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Varela Patrícia P Department of Psychiatry,Universidade Federal de São Paulo,R. Borges Lagoa, 570, 10° andar, São Paulo, SP - - 2014
To address the role of mixed anxiety/mood disorder on appetitive associative learning, we verify whether previous chronic light deprivation changes ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and its respective expression of c-Fos and pCREB, markers of neuronal activity and plasticity. The experimental group was maintained in light deprivation for 24 h for a ...
Akimov Nikolay P NP Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, - - 2014
The mouse visual system is immature when the eyes open two weeks after birth. As in other mammals, some of the maturation that occurs in the subsequent weeks is known to depend on visual experience. Development of the retina, which as the first stage of vision provides the visual information ...
Munro Kevin J KJ School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United - - 2014
Auditory deprivation and stimulation can change the threshold of the acoustic middle ear reflex as well as loudness in adult listeners. However, it has remained unclear whether changes in these measures are due to the same mechanism. In this study, deprivation was achieved using a monaural earplug that was worn ...
Lindahl Jared R JR Department of Religious Studies, Warren Wilson College Asheville, NC, - - 2014
The scientific study of Buddhist meditation has proceeded without much attention to Buddhist literature that details the range of psychological and physiological changes thought to occur during meditation. This paper presents reports of various meditation-induced light experiences derived from American Buddhist practitioners. The reports of light experiences are classified into ...
Monshupanee Tanakarn - - 2013
Glycogen (GL) and lipids (LP) are efficient biofuel substrates whereas polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a potent bio-degradable plastic. This study aimed to increase accumulation of these three compounds in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Under autophototrophic growth, co-accumulation of the three compounds reached maximum level in a mid-stationary phase at 39.2% of ...
Zapasnik Monika - - 2013
The quality of motion perception depends on visual input during early development. Even one month of binocular deprivation (BD) from birth impairs motion coherence thresholds when tested in kittens; conversely BD with a one month delayed onset does not impair it (Mitchell et al., 2009). We showed that six months ...
Shao Yu R - - 2013
Local recurrent networks in neocortex are critical nodes for sensory processing, but their regulation by experience is much less understood than for long-distance (translaminar or cross-columnar) projections. We studied local L2/3 recurrent networks in rat somatosensory cortex during deprivation-induced whisker map plasticity, by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in L2/3 pyramidal cells ...
Theodorou Apostolos A Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. - - 2013
The purpose of the study was to investigate the occurrence of stride regulation at the approach phase of the long jump in athletes with normal vision and visually deprived Class F12 and F13 athletes. All the athletes exhibited the presence of a regulatory mechanism. In the normal vision group this ...
Tkatchenko Tatiana V - - 2013
It was recently demonstrated that refractive errors in mice stabilize around emmetropic values during early postnatal development, and that they develop experimental myopia in response to both visual form deprivation and imposed optical defocus similar to other vertebrate species. Animal studies also suggest that photopic vision plays critical role in ...
Regele Oliver B - - 2013
Neuroprosthetics using intracortical microstimulation can potentially alleviate sensory deprivation due to injury or disease. However the information bandwidth of a single microstimulation channel remains largely unanswered. This paper presents three experiments that examine the importance of Peak Power/Charge and RMS Power/Charge for detection of acoustic and electrical Sinusoidal Amplitude Modulated ...
Mitchell Donald E - - 2013
Extended periods of complete darkness have long been used among other early experiential manipulations to explore the role of visual experience in the development of the visual pathways. In the last decade, short periods of darkness have been used to facilitate the imposition of different or conflicting visual input each ...
Kelly Krista R - - 2013
It is generally accepted that early visual deprivation from monocular enucleation (ME; the surgical removal of one eye) results in intact spatial vision. Yet, motion perception studies in this population yield inconsistent findings. Here, we investigated speed and luminance contrast perception in a group of ME individuals. Twelve ME participants ...
Maslin Michael R D - - 2013
There is growing evidence that auditory stimulation or deprivation can induce physiological and perceptual changes in the auditory system of normal hearing adults. The present study investigated cortical (hemispheric asymmetry) and subcortical (acoustic reflex threshold) changes in 11 normal hearing adults after 7 days of continuous unilateral earplug use (around ...
Jan Kremláček - - 2013
We examined the visual and cognitive functions of a 72-year-old subject, KP, who recovered his sight after 53 years of visual deprivation. We used visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to pattern-reversal and motion-onset stimuli and cognitive responses (ERPs) during the oddball paradigm to assess the effect of long-term deprivation on a ...
Lunghi Claudia - - 2013
During development, within a specific temporal window called the critical period, the mammalian visual cortex is highly plastic and literally shaped by visual experience; to what extent this extraordinary plasticity is retained in the adult brain is still a debated issue. We tested the residual plastic potential of the adult ...
Hauthal Nadine - - 2013
A number of studies have investigated changes in the perception of visual motion as a result of altered sensory experiences. An animal study has shown that auditory-deprived cats exhibit enhanced performance in a visual movement detection task compared to hearing cats (Lomber, Meredith, & Kral, 2010). In humans, the behavioural ...
Guo Yatu - - 2012
Metaplasticity, the adaptive changes of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in response to fluctuations in neural activity is well documented in visual cortex, where dark rearing shifts the frequency threshold for the induction of LTP and LTD. Here we studied metaplasticity affecting spike-timing-dependent plasticity, in which the polarity ...
Trivellini Alice - - 2012
Senescence is genetically controlled and activated in mature tissues during aging. However, immature plant tissues also display senescence-like symptoms when continuously exposed to adverse energy-depleting conditions. We used detached dark-held immature inflorescences of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to understand the metabolic reprogramming occurring in immature tissues transitioning from rapid growth to ...
Cohen Yuval - - 2012
Form deprivation and low illuminance of ambient light are known to induce myopia in chicks. Low concentrations of retinal dopamine, a light-driven neurohormone, was previously shown to be associated with form deprivation myopia. In the present study we examined the dependence of retinal dopamine release in chicks on illuminance during ...
Eastman Charmane I - - 2012
The length of the free-running period (τ) affects how an animal re-entrains after phase shifts of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Those with shorter periods adapt faster to phase advances than those with longer periods, whereas those with longer periods adapt faster to phase delays than those with shorter periods. The ...
Blautzik Janusch - - 2012
We investigated the influence of circadian rhythmicity and wake-up time on fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) derived resting-state data in 15 subjects by evaluating the time course of 20 brain connectivity patterns over 8h (4 sessions). For each subject, we determined the chronotype, which describes the relationship between the individual ...
Pezük Pinar - - 2012
Mammalian circadian organization is governed by pacemaker neurons in the brain that communicate with oscillators in peripheral tissues. Adrenal glucocorticoids are important time-giving signals to peripheral circadian oscillators. We investigated the rhythm of Per1-luc expression in pineal, pituitary, salivary glands, liver, lung, kidney, cornea as well as suprachiasmatic nucleus from ...
Valdez Diego J - - 2012
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) contain circadian clocks driving melatonin synthesis during the day, a subset of these cells acting as nonvisual photoreceptors sending photic information to the brain. In this work, the authors investigated the temporal and light regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity, a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. ...
Lehmann Marina - - 2012
Daily schedules of many organisms, including birds, are thought to affect fitness. Timing in birds is based on circadian clocks that have a heritable period length, but fitness consequences for individuals in natural environments depend on the scheduling of entrained clocks. This chronotype, i.e., timing of an individual relative to ...
Yasui Nobuhiro - - 2012
Alkali halide systems that function as phase-separated scintillators (PSSs) with light-guiding properties are sucessfully created. Furthermore, it is the matrix phases of the PSSs which display the light-guiding properties. CsI-NaCl:Tl is a practical material pair because of its high pixel light output and good spatial resolution.
Mat Audrey M - - 2012
Although a significant body of literature has been devoted to the chronobiology of aquatic animals, how biological rhythms function in molluscan bivalves has been poorly studied. The first objective of this study was to determine whether an endogenous circadian rhythm does exist in the oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The second objective ...
Blatchford R A - - 2012
Day length and intensity are commonly manipulated aspects of the light environment in commercial broiler production. Both influence circadian rhythms, but it is unclear if they do this independently or synergistically. The effect of light:dark (20L:4D, 16L:8D) and intensity contrasts (1 lx:0.5 lx, 200 lx:0.5 lx) on broiler behavior and ...
De Joydeep - - 2012
In insects, the role of circadian clocks in the temporal regulation of adult emergence rhythm under natural conditions has not previously been reported. Here we present the results of a study aimed at examining the time course and waveform of emergence rhythm in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster under seminatural ...
Glickman Gena G Center for Chronobiology and Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA. - - 2012
The response of the circadian system to light varies markedly depending on photic history. Under short day lengths, hamsters exhibit larger maximal light-induced phase shifts as compared with those under longer photoperiods. However, effects of photoperiod length on sensitivity to subsaturating light remain unknown. Here, Syrian hamsters were entrained to ...
Prendergast Brian J BJ Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. - - 2012
Three experiments addressed whether pronounced alterations in the circadian system yielded concomitant changes in ultradian timing. Female Siberian hamsters were housed in a 16L:8D photoperiod after being subjected to a disruptive phase-shifting protocol that produced 3 distinct permanent circadian phenotypes: some hamsters entrained their circadian rhythms (CRs) with predominantly nocturnal ...
Wood Brittany - - 2012
Exposure to light from self-luminous displays may be linked to increased risk for sleep disorders because these devices emit optical radiation at short wavelengths, close to the peak sensitivity of melatonin suppression. Thirteen participants experienced three experimental conditions in a within-subjects design to investigate the impact of self-luminous tablet displays ...
Wu Hongyan - - 2012
Diatoms are important contributors to aquatic primary production, and can dominate phytoplankton communities under variable light regimes. We grew two marine diatoms, the small Thalassiosira pseudonana and the large Coscinodiscus radiatus, across a range of temperatures and treated them with a light challenge to understand their exploitation of variable light ...
Wahle Chris W - - 2012
We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential ...
Mexal Sharon - - 2012
Despite the evidence that there is a daily rhythm in smoking behavior and that the effects of drugs of abuse exhibit diurnal variations, very few studies have explored the extent to which sensitivity to the effects of nicotine vary over the course of the day. In the studies described in ...
Budki Puja - - 2012
The timing and duration of gonadal phases in the year indicates that breeding cycles are regulated by endogenous mechanisms. The present study on tropical Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata) investigates whether such mechanisms are based on circannual rhythms, and whether circannual rhythms between sexes differ in their relationship with the light ...
Kannan Nisha N - - 2012
Although circadian clocks are believed to have evolved under the action of periodic selection pressures (selection on phasing) present in the geophysical environment, there is very little rigorous and systematic empirical evidence to support this. In the present study, we examined the effect of selection for adult emergence in a ...
Pfeuty Benjamin - - 2012
Daylight is the primary cue used by circadian clocks to entrain to the day/night cycle so as to synchronize physiological processes with periodic environmental changes induced by Earth rotation. However, the temporal daylight pattern is not the same every day due to erratic weather fluctuations or regular seasonal changes. Then, ...
Lall G S - - 2012
The natural rotation of the earth generates an environmental day-night cycle that repeats every 24 h. This daily transition from dawn to dusk provides one of the most important time cues to which the majority of organisms synchronise their activity. Under these conditions, natural light, a photic stimulus, provides the principal ...
Smyk Magdalena K - - 2012
Purpose:  The occurrence of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in WAG/Rij rats is modulated by the circadian timing system and is shaped by the presence of a light-dark cycle, motor activity, and state of vigilance. Here it is investigated whether the response to a phase shift is different between the SWDs and ...
Revell Victoria L - - 2012
Light shifts the timing of the circadian clock according to a phase response curve (PRC). To date, all human light PRCs have been to long durations of bright white light. However, melanopsin, the primary photopigment for the circadian system, is most sensitive to short wavelength blue light. Therefore, to optimise ...
Cambras Trinitat - - 2012
Circadian rhythms are strongly influenced by light intensity, the effects of which may persist beyond the duration of light exposure (aftereffects). Here, the authors constructed period-illuminance curves for the motor activity circadian rhythm of male and female rats by recording the effects of a series of small upward and downward ...
Vaze Koustubh M - - 2012
The authors derived early and late populations of fruit flies showing increased incidence of emergence during morning or evening hours by imposing selection for timing of emergence under 12:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles. From previous studies, it was clear that the increased incidence of adult emergence during morning and evening hours ...
Hasegawa E I - - 2012
The swimming depth of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta equipped with archival tags was investigated off the Pacific Ocean coast of Hokkaido and North Honshu, Japan. As shown from movements of the fish with disc tags, O. keta swam at shallower depths during the full-moon phase than in the other phases ...
Myung Jihwan - - 2012
Circadian oscillators in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) collectively orchestrate 24 h rhythms in the body while also coding for seasonal rhythms. Although synchronization is required among SCN oscillators to provide robustness for regular timekeeping (Herzog et al., 2004), heterogeneity of period and phase distributions is needed to accommodate seasonal variations ...
Corbett R W - - 2012
Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. ...
Neikrug Ariel B - - 2012
Circadian rhythms (CRs) are commonly disrupted in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). Bright light improves and strengthens CRs in other populations. This randomized controlled study examined the effect of morning administration of bright light therapy on CRs in women undergoing chemotherapy for BC. It was hypothesized that women ...
Malloy Jaclyn N - - 2012
Circadian clocks are responsible for daily rhythms in a wide array of processes, including gastrointestinal (GI) function. These are vital for normal digestive rhythms and overall health. Previous studies demonstrated circadian clocks within the cells of GI tissue. The present study examines the roles played by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), ...
Thommen Quentin - - 2012
The green microscopic alga Ostreococcus tauri has recently emerged as a promising model for understanding how circadian clocks, which drive the daily biological rythms of many organisms, synchronize to the day/night cycle in changing weather and seasons. Here, we analyze translational reporter time series data of its central clock genes ...
Butler Matthew P MP Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, - - 2012
Hamsters will spontaneously 'split' and exhibit two rest-activity cycles each day when housed in constant light (LL). The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the locus of a brain clock organizing circadian rhythmicity. In split hamsters, the right and left SCN oscillate 12 h out of phase with each other, and the ...
Vanderstraeten Jacques - - 2012
The so-called 'Melatonin Hypothesis' proposed that decreased nocturnal production of melatonin (MLT) might explain the increased risk of breast cancer that has been formerly attributed to extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) of weak intensity. Although the risk of ELF MF upon breast cancer was later dismissed, repeated reports were ...
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