ambient humidity levels, its spectral properties are modified. The material parameters associated with the ...
Anagnostou M - - 2006
The critical point of the clinical procedure of direct splinting is the placement of the fiber-reinforced strip, which has to be well adapted to tooth surfaces. This article describes the use of aluminum foil to cover and protect the fiber-reinforced strip from light polymerization during the direct splinting technique. The ...
Bottenus Danny - - 2006
Many analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF) instruments are equipped with on-line detection, e.g., conductivity or UV-vis absorbance. Most of their preparative counterparts have not integrated such detection systems and thus require labor-intensive off-line analysis to quantify separation results. This paper describes the incorporation of an optical fiber based, on-line detection system ...
Kjelstrup-Hansen Jakob - - 2006
Intrinsic elastic and inelastic mechanical properties of individual, self-assembled, quasi-single-crystalline para-hexaphenylene nanofibers supported on substrates with different hydrophobicities are investigated as well as the interplay between the fibers and the underlying substrates. We find from atomic-force-microscopy-based rupture experiments a rupture shear stress of about 2 x 10(7) Pa for an ...
De Luca Gino - - 2006
Spider silk fibers have remarkable mechanical properties as a result of an ultraoptimized spinning process. Silk fibers are spun from a lyotropic nematic liquid crystalline anisotropic fluid phase which undergoes significant structural changes throughout the spinning pathway. In the silk extrusion duct, those structural changes are expected to be driven ...
Kieser Christopher W - - 2006
In 1954, in a landmark publication, H. H. Hopkins reported that images could be transmitted through glass fibers. This stimulated many investigations and, in 1957, B. Hirschowitz at the University of Michigan, succeeded in constructing a much-needed flexible gastroscope using optic glass fibers. Coating of the fibers by glass of ...
Christini David J DJ Division of Cardiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, - - 2006
Alternation in the duration of consecutive cardiac action potentials (electrical alternans) may precipitate conduction block and the onset of arrhythmias. Consequently, suppression of alternans using properly timed premature stimuli may be antiarrhythmic. To determine the extent to which alternans control can be achieved in cardiac tissue, isolated canine Purkinje fibers ...
Pimentel Julia Manzano - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between perceptions and electrical senoidal current stimulation (ESCS). METHOD: The study population comprise 100 healthy volunteers. ESCS of 5 Hz and 2 kHz were applied to the left index finger at one and 1.5 sensory threshold. Following each stimulus train a list of eight words ...
Sundar Sundar S Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS, - - 2006
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosis could be improved by selectively activating different types of nerve fibers traversing the carpal tunnel based on their diameter. The objective of this study was to establish the types of fibers activated by different sinusoidal electrical stimuli. The frequencies selected correspond to those used in ...
Scapino Robert P - - 2006
The collagen fiber organization in the anterior band (AB), intermediate zone (IZ) and posterior band (PB) of the disk of the human jaw joint disk and in its attachments was studied under the polarizing microscope. Observations were made on serially sectioned joints (n = 6) and three sets of disk ...
Kuszak Jer R - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative structural data from nonprimate lenses with branched (Y and line) sutures to generate computer models (animations) of secondary fiber development and suture formation. METHODS: A minimum of 12-18 adult lenses/species (mice, cows, frogs, and rabbits) were used in ...
Bonine Kevin E - - 2005
Previously, we found that phrynosomatid lizards, a diverse group common in the southwestern USA, vary markedly in fiber-type composition of the iliofibularis (a hindlimb muscle important in locomotion). Phrynosomatidae comprises three subclades: the closely related sand and horned lizards, and their relatives the Sceloporus group. The variation in muscle fiber-type ...
Le Goff Loïc - - 2005
When a hair cell of the bullfrog's sacculus is maintained in vitro under native ionic conditions, its mechanosensitive hair bundle may oscillate spontaneously. This movement has been hypothesized to result from the interaction of the bundle's negative stiffness, which creates a region of mechanical instability, with a myosin-based adaptation mechanism ...
Kleinböhl Dieter - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Pain perception involves neuronal plasticity at peripheral and central stages, resulting in sensitization or habituation, depending on intensity and temporal features of stimulation. Concurrent assessment of perceptual change over different time spans is therefore important for understanding the dynamics of pain processing. METHODS: A new psychophysical procedure was established ...
Schmid F - - 2005
The collagen diffraction patterns of human aortas under uniaxial tensile test conditions have been investigated by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Using a recently designed tensile testing device the orientation and d-spacing of the collagen fibers in the adventitial layer have been measured in situ with the macroscopic force and sample ...
Rusu M - - 2005
We report on successful realization of a picosecond visible-continuum source embedding a single mode fiber taper. The output of ytterbium mode-locked fiber laser was frequency doubled in a periodically-polled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal to produce green pump light. Spectral brightness of the white light generated in the tapered fiber was ...
Kitazawa Shigeru - - 2005
The role of the climbing fiber input to the cerebellum has been enigmatic, with recent studies focusing on its temporal and spatial firing patterns. Debate remains as to whether climbing fibers provide a periodic clock for coordinating movements or lead to long-term modification of Purkinje cell activity as the basis ...
Young Eric D - - 2005
The spectral selectivity of auditory nerve fibers was characterized by a method based on responses to random-spectrum-shape stimuli. The method models the average discharge rate of fibers for steady stimuli and is based on responses to approximately 100 noise-like stimuli with pseudorandom spectral levels in 1/8- or 1/16-octave frequency bins. ...
Sato Katsuya - - 2005
The cytoskeletal stress fiber structure plays essential roles in various kinds of cellular functions such as shape maintenance, active motility and mechanosensing, and its structure is dynamically reorganized under each functional process. In known reorganization mechanisms of the stress fibers, a change in its mechanical condition has been suggested as ...
Wang Yimin - - 2005
Broadband light generation from a single-mode optical fiber was developed for high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). No noise amplification was observed for light broadened by self-phase modulation. The investigation showed that the intensity noise of light broadened by self-phase modulation in a single-mode optical fiber was much lower than that ...
Huang Lisheng - - 2005
Well-faceted ZnO fibers with periodic junction-prisms were synthesized using conventional chemical vapor deposition. The characterization of the fibers by optical and fluorescence microscopy showed that the outer facets of the crystalline fibers provide excellent mirror-like surfaces for guiding light propagation along the fiber stem as well as the periodic junction-prisms. ...
Guhados Ganesh - - 2005
The ability of the atomic force microscope to measure forces with subnanonewton sensitivity at nanometer-scale lateral resolutions has led to its use in the mechanical characterization of nanomaterials. Recent studies have shown that the atomic force microscope can be used to measure the elastic moduli of suspended fibers by performing ...
Thompson Marcelo Soto - - 2005
A system for interstitial photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolaevulinic acid and multiple optical fibers has been developed. The system enables photodynamic treatment of large embedded tumor volumes and utilizes real-time measurements to allow on-line dosimetry. Important parameters such as light fluence rate, sensitizer fluorescence intensity, and changes in local blood oxygen ...
Lancry M - - 2005
The properties of three sensitization processes: UV hypersensitization, OH-flooding and H2-loading have been investigated through Bragg grating (BG) inscription within standard germanosilicate fibers. More specifically, the stability of the sensitization processes and that of the UV-induced index changes have been investigated through isochronal annealing experiments. Moreover, the level of excess ...
Pavlícek Pavel - - 2005
We present a fiber-optical sensor for distance measurement of smooth and rough surfaces that is based on white-light interferometry; the sensor measures the distance from the sample surface to the sensor head. Because white light is used, the measurement is absolute. The measurement uncertainty depends not on the aperture of ...
Li Dan - - 2005
Electrospinning is a simple, versatile, and useful technique for fabricating nanofibers from a rich variety of functional materials. The nanofibers are usually collected as nonwoven mats, in which the fibers are randomly oriented. We have recently demonstrated that the nanofibers can be uniaxially aligned by introducing an insulating gap into ...
Paranhos Augusto A - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the pupillary diameter, ciliary muscle tone, and room light on nerve fiber layer measurements with the scanning laser polarimeter (GDx). METHODS: One randomly selected eye of ten normal volunteers was examined with the GDx in a two-day protocol under eight testing conditions (pilocarpine 1%, ...
Ghosh Saikat - - 2005
We investigate resonant nonlinear optical interactions and demonstrate induced transparency in acetylene molecules in a hollow-core photonic-band-gap fiber at 1.5 mum. The induced spectral transmission window is used to demonstrate slow-light effects, and we show that the observed broadening of the spectral features is due to collisions of the molecules ...
Teipel Jörn - - 2005
The combination of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 picosecond laser source with tapered fibers allows the realization of a compact white light source with an average output power of up to 5.65 W. We generated supercontinua with a throughput of ~50% over a spectral range of up to 1140 nm by using ...
Tan Qing Q Boston University Hearing Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2005
The sensitivity of listeners to changes in the center frequency of vowel-like harmonic complexes as a function of the center frequency of the complex cannot be explained by changes in the level of the stimulus [Lyzenga and Horst, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1943-1955 (1995)]. Rather, a complex pattern of ...
Sanders J E - - 2005
The purpose of this research was to determine if fiber spacing for small fiber diameter fibro-porous meshes affected tissue response in vivo. Disk-shaped polyurethane meshes, with mean fiber diameters of 7.6 microm and fiber spacing between 6 and 68 microm, were implanted in rat subcutaneous dorsum for 5-week intervals and ...
Mirnajafi Ali - - 2005
Improving cardiac valve bioprostheses (BHV) utilizing heterograft biomaterials requires a better understanding of their mechanical behavior. Flexure is a major mode of deformation for BHV leaflets during valve operation, inducing more complex deformation patterns within the tissue compared to tensile loads. In this study, we investigated the relation between collagen ...
Grässel David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new model of fiber architecture of the linea alba has been described consisting of an oblique fiber layer of intermingling oblique fibers, a transverse fiber layer containing mainly transverse fibril bundles, and a variable, small irregular fiber layer. In this study the morphological model was proven using ...
Rivera Belinda - - 2005
A safe and efficient method for endotracheal intubation was needed to mechanically ventilate mice and rats for various research projects. We developed an easy, reliable, and expeditious method for intubating these rodents. Inexpensive disposable Teflon intravenous catheters are used as endotracheal tubes. Both mice and rats are anesthetized using a ...
Louage Dries H G - - 2005
Compared with auditory nerve (AN) fibers, trapezoid body (TB) fibers of the cat show enhanced synchronization to low-frequency tones. This phenomenon probably contributes to the high temporal resolution of binaural processing. We examined whether enhanced synchronization also occurs to sustained broadband noise. We recorded responses to a reference Gaussian noise ...
Little Jesse S - - 2005
The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. ...
Recio-Spinoso Alberto - - 2005
Responses to broadband Gaussian white noise were recorded in auditory-nerve fibers of deeply anesthetized chinchillas and analyzed by computation of zeroth-, first-, and second-order Wiener kernels. The first-order kernels (similar to reverse correlations or "revcors") of fibers with characteristic frequency (CF) <2 kHz consisted of lightly damped transient oscillations with ...
Rimskaya-Korsakova L K - - 2005
The relationship between the mean spike frequency of auditory nerve fibers and the levels of tonal stimuli with frequencies equal to the characteristic frequency can be presented as the "input-output" characteristic. In real auditory nerve fibers, the slope of this characteristic increases and its width decreases with increases in the ...
Jáuregui César - - 2005
A theoretical prediction of a new fiber grating structure is presented. This new device is achieved when a high-birefringence fiber is heavily twisted. It behaves like a long-period grating, but its spectral response can be controlled with the input state of polarization of the light. Since there is no permanent ...
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