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Tromp Robert Hans - - 2014
The angle dependence of the transmitted light through a cylindrical turbid sample (latex suspension, developing milk gel, draining/coarsening milk and protein foams) in a standard light scattering set up was analyzed in terms of the transport mean free path length or scattering length l* (a measure for the turbidity) and ...
Gao Shengpu S School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand; School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Food and Agricultural Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 10088, - - 2013
The inactivation of Enterobacter aerogenes in skim milk using low-frequency (20kHz) and high-frequency (850kHz) ultrasonication was investigated. It was found that low-frequency acoustic cavitation resulted in lethal damage to E. aerogenes. The bacteria were more sensitive to ultrasound in water than in reconstituted skim milk having different protein concentrations. However, ...
Intawiwat N - - 2013
The effect of different amounts of transmitted green light on photooxidation in pasteurized milk was studied. Five different green films produced with combinations of pigments and additives to minimize exposure to harmful wavelengths with regard to photosensitizers (400-450 and 600-650 nm) were evaluated. In addition, a non-colored transparent film and ...
Rocha Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da - - 2012
Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B.) microplus were similar: ...
Celine Lee Seung Yoon - - 2011
We investigated the photobiomodulation effects of 1072nm infrared light on the natural immune response involved in anti-bacterial and wound healing processes. Thirty mice infected with MRSA on the skin were divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with 1072nm infrared light (irradiance: 20mW/cm(2), fluence: 12J/cm(2) for 10min) at ...
Goodhew Stephanie C - - 2011
In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate ...
Fujiwara Satoru - - 2011
Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were carried out on powders of F-actin and G-actin hydrated with D(2)O to characterize the internal dynamics on the picosecond time scale and the â„«ngstrom length scale. To investigate the effects of hydration, the measurements were done on samples at hydration ratio (h) of 0.4 ...
Shain Kellen S - - 2010
The goals of this study were to measure the ability of catcher's masks to attenuate head accelerations on impact with a baseball and to compare these head accelerations to established injury thresholds for mild traumatic brain injury. Testing involved using a pneumatic cannon to shoot baseballs at an instrumented Hybrid ...
Held Björn - - 2010
In the present study, we tested whether visual singletons remaining outside awareness are processed. Singletons differ by at least one feature from their more homogeneous neighbors. Here, we used backward masking to prevent awareness of shape singleton primes (Experiments 1-4) or color singleton primes (Experiment 5). Masked singleton primes nonetheless ...
Swartz Erik E - - 2010
Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ ...
Stevanato L - - 2011
The light output of neutron detectors based on the plastic scintillator EJ228 is studied as a function of neutron energy using a time tagged (252)Cf source. Calibration of the light output scale is performed by fitting the experimental distribution of Compton scattering events of photons from a (22)Na source with ...
Pilling Michael - - 2010
The object updating hypothesis of object substitution masking proposes that the phenomenon arises when the visual system fails to individuate target and mask at the level of object token representations. This hypothesis is tested in two experiments using modifications of the dot mask paradigm developed by Lleras and Moore (2003). ...
McFadden Dennis - - 2010
The detectability of a 10-ms tone masked by a 400-ms wideband noise was measured as a function of the delay in the onset of the tone compared to the onset of the noise burst. Unlike most studies like this on auditory overshoot, special attention was given to signal delays between ...
Kidd Gerald G - - 2010
This study examined spatial release from masking (SRM) when a target talker was masked by competing talkers or by other types of sounds. The focus was on the role of interaural time differences (ITDs) and time-varying interaural level differences (ILDs) under conditions varying in the strength of informational masking (IM). ...
Voelkel Reinhard - - 2010
A new illumination system for mask aligner lithography is presented. The illumination system uses two subsequent microlens-based Köhler integrators. The second Köhler integrator is located in the Fourier plane of the first. The new illumination system uncouples the illumination light from the light source and provides excellent uniformity of the ...
Jones Gareth P GP School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, - - 2010
The mammalian inner ear contains sense organs responsible for detecting sound, gravity and linear acceleration, and angular acceleration. Of these organs, the cochlea is involved in hearing, while the sacculus and utriculus serve to detect linear acceleration. Recent evidence from birds and mammals, including humans, has shown that the sacculus, ...
Bierer Julie Arenberg - - 2010
This study examines patterns of neural activity in response to single biphasic electrical pulses, presented alone or following a forward masking pulse train, delivered by a cochlear implant. Recordings were made along the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized guinea pigs. The ...
Plack Christopher J - - 2010
On- and off-frequency compression at the 4000- and 8000-Hz cochlear places were estimated using a new version of the additivity of forward masking (AFM) technique, that measures the effects of combining two non-overlapping forward maskers. Instead of measuring signal thresholds to estimate compression of the signal as in the original ...
Tawfik Elazhary Tamer - - 2010
In optical lithography, light diffracted from photo mask structures has been customarily assumed to be constant with the angle of incidence of the light illuminating the photo mask. As numerical aperture increases to unity and beyond, to cope with the continuous demand for shrinking integrated circuits, device dimensions, and densities, ...
Ihlefeld Antje A MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 7EF, United - - 2010
Experiment 1 replicated the finding that normal-hearing listeners identify speech better in modulated than in unmodulated noise. This modulated-unmodulated difference ("MUD") has been previously shown to be reduced or absent for cochlear-implant listeners and for normal-hearing listeners presented with noise-vocoded speech. Experiments 2-3 presented normal-hearing listeners with noise-vocoded speech in ...
Asadollahi Ali - - 2010
Humans and animals are able to detect signals in noisy environments. Detection improves when the noise and the signal have different interaural phase relationships. The resulting improvement in detection threshold is called the binaural masking level difference. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying the release from masking in the inferior colliculus ...
Ernst Stephan M A - - 2010
The detectability of a sinusoidal signal embedded in a masker at the signal frequency can be improved by simultaneously presenting additional maskers in off-frequency regions if the additional maskers and the on-frequency masker component have the same temporal envelope. This effect is commonly referred to as comodulation masking release (CMR). ...
Wojtczak Magdalena - - 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying an effect reported earlier [Wojtczak, M., and Oxenham, A. J. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 270-281] in normal-hearing listeners, whereby recovery from forward masking can be slower for off-frequency tonal maskers than for on-frequency tonal maskers that ...
Micheyl Christophe - - 2010
This study measured difference limens for fundamental frequency (DLF0s) for a target harmonic complex in the presence of a simultaneous spectrally overlapping harmonic masker. The resolvability of the target harmonics was manipulated by bandpass filtering the stimuli into a low (800-2400 Hz) or high (1600-3200 Hz) spectral region, using different ...
Undurraga Jaime A JA Department of Neurosciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2010
Three experiments studied the effect of stimulus polarity on the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) obtained with the masker-probe paradigm on different sites along the cochlea in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 used a biphasic cathodic-1st (BIC) masker and showed that ECAP N(1) peak latencies were longer for BIC ...
Bauman Eric B - - 2010
We sought to compare the ability of novice operators to provide artificial ventilation using a standard facemask and a new ergonomically designed facemask. Whether or not proper technique was used was also assessed. Thirty-two allied-health students used both masks in random crossover fashion to ventilate an airway trainer. Breaths were ...
Buss Emily - - 2010
Previous work on spectral shape discrimination has shown that detection of a level increment in one tone of a tonal complex is dependent on spectral position, with thresholds forming a "bowl" pattern for components spanning 200 to 5000 Hz [Green, D. M., (1988). Profile Analysis: Auditory Intensity Discrimination (Oxford University ...
Markessis Emily E Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. - - 2010
Auditory steady-state evoked potential (ASSEP) tuning curves were compared to compound action potential (CAP) tuning curves, both measured at 2 Hz, using sedated beagle puppies. The effect of two types of masker (narrowband noise and sinusoidal) on the tuning curve parameters was assessed. Whatever the masker type, CAP tuning curve ...
Buss Emily E Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. - - 2010
The present studies examined the binaural masking level difference (MLD) for off-frequency masking. It has been shown previously that the MLD decreases steeply with increasing spectral separation between a pure tone signal and a 10-Hz wide band of masking noise. Data collected here show that this reduction in the off-frequency ...
Nievas Francisco - - 2010
Three lexical decision experiments were carried out, where the masked priming paradigm is used to study the role of the frequency attenuation effect (more priming in low-frequency target words than in high-frequency target words) in repetition and associative priming, manipulating Prime Duration (PD) and Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA). A new ...
Shackleton Trevor M TM MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park Nottingham, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Psychophysical studies show a slower response to changes in the specifically binaural input than to changes in the monaural input (binaural sluggishness). However, there is disagreement about the time course. Tracking changes in a target yields fast time constants, while detecting a constant target against a varying background yields the ...
Luiga Iiris - - 2010
Object substitution masking (OSM) is observed when a brief target surrounded with a mask is presented among distracter stimuli and cannot be identified when it and the distracters disappear but the mask remains in view. We probed whether OSM also occurs without a local mask object when the distracters remain ...
Leibold Lori J - - 2010
This study examined contributions of peripheral excitation and informational masking to the variability in masking effectiveness observed across samples of multi-tonal maskers. Detection thresholds were measured for a 1000-Hz signal presented simultaneously with each of 25, four-tone masker samples. Using a two-interval, forced-choice adaptive task, thresholds were measured with each ...
Buss Emily - - 2010
Several authors have suggested that comodulation masking release is largest when performance in the narrowband masker condition is poor due to perceptual similarities between masker fluctuations and an added signal. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating the regularity of masker modulation between but not within listening intervals. The ...
Kopco Norbert - - 2010
An experiment was performed that measured, for the frontal audio-visual horizon, how accurately listeners could localize a female-voice target amidst four spatially distributed male-voice maskers. To examine whether listeners can make use of a priori knowledge about the configuration of the sources, performance was examined in two conditions: either the ...
Strickland Elizabeth A - - 2010
Research in our laboratory has shown that the temporal effect (TE) in simultaneous masking is consistent with a decrease in gain, possibly mediated by the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). The TE in simultaneous masking is a decrease in threshold signal-to-masker ratio for a signal at masker onset when a precursor ...
Ahmadi Mahnaz - - 2010
The growth of non-simultaneous masking was compared in a central masking versus a monotic masking condition for the same masker and signal parameters. Detection thresholds of normal listeners were measured utilizing a 2AFC up-down adaptive-tracking procedure. Signal-to-masker time intervals were 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50-ms. Brief sinusoidal signals ...
Rahne Torsten - - 2010
Low-frequency masking is a psychoacoustical phenomenon, describing the modulation of a high-frequency probe tone burst by a low-frequency masker tone. The probe tone threshold is increased, if the probe tone is presented at a low-frequency phases around 90 degrees and 270 degrees . At these phases, the low-frequency masker tone ...
Hirose Nobuyuki - - 2010
A sparse mask that persists beyond the duration of a target can reduce its visibility, a phenomenon called object substitution masking. Y. Jiang and M. M. Chun (2001a) found an asymmetric pattern of substitution masking such that a mask on the peripheral side of the target caused stronger substitution masking ...
Apthorp Deborah - - 2010
We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and ...
Meese Tim S - - 2010
Most contemporary models of spatial vision include a cross-oriented route to suppression (masking from a broadly tuned inhibitory pool), which is most potent at low spatial and high temporal frequencies (T. S. Meese & D. J. Holmes, 2007). The influence of this pathway can elevate orientation-masking functions without exciting the ...
Diakparomre Abel Mac - - 2010
In almost every part of the world, masked performance events continue to chronicle happenings in human society and reflect perceptions of the environment. Among the Urhobo people of Nigeria, mask corpuses and mask performance traditions exist whose metaphoric and iconic attributes seem to have been neglected in previous studies. Consequently, ...
Bruchmann Maximilian - - 2010
We measured the strength and optimal target-mask onset asynchrony (SOA(max)) of metacontrast masking using Gabor patches as targets and sinusoidal rings with Gaussian envelopes as masks. We varied spatial frequencies (f) between 0.5 and 8 cpd to manipulate the degree to which spatial frequency channels in the visual system are ...
Fernández-Duque Eduardo - - 2010
Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. ...
Rodríguez Joyce - - 2010
This study tested the hypothesis that suppression contributes to the difference between simultaneous masking (SM) and forward masking (FM). To obtain an alternative estimate of suppression, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in the presence of a suppressor tone. Psychophysical-masking and DPOAE-suppression measurements were made in 22 normal-hearing subjects for ...
Macherey Olivier O ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 721, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. - - 2010
Two forward-masking experiments were conducted with six cochlear implant listeners to test whether asymmetric pulse shapes would improve the place-specificity of stimulation compared to symmetric ones. The maskers were either cathodic-first symmetric biphasic, pseudomonophasic (i.e., with a second anodic phase longer and lower in amplitude than the first phase), or ...
Mathewson Kyle E - - 2010
At near-threshold levels of stimulation, identical stimulus parameters can result in very different phenomenal experiences. Can we manipulate which stimuli reach consciousness? Here we show that consciousness of otherwise masked stimuli can be experimentally induced by sensory entrainment. We preceded a backward-masked stimulus with a series of rapid visual events ...
Supin Alexander Ya - - 2010
Using rippled noise probes, spectrum-pattern resolution was measured with and without a narrow-band noise masker. Diotic presentation of both the probe and masker (S(0)N(0) mode) resulted in decreased spectrum resolution as compared to the control (no masker) conditions. The effects of the low- and on-frequency maskers differed quantitatively, however in ...
Sommers Mitchell S - - 2010
One approach for establishing how age affects psychoacoustic abilities is to compare the performance of young and older adults with normal auditory sensitivity. The present study used this approach to determine if age affects two-tone suppression - a reduction in masked thresholds (henceforth, unmasking) following the introduction of a second ...
Brungart Douglas S - - 2009
Although high-frequency content is known to be critically important for the accurate location of isolated sounds, relatively little is known about the importance of high-frequency spectral content for the localization of sounds in the presence of a masker. In this experiment, listeners were asked to identify the location of a ...
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