Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 874
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Charter Richard A - - 2007
KR-21 provides a lower limit for the computed value of KR-20. KR-20 is equivalent to coefficient alpha when a test is composed of dichotomous items scored 0 or 1. Therefore, KR-21 coefficients, computed from simple summary statistics, can be used in cases in which journal authors do not provide the ...
Carreon Joseph D - - 2007
We wished to compare the relative reproducibility and validity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN3 diagnoses. In a population-based cohort study (1993-2001) of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in Costa Rica, we compared community pathologists' diagnoses with those of the 2 independent reviewers from the United States ...
Wood Benjamin - - 2007
AIMS: To compare immunohistochemical staining for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER-2 between core biopsy and matched subsequent excisional specimens. METHODS: One hundred consecutive core biopsy cases and subsequent excisional specimens were retrieved and immunohistochemical staining performed. Proportion and intensity of staining for hormone receptors and HercepTest score were recorded ...
Perry Linda - - 2007
Excavations at Guilá Naquitz and Silvia's Cave, two dry rockshelters near Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico, yielded the remains of 122 chili peppers dating to the period A.D. 600-1521. The chilies can be assigned to at least 10 cultivars, all belonging to the species Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens. The specimens are ...
Lilford Richard - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The quality of clinical care is often assessed by retrospective examination of case-notes (charts, medical records). Our objective was to determine the inter-rater reliability of case-note audit. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the inter-rater reliability of case-note audit. Analysis was restricted to 26 papers reporting comparisons of ...
Geijer M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of sacroiliitis has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. There is a high degree of interobserver variation in evaluating sacroiliitis on radiographs. PURPOSE: To evaluate interobserver variation in CT of the sacroiliac joints for evaluation of sacroiliitis in a large number of patients. MATERIAL ...
Johnson Zoë K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in glaucoma. DESIGN: Descriptive series of published studies. PARTICIPANTS: Published studies reporting a measure of the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for glaucoma. METHODS: Review of English language papers reporting measures of diagnostic accuracy of ...
Forster Alan J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Adverse events (AEs) are poor patient outcomes, resulting from medical care. We performed this study to quantify the misclassification rate obtained using current AE detection methods and to evaluate the effect of combining physician AE ratings. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three physicians independently rated poor patient outcomes. We used ...
Straub Jürg Oliver - - 2007
An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was made for the common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen. The ERA was performed according to deterministic and probabilistic methods, based on different predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) and measured environmental concentrations (MECs) on the exposure side as well as on published and newly elaborated acute ecotoxicity ...
Smith Albert F - - 2007
To compare two approaches to analysing energy- and nutrient-converted data from dietary validation (and relative validation) studies - conventional analyses, in which the accuracy of reported items is not ascertained, and reporting-error-sensitive analyses, in which reported items are classified as matches (items actually eaten) or intrusions (items not actually eaten), ...
Adler Mark D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric residency programs need objective methods of trainee assessment. Patient simulation can contribute to objective evaluation of acute care event management skills. We describe the development and validation of 4 simulation case scenarios for pediatric resident evaluation. METHODS: We created 4 pediatric simulation cases: apnea, asthma, supraventricular tachycardia, and ...
Sandhaus Linda M - - 2007
CONTEXT: Despite the widespread practice of pathologist review of blood and body fluid smears, little is known about its impact on improving patient care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical usefulness of pathologist review of blood and body fluid smears. DESIGN: Survey study. Pathology residents contacted the ordering physician after pathologist ...
Ullrick Steven R - - 2007
Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a relatively rare entity that has been described in several case reports and small series in the medical literature. The condition is best diagnosed with angiography, with renal ischemia or infarction a common complication. Conservative medical management, surgical intervention, and percutaneous intervention are all ...
Sathavahana Chowdary V - - 2007
Kawasaki disease also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome is a generalised vasculitis of unknown etiology. Presenting a review of the literature and using our cases for illustration we discuss some of the pertinent features in the evaluation and management of patients with this condition. 2 cases of Kawasaki disease ...
Beksinska Mags - - 2007
Definitions of male condom failure modes are now well documented, and failure events are usually reported as the proportion of the total number of condoms used and the proportion of men/couples who experience an event. The lack of standardized definitions for female condom (FC) failure has led to variability in ...
Liu X - - 2007
Core needle biopsies (CNBs) of the breast are highly sensitive techniques for sampling of mammographic calcifications. Currently, there is no standardized protocol for evaluating such samples. This study was undertaken to attempt to standardize the procedure of correlating histologic findings with mammographically detectable calcification. 113 CNBs with mammographic evidence of ...
Hansen Steffen Foss - - 2007
One of the concerns often voiced by critics of the precautionary principle is that a widespread regulatory application of the principle will lead to a large number of false positives (i.e., over-regulation of minor risks and regulation of nonexisting risks). The present article proposes a general definition of a regulatory ...
FAO, Rome (Italy). Forest ...
Multilingual ed.- Includes key findings,the FRA 2005 Main report, all country reports, specifications and guidelines, global results tables in excel, maps, graphs and a ppt presentation
Trakarnvanich Veeraphong - - 2007
This study compared Giemsa (GM) and methylene blue (MB) stains for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from January 2001 to December 2005 were reviewed. They were all stained with hematoxylin and eosin, GM and MB stains. The slides were examined on a blinded basis. Direct comparisons ...
Louden Jennifer Eno - - 2007
Research consistently indicates that jurors' intuitive prototypes of insanity and case-relevant attitudes shape their verdicts more strongly than legal definitions of insanity. Based on a sample of 113 prospective jurors, this study was designed to (a) assess the extent to which three prototypes of insanity held by jurors in a ...
Wu Sze-Jung - - 2007
Electronic decision support systems are an important tool for improving performance and improving quality of care. We investigated the relationship between physicians' estimated resolution times for computerized clinical reminders and adherence rates in VA outpatient settings. We surveyed 10 expert physician users to assess the resolution times of four targeted ...
Walsh Leah A - - 2007
The treatment of amblyopia in children is frequently discussed in the literature. Less attention, however, has been given to the durability of the visual acuity results attained with therapy. The objective of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the existing literature, on the stability of visual acuity ...
Glatz Katharina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Equivocal atypia in respiratory cytology can be a diagnostic challenge. In such cases fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may be used for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and often allows a reliable distinction of benign and malignant cells. METHODS: An online picture gallery of 30 respiratory cytologic preparations comprising ...
Zandoná Andréa Ferreira - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Management of dental caries demands early detection of carious lesions. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methodologies for the detection and assessment of early carious lesions. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors reviewed MEDLINE for available literature on new caries detection methodology and tools, using terms such ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
We sought to determine whether a group of cases that was relatively high in disagreements and subsequent amendments could be identified and targeted for blinded review. During a 4-year period, 8,916 surgical pathology and nongynecologic cytology cases were subjected to blinded review; of these, there were 616 disagreements (6.9%), 69 ...
Stripe Stephen C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Aviation accidents have been reduced substantially by training pilots to avoid high-risk behaviors caused by cognitive errors. To determine whether similar cognitive cause factors or errors are involved in medical malpractice cases, and to evaluate the reliability of identifying such factors, physicians reviewed state and federal malpractice cases in ...
Huang Hsiang-Po - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Neonatal screening using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) started in Taiwan in 2000. We evaluated the efficacy of this system by analyzing the frequency of diseases and the outcome of the patients identified. METHODS: Between August 2001 and July 2004, 199, 922 neonates were screened for 10 amino acids and ...
Cook V J - - 2006
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis can be used to assess genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This study reports a collaborative investigation of false-positive cultures for M. tuberculosis, suspected when the DNA fingerprint from an index case matched an epidemiologically improbable source case. RFLP analysis matched fingerprints in ten ...
Kollur S M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the observer variability in reporting fibroadenoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to review the cytomorphological features of the lesion with cytohistological correlation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of FNA smears from 110 cases diagnosed as fibroadenoma of which surgical pathology follow-up was available in 33. ...
Joshua Fredrick F Rheumatology Department, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW, Australia. - - 2006
To evaluate the performance characteristics of power Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in the assessment of musculoskeletal disease through a systematic review of the literature. We performed a literature search of PUBMED (1966 to June 2005). Only original research reports written in English involving musculoskeletal disease and ...
Mitchell Heather - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal characteristics of laboratory false negative reports in cervical cytology. STUDY DESIGN: The temporal characteristics of 198 false negative cervical cytology cases were compared with those of 750,805 control cases. RESULTS: The false negative rate did not vary significantly by month, day of the week or ...
Slep Amy M Smith - - 2006
The decision to substantiate a case of maltreatment is pivotal to myriad stakeholders; however, the reliability (and therefore, accuracy) of substantiation determinations is suspect. The authors tested if (a) they could develop more reliable substantiation definitions and processes and (b) case workers would be comfortable with and accepting of a ...
Russell Steven J - - 2007
The objective of this study was to compare the results of the NIOSH, ACGIH TLV, Snook, 3DSSPP and WA L&I lifting assessment instruments when applied to a uniform task (lifting and lowering milk cases with capacities of 15 and 23l). To enable comparisons between the various lifting assessment instruments, the ...
Bell Vaughan - - 2006
Although several studies have examined the reliability of diagnosing delusions there is no comprehensive review of the literature. Therefore, the reliability of diagnosing 'delusions in general' and the subcategory of 'bizarre delusions' was reviewed, including both structured interview and standardized instrument methods. The literature suggests that delusions in general can ...
Hawkins Robert C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose ...
Nichol Kristin L - - 2006
There is substantial heterogeneity with regard to influenza case definitions used in the medical literature. These different case definitions can vary substantially with regard to their sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for confirmed influenza. Because of this heterogeneity, it is important that the appropriate case definitions be ...
Noar Seth M - - 2006
Despite numerous studies that measure self-reported condom use, there is currently no agreed upon "gold standard" in terms of the best way to assess condom use. The purpose of the current study was to review measures of self-reported condom use within correlational studies of sexual risk behavior, and to evaluate ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
In gynecologic cytology, workload limits are imposed as a surrogate to limit error rates. Whether workload correlates with error rates in surgical pathology and nongynecologic cytology is not known. We reviewed and compared the disagreement and amendment rates based on blinded review for 5 pathologists with the number of cases ...
Maksem John A - - 2006
We report a technical improvement upon a previously disclosed manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) method; and, we use the improved method to prepare slides from residual ThinPrep specimens in order to see how often ThinPrep diagnoses correspond to diagnoses derived from exhaustive examination of their parent sample suspensions. Residual cell suspensions ...
Gammon Richard R RR Department of Pathology, Ohio State University Hospitals, Columbus, Ohio, - - 2006
To compare the use of Papanicolaou and Wright-Giemsa stains for the evaluation of body fluids in cytology and hematology laboratories and determine whether other factors account for discrepancies in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed cytopathology reports of peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal fluids received by hematology and cytology laboratories for 1 year. ...
Aronson Keith R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the role of emotional reactivity (ER) in symptom reporting and conceptualize somatizing processes as a signal detection task. Emotional reactivity has been theorized to influence symptom reporting through somatic sensitivity as well as via a negative reporting style. We assess the ...
Fordyce Geoffry - - 2006
There is substantial variation in bull breeding soundness evaluation procedures and reports in Australia; the situation is compounded by difficulties in interpretation and the validity of many reports. In an effort to overcome this, the scientific literature was reviewed [Fordyce G. In: Fordyce G, editor. Bull fertility: selection and management ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown that in gynecologic cytology, cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) perform differently on interpretive review. The performance of cases with mixed LSIL and HSIL features is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of gynecologic cytology cases of "pure" ...
Whigham Peggy - - 2006
The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) detail the requirements for the cytotechnologist (CT) who evaluates gynecologic cytopathology specimens. However, the role of the CT in nongynecologic cytopathology is not clearly defined. Furthermore, non gynecologic cytopathology cases are diverse and the screening, interpretative, and diagnostic issues may be ...
Hanna Wedad M - - 2006
Assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status is standard practice in women with breast cancer. Most laboratories use immunohistochemistry as a screening test, with equivocal results confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) is a relatively new method for detection of gene amplification using a peroxidase ...
Bäckström M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a small economic inducement on the rate of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and the attitudes of general practitioners and physicians towards reporting of ADRs. METHOD: One intervention and one control county were selected for the study. Written information about the main ...
Yacoubian George S GS - - 2006
While several empirical studies have focused on Ecstasy use among rave attendees, only one study has explored the validity of self-reported Ecstasy use within this population. To address this limitation, the authors collected self-report drug use information and oral fluid (OF) specimens from 96 club rave attendees within the Baltimore-Washington ...
Negri G - - 2006
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and value of a modified Papanicolaou counterstain for p16(INK4a) immunostaining in liquid-based cervicovaginal samples. METHODS: Immunocytochemical analyses were carried out with p16(INK4a) and modified Papanicolaou counterstain on 81 liquid-based samples, including 23 of within normal limits (WNL), 6 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 20 ...
Slotnick Melissa J - - 2006
Human nail clippings have been used in recent epidemiological studies as a routine bioindicator of arsenic and selenium exposure. To ensure sound application of this biomarker, however, it is important to consider properties and scientific knowledge pertaining to validation of this particular tool. In this review, the use of human ...
Spicer J M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal diagnostic approach to women with postmenopausal bleeding by comparing transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling with office hysteroscopy. METHODS: A prospective collective study was performed on 102 consecutive patients with postmenopausal bleeding who were evaluated by ultrasound measurement of the endometrial thickness (EL), endometrial sampling by ...
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