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Ikeno Tomoko T Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Rapid reconstruction of neurons provides the brain with flexibility to adjust to environmental fluctuations. In Siberian hamsters, hippocampal dendritic morphology fluctuates across the day. To reveal the regulatory mechanism of diurnal remodeling of hippocampal neurons, we investigated the effects of light signals applied under different photoperiodic conditions on dendritic morphology. ...
Strother James A JA Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147-2408, - - 2014
Visual motion perception is critical to many animal behaviors, and flies have emerged as a powerful model system for exploring this fundamental neural computation. Although numerous studies have suggested that fly motion vision is governed by a simple neural circuit [1-3], the implementation of this circuit has remained mysterious for decades. ...
Lin Ying-Pyng - - 2014
This Letter proposes and demonstrates a two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system employing interleavers to deliver intensity-modulated CATV/phase-modulated RoF/intensity-remodulated 16-QAM-OFDM signals over two 20 km SMF links. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that interleavers have been employed in two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission systems. The downstream light ...
Barrero Jose M JM CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra ACT 2601, - - 2014
It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately ...
Boinagrov David D Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2014
Objective. Intra-retinal placement of stimulating electrodes can provide close and stable proximity to target neurons. We assessed improvement in stimulation thresholds and selectivity of the direct and network-mediated retinal stimulation with intraretinal electrodes, compared to epiretinal and subretinal placements. Approach. Stimulation thresholds of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in wild-type ...
Reiter Russel J RJ Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA, - - 2014
Historically, the direct release of pineal melatonin into the capillary bed within the gland has been accepted as the primary route of secretion. Herein, we propose that the major route of melatonin delivery to the brain is after its direct release into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle ...
Babii Oleg O Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Organic Chemistry and CFN, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe - - 2014
Photobiological processes in nature are usually triggered by nonpeptidic chromophores or by modified side chains. A system is presented in which the polypeptide backbone itself can be conformationally switched by light. An amino acid analogue was designed and synthesized based on a reversibly photoisomerizable diarylethene scaffold. This analogue was incorporated ...
Bertolesi Gabriel E - - 2014
Light information is sorted by neuronal circuits to generate image-forming (IF) (interpretation and tracking of visual objects and patterns) and non-image-forming (NIF) tasks. Among the NIF tasks, photic entrainment of circadian rhythms, the pupillary light reflex, and sleep are all associated with physiological responses, mediated mainly by a small group ...
Downey R J RJ Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-6250, - - 2014
Introduction: Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. Methods: The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation ...
Moore Helen A HA Centre for Cell and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, United - - 2014
Traditionally, circadian clocks have been thought of as a neurobiological phenomenon. This view changed somewhat over recent years with the discovery of peripheral tissue circadian oscillators. In mammals, however, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus still retains the critical role of a central synchronizer of biological timing. Zebrafish, in ...
Bellastella Antonio A Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples , Naples , - - 2014
Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animals and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed ...
Pierzycki Robert H RH MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK, - - 2014
Comodulation masking release (CMR) is an improvement in the detection threshold of a masked signal that occurs when the masker envelopes are correlated across frequency (i.e., comodulation). CMR can be observed when flanking bands (FBs) of noise co-modulated with an on-frequency band (OFB) noise masker are added at remote frequencies ...
Feng Chun-Miao CM Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, - - 2014
Plant genomes are extremely sensitive to, and can be developmentally reprogrammed by environmental light cues. Here using rolling-circle amplification of gene-specific circularizable oligonucleotides coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that light triggers a rapid repositioning of the Arabidopsis light-inducible chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (CAB) locus from the nuclear interior ...
Kiessling Silke S School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
The brain's master circadian pacemaker resides within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). SCN clock neurons are entrained to the day/night cycle via the retinohypothalamic tract and the SCN provides temporal information to the central nervous system and to peripheral organs that function as secondary oscillators. The SCN clock-cell network is ...
Tsushima Yoshiaki Y 1] Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Boston, USA [2] Three-Dimensional Image Research Division, NHK Science and Technology Research Labs., Tokyo, - - 2014
It is well known that our perceptual system integrates local information to generate global percepts. Although events in the real world occur over time, it is still unclear how we integrate temporally dispersed information. Here, I systematically explore the relation between the intensity of local signals and the resultant of ...
Neumann Silke S Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, Heidelberg, - - 2014
Cellular signaling systems show astonishing precision in their response to external stimuli despite strong fluctuations in the molecular components that determine pathway activity. To control the effects of noise on signaling most efficiently, living cells employ compensatory mechanisms that reach from simple negative feedback loops to robustly designed signaling architectures. ...
Fletcher Patrick A PA Department of Mathematics, Florida State University, Tallahasee, Florida, United States of - - 2014
Many hormones are released in pulsatile patterns. This pattern can be modified, for instance by changing pulse frequency, to encode relevant physiological information. Often other properties of the pulse pattern will also change with frequency. How do signaling pathways of cells targeted by these hormones respond to different input patterns? ...
Carriot Jerome J Department of Physiology McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, - - 2013
The ability to keep track of where we are going as we navigate through our environment requires knowledge of our ongoing location and orientation. In response to passively applied motion, the otolith organs of the vestibular system encode changes in the velocity and direction of linear self-motion (i.e., heading). When ...
Yu Yanwen Y Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China ; National Key Facility of Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Beijing, - - 2013
In the dark, etiolated seedlings display a long hypocotyl, the growth of which is rapidly inhibited when the seedlings are exposed to light. In contrast, the phytohormone ethylene prevents hypocotyl elongation in the dark but enhances its growth in the light. However, the mechanism by which light and ethylene signalling ...
Zhou Ning - - 2013
Modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) vary across stimulation sites in a cochlear implant (CI) electrode array in a manner that is subject and ear specific. Previous studies have demonstrated that speech recognition with a CI can be improved by site-selection strategies, where selected stimulation sites with poor modulation sensitivity are removed ...
Lindeboom Jelmer J - - 2013
Environmental and hormonal signals cause reorganization of microtubule arrays in higher plants, but the mechanisms driving these transitions have remained elusive. The organization of these arrays is required to direct morphogenesis. We discovered that microtubule severing by the protein katanin plays a crucial and unexpected role in the reorientation of ...
La Corte Giorgio - - 2013
Electrical stimulation offers the potential to develop novel strategies for the treatment of refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy. In particular, direct electrical stimulation of the hippocampus presents the opportunity to modulate pathological dynamics at the ictal focus, although the neuroanatomical substrate of this region renders it susceptible to altering cognition ...
Sun Lu O LO Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2013
Direction-selective responses to motion can be to the onset (On) or cessation (Off) of illumination. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein semaphorin 6A and its receptor plexin A2 are critical for achieving radially symmetric arborization of On starburst amacrine cell (SAC) dendrites and normal SAC stratification in the mouse ...
Tom Dieck Susanne S Max-Planck Institute for Brain Research; Synaptic Plasticity Department; Frankfurt, - - 2013
How we see our environment is the result of a multi-level, parallel processing effort by the central nervous system. This computation is initiated within the retina at the very first synapse in the visual pathway - the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. Two recent studies shed light on the critical role of ...
Shi Hui - - 2013
Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we ...
Ziegenfuss Jennifer S JS Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, P&S 12-403, New York, NY 10032, - - 2013
Environmental and cellular cues pattern dendritic growth and direct dendrites to their targets. However, little is known about the signals regulating interactions with the surrounding substrate. Dong et al. and Salzberg et al. now identify a tripartite ligand-receptor complex that conveys cues from the substrate necessary for the patterning of complex dendrites ...
Oh Sookyung - - 2013
Chloroplast-localized sigma factor (SIG) proteins promote specificity of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. SIG2 function appears to be necessary for light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Specific photoreceptors or light-dependent factors that impact the light-induced accumulation of SIG2 have not been reported. A molecular link between phytochromes and nuclear-encoded SIG2, which impacts photomorphogenesis ...
Effendi Yunus - - 2013
The auxin receptor ABP1 directly regulates plasma membrane activities including the number of PIN-formed (PIN) proteins and auxin efflux transport. Red light (R) mediated by phytochromes regulates the steady-state level of ABP1 and auxin-inducible growth capacity in etiolated tissues but, until now, there has been no genetic proof that ABP1 ...
Gleichmann Tobias - - 2013
Modular signal receptors empower organisms to process environmental stimuli into adequate physiological responses. At the molecular level, a sensor module receives signals and processes the inherent information into changes of biological activity of an effector module. To better understand the molecular bases underpinning these processes, we analyzed signal reception and ...
Toychiev Abduqodir H AH Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York 10605, - - 2013
Retinal degeneration leads to progressive photoreceptor cell death, resulting in vision loss. Subsequently, inner retinal neurons develop aberrant synaptic activity, compounding visual impairment. In retinal ganglion cells, light responses driven by surviving photoreceptors are obscured by elevated levels of aberrant spiking activity. Here, we demonstrate in rd10 mice that targeting ...
Murat Pierre - - 2013
The use of a caged G-quadruplex ligand allows for transcriptional control of quadruplex-containing genes using UV light as an external trigger. An important oncogene, SRC, involved in the initiation and proliferation of epithelial tumours is shown to be significantly downregulated in cells treated by the caged ligand in synergy with ...
Mazade Reece E - - 2013
Sensory systems must avoid saturation to encode a wide range of stimulus intensities. One way the retina accomplishes this is by using both dim light-sensing rod and bright light-sensing cone photoreceptor circuits. OFF cone bipolar cells are a key point in this process, as they receive both excitatory input from ...
Silies Marion M Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2013
In the visual system, peripheral processing circuits are often tuned to specific stimulus features. How this selectivity arises and how these circuits are organized to inform specific visual behaviors is incompletely understood. Using forward genetics and quantitative behavioral studies, we uncover an input channel to motion detecting circuitry in Drosophila. ...
Kim Chanhong - - 2013
Singlet oxygen ((1)O2)-mediated signaling has been established in the conditional fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis. In the dark, the flu mutant accumulates free protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), a photosensitizer that in the light generates (1)O2. The release of (1)O2 leads to growth inhibition of mature plants and bleaching of seedlings. These (1)O2-mediated ...
Nikolic Konstantin - - 2013
Optogenetics is a new neurotechnology innovation based on the creation of light sensitivity of neurons using gene technologies and remote light activation. Optogenetics allows for the first time straightforward targeted neural stimulation with practically no interference between multiple stimulation points since either light beam can be finely confined or the ...
Volkov Alexander G - - 2013
Leaf movements in Mimosa pudica, are in response to thermal stress, touch, and light or darkness, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical, and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of the M. pudica shows elastic properties. We have found that the movements of the petiole, or pinnules, are accompanied by ...
Nito Kazumasa - - 2013
Phytochromes are red/far-red light receptors that function in photomorphogenesis of plants. Photoisomerization of phytochrome by red light leads to its translocation to the nucleus, where it regulates gene expression. We examined whether phytochrome is phosphorylated in response to light, and we report that phytochrome B (phyB)'s N terminus contains a ...
Osten Pavel P Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA. - - 2013
The beginning of the 21st century has seen a renaissance in light microscopy and anatomical tract tracing that together are rapidly advancing our understanding of the form and function of neuronal circuits. The introduction of instruments for automated imaging of whole mouse brains, new cell type–specific and trans-synaptic tracers, and ...
Lariguet Patricia - - 2013
Germination is controlled by external factors, such as temperature, water, light and by hormone balance. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to act as messengers during plant development, stress responses and programmed cell death. We analyzed the role of ROS during germination and demonstrated that ROS in addition ...
Strüber Daniel - - 2013
When viewing ambiguous stimuli, conscious perception alternates spontaneously between competing interpretations of physically unchanged stimulus information. As one possible neural mechanism underlying the perceptual switches, it has been suggested that neurons dynamically change their pattern of synchronized oscillatory activity in the gamma band (30-80 Hz). In support of this hypothesis, there ...
Wilson Nathan R - - 2013
Neuronal networks process information in a distributed, spatially heterogeneous manner that transcends the layout of electrodes. In contrast, directed and steerable light offers the potential to engage specific cells on demand. We present a unified framework for adapting microscopes to use light for simultaneous in vivo stimulation and recording of ...
Chen Dongqin - - 2013
The critical developmental switch from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth of plants involves light signaling transduction and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS function as signaling molecules that regulate multiple developmental processes, including cell death. However, the relationship between light and ROS signaling remains unclear. Here, we identify transcriptional ...
Sayles Mark M Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. - - 2013
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a pervasive feature of natural sounds. Neural detection and processing of modulation cues is behaviourally important across species. Although most ecologically relevant sounds are not fully modulated, physiological studies have usually concentrated on fully modulated (100% modulation depth) signals. Psychoacoustic experiments mainly operate at low modulation ...
Herman Elena - - 2013
Aureochromes have recently been shown to act as blue-light-regulated transcription factors in the stramenopile alga Vaucheria frigida. They comprise a light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain as a sensory module with flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a chromophore and a basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain as an effector. Aureochromes are ...
Polprasert Chantri - - 2013
Objective. We propose a new stimulation pattern design for the P300-based matrix speller aimed at increasing the minimum target-to-target interval (TTI). Approach. Inspired by the simplicity and strong performance of the conventional row-column (RC) stimulation, the proposed stimulation is obtained by modifying the RC stimulation through alternating row and column ...
Lingner Andrea - - 2013
Reverberation can dramatically reduce the depth of amplitude modulations which are critical for speech intelligibility. Psychophysical experiments indicate that humans' sensitivity to amplitude modulation in reverberation is better than predicted from the acoustic modulation depth at the receiver position. Electrophysiological studies on reverberation in rabbits highlight the contribution of neurons ...
Eggers Erika D - - 2013
The retina responds to a wide range of light stimuli by adaptation of retinal signaling to background light intensity and the use of two different photoreceptors: rods that sense dim light and cones that sense bright light. Rods signal to rod bipolar cells that receive significant inhibition from amacrine cells ...
Cymerblit-Sabba Adi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Neurostimulation has been proposed as a potential new treatment modality for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Yet the effect of the different stimulation parameters on the efficacy of stimulation is not sufficiently known. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effect of different stimulation parameters on the efficacy of neurostimulation in terminating acute chemoconvulsant-induced hippocampal seizures ...
Xu Wei - - 2013
To investigate neurotrophins expression and neurotrophic effect change in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under different types of stimulation. Rats were exposed in 10,000 lux white light to develop light-induced retinal injury. Supernatants of homogenized retina (SHR), either from normal or light-injured retina, were used to stimulate MSCs. Quantitative real time ...
Westcott Erika B EB Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65212, - - 2013
The control of vascular resistance and tissue perfusion reflect coordinated changes in the diameter of feed arteries and the arteriolar networks they supply. Against a background of myogenic tone and metabolic demand, vasoactive signals originating from perivascular sympathetic and sensory nerves are integrated with endothelium-derived signals to produce vasodilation or ...
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