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Sakai Yuuki Y Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043, - - 2014
In the outer periclinal cytoplasm of leaf epidermal cells of an aquatic angiosperm Vallisneria, blue light induces 'chloroplast de-anchoring', a rapid decline in the resistance of chloroplasts against centrifugal force. Chloroplast de-anchoring is known induced within one minute of irradiation with high-fluence-rate blue light specifically, preceding the commencement of chloroplasts ...
Dolev A A MIGAL- Galilee Technological Center,Qiryat Shemona, P.O. Box 90000, Rosh Pina 12100, - - 2014
Spatial distributions of 22 mature large-framed Beefmaster × Simford (BS) cross cows and 16 mature small-framed Baladi (BA) cows were determined. Cows were allocated to the same paddock of a Mediterranean pasture and monitored during 6 consecutive seasons: spring (April 2006), summer (June 2006), autumn (September 2006), winter (February 2007), ...
Kohari Daisuke - - 2013
We investigated the effects of visual and auditory information related to cow and calf stress responses at weaning. Three weaning conditions were established with physical separation only (PS), physical and visual separation (VS), and physical, visual and auditory separation (VAS). Stress responses such as vocalization and self-grooming, and changes of ...
Raizman E A - - 2013
The study was conducted to assess the technical feasibility of studying the spatial and temporal interaction of traditionally herded livestock and wildlife using global positioning system (GPS) tracking technology in Northern Kenya. Two types of collars were used on nine cows: radio frequency and global system for mobile communications (GSM) ...
Charlton Gemma L - - 2013
Several factors influence whether dairy cattle prefer to be indoors or at pasture, including weather conditions and milk yield, but it is unclear how motivated cows are for access to pasture. One way to measure motivation is to require the animal to work (e.g., walk different distances) for access to ...
Hillman Donald - - 2013
Public Utility Commissions (PUC) in several states adopted 0.5volt rms (root mean squared) or 1.0milliampere as the actionable limit for utilities to respond to complaints of uncontrolled voltage. This study clearly shows that the actionable level should be reduced to 10mV p-p (peak-to-peak), which is 140 times less than the ...
BaraƄski W - - 2012
The aims of our study were to determine (1) how the prevalence of cytologically determined subclinical endometritis varies when using three different cytological threshold ratios to categorize cows as either with or without endometritis, (2) how the number of animals categorized as having endometritis changes from the fourth to the ...
Chapinal N - - 2012
Weight shifting between legs and steps taken when cows stand may be a useful tool to assess cow comfort and lameness. Weight shifting is assessed by measuring the distribution of weight applied to each leg when standing on a weighing platform, whereas frequency of steps is traditionally measured with live ...
McIlreavy Lee - - 2012
In performing search tasks, the visual system encodes information across the visual field at a resolution inversely related to eccentricity and deploys saccades to place visually interesting targets upon the fovea, where resolution is highest. The serial process of fixation, punctuated by saccadic eye movements, continues until the desired target ...
Mueller A L - - 2012
Motor learning adjusts movement size and direction to keep movements accurate. A useful model of motor learning, saccade adaptation, uses intra-saccade target movement to make saccades seem inaccurate and elicit adaptive changes in saccades. In the most studied saccade adaptation procedure, which we call short-term saccade adaptation (STSA), monkeys decrease ...
Kim Eun H - - 2012
In a natural environment, saccade and vergence eye movements shift gaze in different directions and distances. In a laboratory setting, targets can be positioned precisely to elicit symmetrical vergence movements; however, saccades occur during the vergence movement even though the stimulus should not stimulate a saccadic response. These saccades may ...
Van der Stigchel S - - 2012
When two elements are presented closely aligned, the average saccade endpoint will generally be located in between these two elements. This 'global effect' has been explained in terms of the center of gravity account which states that the saccade endpoint is based on the relative saliency of the different elements ...
Ruiz Octavio - - 2012
Vision in natural situations is different from the paradigms generally used to study vision in the laboratory. In natural vision, stimuli usually appear in a receptive field as the result of saccadic eye movements rather than suddenly flashing into view. The stimuli themselves are rich with meaningful and recognizable objects ...
Schnier Fabian - - 2012
Recent studies have shown that saccadic inward adaptation, i.e. the shortening of saccade amplitude, and saccadic outward adaptation, i.e. the lengthening of saccade amplitude, rely on partially different neuronal mechanisms. There is increasing evidence that these differences are based on differences at the target registration or planning stages since outward ...
Maij Femke - - 2012
To explore a visual scene we make many fast eye movements (saccades) every second. During those saccades the image of the world shifts rapidly across our retina. These shifts are normally not detected, because perception is suppressed during saccades. In this paper we study the origin of this saccadic suppression ...
Melcher David D Department of Cognitive Sciences, Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 31, 38068, Rovereto, TN, Italy. - - 2012
Although motion processing in the brain has been classically studied in terms of retinotopically defined receptive fields, recent evidence suggests that motion perception can occur in a spatiotopic reference frame. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of spatiotopic motion perception by examining the role of saccade metrics as well as the ...
Szinte Martin - - 2012
Different attention and saccade control areas contribute to space constancy by remapping target activity onto their expected post-saccadic locations. To visualize this dynamic remapping, we used a technique developed by Honda (2006) where a probe moved vertically while participants made a saccade across the motion path. Observers do not report ...
Lavergne Louisa - - 2012
Around the onset of a saccade toward a target, localization judgments are systematically biased toward the saccade endpoint. This perisaccadic compression is thought to be related to transsaccadic reorganization and due to interfering motor signals in visual maps. It has, however, only been investigated for saccades targeting a single target. ...
Zimmermann Eckart - - 2012
Much evidence suggests that visual motion can cause severe distortions in the perception of spatial position. In this study, we show that visual motion also distorts saccadic eye movements. Landing positions of saccades performed to objects presented in the vicinity of visual motion were biased in the direction of motion. ...
Guillaume Alain - - 2012
Saccadic inhibition refers to the strong temporary decrease in saccadic initiation observed when a visual distractor appears shortly after the onset of a saccadic target. Here, to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we assessed whether saccade amplitude changes could accompany these modulations of latency distributions. As previous studies ...
Vetter Petra - - 2012
Predicting visual information facilitates efficient processing of visual signals. Higher visual areas can support the processing of incoming visual information by generating predictive models that are fed back to lower visual areas. Functional brain imaging has previously shown that predictions interact with visual input already at the level of the ...
Barbosa A - - 2011
We investigated the regular behaviour patterns in Counter-Attack (CA) and Fast Attack (FA) in the Spanish League 2010/2011 season using the instrument validated by Sarmento et al (Medicina (Kaunas) 2010;46;401-7). This instrument consists in a specific notational system to study the offensive process and its variables, based on previous procedures ...
Jamesdaniel Samson S Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, - - 2011
Noise exposure is a major cause of hearing loss. Classical methods of studying protein involvement have provided a basis for understanding signaling pathways that mediate hearing loss and damage repair but do not lend themselves to studying large networks of proteins that are likely to increase or decrease during noise ...
Shimono Masanori - - 2011
We investigated the key anatomical structures mediating interhemispheric integration during the perception of apparent motion across the retinal midline. Previous studies of commissurotomized patients suggest that subcortical structures mediate interhemispheric transmission but the specific regions involved remain unclear. Here, we exploit interindividual variations in the propensity of normal subjects to ...
Ahn Sung Dae - - 2011
White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) were fabricated utilizing a mixed color-conversion layer consisting of CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors. The ratio between the CaAl12O19:Mn and the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor determined the rate of the red and the green lights. The color rendering index was improved by using a mixed color-conversion phosphor layer.
Moeller Trevor - - 2010
A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system ...
Allison W Ted - - 2010
Cone photoreceptors in fish are typically arranged into a precise, reiterated pattern known as a "cone mosaic." Cone mosaic patterns can vary in different fish species and in response to changes in habitat, yet their function and the mechanisms of their development remain speculative. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have four cone ...
Sato Masaki - - 2011
The electroretinogram (ERG) is a non-invasive indicator of retinal function. Light flashes evoke a cornea-negative a-wave followed by a cornea-positive b-wave. Light-adaptation is known to increase the amplitude of cone-dependent b-waves. To identify the underlying mechanism, we recorded rat cone photoresponses in situ, using intravitreally-injected glutamate to block synaptic transmission ...
Mehdi Madah Khawn-i-Muhammad - - 2010
Cone photoreceptor death is a leading cause of blindness in industrialised countries. Despite this, there are few mammalian models available to study cone pathophysiology. The diurnal rodent Arvicanthis possesses a high cone percentage and ease of maintenance. We recently described the effect of ambient light conditions on cyclic disc shedding, ...
Challa N K - - 2010
We recorded L- and M-cone isolating ERGs from human subjects using a silent substitution technique at temporal rates of 12 and 30 Hz. These frequencies isolate the activity of cone-opponent and non-opponent post-receptoral mechanisms, respectively. ERGs were obtained using a sequence of stimuli with different spatial configurations comprising; (1) circular ...
Medina José M - - 2010
We examined different contrast metrics to scale visual latencies for suprathreshold stimuli modulated along tritan confusion lines. S-cone increments ('blue') and decrements ('yellow') were isolated along two different tritan confusion lines, each one having a different luminance value. Reaction times (RT) were evaluated as a function of the Weber contrast ...
Joselevitch Christina - - 2010
Many animal species make use of ultraviolet (UV) light in a number of behaviors, such as feeding and mating. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is among those with a UV photoreceptor and pronounced UV sensitivity. Little is known, however, about the retinal processing of this input. We addressed this issue by ...
Yetemian Rosanne M - - 2010
The effects of aging and light exposure on cone photoreceptor survival were compared between mouse retinas of neural retina leucine zipper knockout (Nrl(-/-)) mice and double-knockout mice lacking G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (Nrl(-/-)Grk1(-/-)). Mice were reared in total darkness, ambient cyclic light, or constant light, and their retinas were evaluated ...
Derijck Alwin A H A - - 2010
To establish axonal connections growth cones must navigate multiple intermediate targets before reaching their final target. During this journey growth cones are guided by extracellular repulsive and attractive signals. Although initially identified as repulsive molecules, members of the semaphorin family include both attractants and repellents. How a navigating growth cone ...
Anderson Leslie G - - 2010
The UVS cone mechanism is known to light adapt at low intensities in comparison to other cones. We were interested in whether this property was related to higher sensitivity in UVS cones or to network adjustments in sensitivity. We investigated spectral sensitivity of 107 individual cone photoreceptors in rainbow trout ...
Michalakis Stylianos - - 2010
Congenital absence of cone photoreceptor function is associated with strongly impaired daylight vision and loss of color discrimination in human achromatopsia. Here, we introduce viral gene replacement therapy as a potential treatment for this disease in the CNGA3(-/-) mouse model. We show that such therapy can restore cone-specific visual processing ...
Connaughton Victoria P - - 2010
Zebrafish are tetrachromats with red (R, 570 nm), green (G, 480 nm), blue (B, 415 nm), and UV (U, 362 nm) cones. Although neurons in other cyprinid retinas are rich in color processing neural circuitry, spectral responses of individual neurons in zebrafish retina, a genetic model for vertebrate color vision, ...
Busskamp Volker - - 2010
Retinitis pigmentosa refers to a diverse group of hereditary diseases that lead to incurable blindness, affecting two million people worldwide. As a common pathology, rod photoreceptors die early, whereas light-insensitive, morphologically altered cone photoreceptors persist longer. It is unknown if these cones are accessible for therapeutic intervention. Here, we show ...
Dollet Anna - - 2010
In mammals, non-visual responses to light involve intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that receive synaptic inputs from rod and cone photoreceptors. Several studies have shown that cones also play a role in light entrainment, photic responses of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pupil constriction, and sleep induction. These studies ...
Zhang Xian X Radiology Department, Columbia University, Neurological Institute B41, 710 W. 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2010
A paradigm is introduced that allows for simultaneous recording of the pattern-onset multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) to both short-wavelength (SW) and achromatic (A) stimuli. There were 5 sets of stimulus conditions, each of which is defined by two semi-concurrently presented stimuli, A64/SW (a 64% contrast achromatic stimulus and a ...
Garry Deirdre D Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
To evaluate cone and cone-driven retinal function in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a condition characterized by low cholesterol. Rod and rod-driven function in patients with SLOS are known to be abnormal. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses to full-field stimuli presented on a steady, rod suppressing background were recorded in 13 patients ...
Lisney T J - - 2010
The cichlid fish radiations of the African Great Lakes are an important model for evolutionary biology. Cichlids have diverse colour vision systems and predominately express three cone visual pigments. However, rare populations of spectrally distinct cones have been found in a number of species, but it is not known whether ...
Palacios Adri?n G - - 2010
We studied the retinal photoreceptors in the mouse opossum Thylamys elegans, a nocturnal South American marsupial. A variety of photoreceptor properties and color vision capabilities have been documented in Australian marsupials, and we were interested to establish what similarities and differences this American marsupial showed. Thylamys opsin gene sequencing revealed ...
Ribeiro Maria J - - 2010
In the early stages of vision, information is transmitted through distinct physiologically defined pathways. These may be related with three post-receptoral detection mechanisms defined psychophysically in humans. Accordingly, the parvocellular pathway is very sensitive to L-M-cone contrast, processes mainly foveal information and underlies fine discrimination of visual features. The magnocellular ...
Tsujimura Sei-ichi - - 2010
The recent discovery of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) has led to a fundamental reassessment of non-image forming processing, such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. In the conventional view of retinal physiology, rods and cones were assumed to be the only photoreceptors in the eye and were, ...
Vincent Ajoy - - 2010
The purpose of the study is (1) to demonstrate the anatomical variation of cone photoreceptor density across normal retina as a sectoral amplitude asymmetry of photopic multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and (2) to study the potential presence of sequential or differential, functional cone photoreceptor damage in glaucoma using this amplitude asymmetry. ...
Pang J J Department of Ophthalmology and Powell Gene Therapy Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. - - 2010
To test whether fast-acting, self-complimentary (sc), adeno-associated virus-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, we studied two mouse lines: the Rpe65-deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65-deficient, rhodopsin null ('that is, cone function-only') Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected subretinally into one eye of rd12 and Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) ...
Matthews Hugh R - - 2010
The time scale of the photoresponse in photoreceptor cells is set by the slowest of the steps that quench the light-induced activity of the phototransduction cascade. In vertebrate photoreceptor cells, this rate-limiting reaction is thought to be either shutoff of catalytic activity in the photopigment or shutoff of the pigment's ...
Jacobs Gerald H - - 2010
Only two of the four cone opsin gene families found in vertebrates are represented in contemporary eutherian and marsupial species. Recent genetic studies of two species of South American marsupial detected the presence of representatives from two of the classes of cone opsin genes and the structures of these genes ...
H?llstr?m Waldemar - - 2010
We used epitaxially grown monodisperse nanowire arrays to measure cellular forces with a spatial resolution of 1 mum. Nerve cells were cultured on the array and cellular forces were calculated from the displacement of the nanowire tips. The measurements were done in situ on live cells using confocal microscopy. Forces ...
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