Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 855
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Walsh Leah A - - 2007
Introduction and Purpose: The treatment of amblyopia in children is frequently discussed in the literature. Less attention, however, has been given to the durability of the visual acuity results attained with therapy. The objective of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the existing literature, on the stability ...
Louden Jennifer Eno - - 2007
Research consistently indicates that jurors' intuitive prototypes of insanity and case-relevant attitudes shape their verdicts more strongly than legal definitions of insanity. Based on a sample of 113 prospective jurors, this study was designed to (a) assess the extent to which three prototypes of insanity held by jurors in a ...
Wu Sze-Jung - - 2007
Electronic decision support systems are an important tool for improving performance and improving quality of care. We investigated the relationship between physicians' estimated resolution times for computerized clinical reminders and adherence rates in VA outpatient settings. We surveyed 10 expert physician users to assess the resolution times of four targeted ...
Glatz Katharina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Equivocal atypia in respiratory cytology can be a diagnostic challenge. In such cases fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may be used for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and often allows a reliable distinction of benign and malignant cells. METHODS: An online picture gallery of 30 respiratory cytologic preparations comprising ...
Zandoná Andréa Ferreira - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Management of dental caries demands early detection of carious lesions. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methodologies for the detection and assessment of early carious lesions. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors reviewed MEDLINE for available literature on new caries detection methodology and tools, using terms such ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
We sought to determine whether a group of cases that was relatively high in disagreements and subsequent amendments could be identified and targeted for blinded review. During a 4-year period, 8,916 surgical pathology and nongynecologic cytology cases were subjected to blinded review; of these, there were 616 disagreements (6.9%), 69 ...
Stripe Stephen C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Aviation accidents have been reduced substantially by training pilots to avoid high-risk behaviors caused by cognitive errors. To determine whether similar cognitive cause factors or errors are involved in medical malpractice cases, and to evaluate the reliability of identifying such factors, physicians reviewed state and federal malpractice cases in ...
Huang Hsiang-Po - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Neonatal screening using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) started in Taiwan in 2000. We evaluated the efficacy of this system by analyzing the frequency of diseases and the outcome of the patients identified. METHODS: Between August 2001 and July 2004, 199, 922 neonates were screened for 10 amino acids and ...
Cook V J - - 2006
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis can be used to assess genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This study reports a collaborative investigation of false-positive cultures for M. tuberculosis, suspected when the DNA fingerprint from an index case matched an epidemiologically improbable source case. RFLP analysis matched fingerprints in ten ...
Joshua Fredrick - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance characteristics of power Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in the assessment of musculoskeletal disease through a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: Search Strategy: We performed a literature search of PUBMED (1966 to June 2005). Selection Criteria: Only original research reports written ...
Kollur S M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the observer variability in reporting fibroadenoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to review the cytomorphological features of the lesion with cytohistological correlation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of FNA smears from 110 cases diagnosed as fibroadenoma of which surgical pathology follow-up was available in 33. ...
Mitchell Heather - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal characteristics of laboratory false negative reports in cervical cytology. STUDY DESIGN: The temporal characteristics of 198 false negative cervical cytology cases were compared with those of 750,805 control cases. RESULTS: The false negative rate did not vary significantly by month, day of the week or ...
Slep Amy M Smith - - 2006
The decision to substantiate a case of maltreatment is pivotal to myriad stakeholders; however, the reliability (and therefore, accuracy) of substantiation determinations is suspect. The authors tested if (a) they could develop more reliable substantiation definitions and processes and (b) case workers would be comfortable with and accepting of a ...
Russell Steven J - - 2007
The objective of this study was to compare the results of the NIOSH, ACGIH TLV, Snook, 3DSSPP and WA L&I lifting assessment instruments when applied to a uniform task (lifting and lowering milk cases with capacities of 15 and 23l). To enable comparisons between the various lifting assessment instruments, the ...
Bell Vaughan - - 2006
Although several studies have examined the reliability of diagnosing delusions there is no comprehensive review of the literature. Therefore, the reliability of diagnosing 'delusions in general' and the subcategory of 'bizarre delusions' was reviewed, including both structured interview and standardized instrument methods. The literature suggests that delusions in general can ...
Hawkins Robert C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Excessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose ...
Nichol Kristin L - - 2006
There is substantial heterogeneity with regard to influenza case definitions used in the medical literature. These different case definitions can vary substantially with regard to their sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for confirmed influenza. Because of this heterogeneity, it is important that the appropriate case definitions be ...
Noar Seth M - - 2006
Despite numerous studies that measure self-reported condom use, there is currently no agreed upon "gold standard" in terms of the best way to assess condom use. The purpose of the current study was to review measures of self-reported condom use within correlational studies of sexual risk behavior, and to evaluate ...
Gammon Richard R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of Papanicolaou and Wright-Giemsa stains for the evaluation of body fluids in cytology and hematology laboratories and determine whether other factors account for discrepancies in diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed cytopathology reports of peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal fluids received by hematology and cytology laboratories ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
In gynecologic cytology, workload limits are imposed as a surrogate to limit error rates. Whether workload correlates with error rates in surgical pathology and nongynecologic cytology is not known. We reviewed and compared the disagreement and amendment rates based on blinded review for 5 pathologists with the number of cases ...
Maksem John A - - 2006
We report a technical improvement upon a previously disclosed manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) method; and, we use the improved method to prepare slides from residual ThinPrep specimens in order to see how often ThinPrep diagnoses correspond to diagnoses derived from exhaustive examination of their parent sample suspensions. Residual cell suspensions ...
Aronson Keith R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the role of emotional reactivity (ER) in symptom reporting and conceptualize somatizing processes as a signal detection task. Emotional reactivity has been theorized to influence symptom reporting through somatic sensitivity as well as via a negative reporting style. We assess the ...
Fordyce Geoffry - - 2006
There is substantial variation in bull breeding soundness evaluation procedures and reports in Australia; the situation is compounded by difficulties in interpretation and the validity of many reports. In an effort to overcome this, the scientific literature was reviewed [Fordyce G. In: Fordyce G, editor. Bull fertility: selection and management ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2006
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown that in gynecologic cytology, cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) perform differently on interpretive review. The performance of cases with mixed LSIL and HSIL features is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of gynecologic cytology cases of "pure" ...
Whigham Peggy - - 2006
The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) detail the requirements for the cytotechnologist (CT) who evaluates gynecologic cytopathology specimens. However, the role of the CT in nongynecologic cytopathology is not clearly defined. Furthermore, non gynecologic cytopathology cases are diverse and the screening, interpretative, and diagnostic issues may be ...
Hanna Wedad M - - 2006
Assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status is standard practice in women with breast cancer. Most laboratories use immunohistochemistry as a screening test, with equivocal results confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) is a relatively new method for detection of gene amplification using a peroxidase ...
Bäckström M - - 2006
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a small economic inducement on the rate of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and the attitudes of general practitioners and physicians towards reporting of ADRs. METHOD: One intervention and one control county were selected for the study. Written information about the main ...
Yacoubian George S GS - - 2006
While several empirical studies have focused on Ecstasy use among rave attendees, only one study has explored the validity of self-reported Ecstasy use within this population. To address this limitation, the authors collected self-report drug use information and oral fluid (OF) specimens from 96 club rave attendees within the Baltimore-Washington ...
Negri G - - 2006
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and value of a modified Papanicolaou counterstain for p16(INK4a) immunostaining in liquid-based cervicovaginal samples. METHODS: Immunocytochemical analyses were carried out with p16(INK4a) and modified Papanicolaou counterstain on 81 liquid-based samples, including 23 of within normal limits (WNL), 6 of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 20 ...
Slotnick Melissa J - - 2006
Human nail clippings have been used in recent epidemiological studies as a routine bioindicator of arsenic and selenium exposure. To ensure sound application of this biomarker, however, it is important to consider properties and scientific knowledge pertaining to validation of this particular tool. In this review, the use of human ...
Spicer J M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal diagnostic approach to women with postmenopausal bleeding by comparing transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial sampling with office hysteroscopy. METHODS: A prospective collective study was performed on 102 consecutive patients with postmenopausal bleeding who were evaluated by ultrasound measurement of the endometrial thickness (EL), endometrial sampling by ...
Walsh Leah A - - 2006
Background and Purpose: Much has been written about amblyopia treatment. However, there is no consensus on the most efficacious therapeutic modality for amblyopia. The intensity of therapy needed to maximize visual acuity is also widely debated. The diversity of opinions emphasizes that the optimum treatment for amblyopia is unknown. Part ...
Palomäki Outi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare interobserver variation in interpretation of intrapartum cardiotocograms. SUBJECTS: Fifteen senior (experience >4 years) and 16 junior (experience < or =4 years) obstetricians from 10 delivery units. DESIGN: Thirty-one obstetricians interpreted intrapartum cardiotocographic (CTG) readings from 22 parturients. METHODS: Inter-observer agreement in CTG interpretation and decision-making ...
Whiting Penny F PF MRC Health Services Research Collaboration, Department of Social Medicine, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, UK. - - 2006
A quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, named QUADAS, has recently been developed. Although QUADAS has been used in several systematic reviews, it has not been formally validated. The objective was to evaluate the validity and usefulness of QUADAS. Three reviewers independently rated the quality of 30 studies using ...
Maksem John A - - 2005
We show that residual cell material from ThinPrep PapTest (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA) atypical squamous-cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cases may be manually reprocessed to triage women into actionable diagnostic categories (HSIL, LSIL, and Negative). Material remaining from each of 358 ThinPrep ASCUS cases was manually reprocessed as two slides, ...
Lin Fan - - 2005
Determination of Her-2/neu oncogene amplification is important in the current treatment of breast carcinoma. In addition to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical stain (HercepTest), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific method to determine the Her-2/neu status of surgical specimens. The ...
Buchan John C - - 2005
PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency of citation and quotation errors in the ophthalmic literature. DESIGN: Analysis of 200 references from 100 papers published in 10 ophthalmic journals. METHODS: A sample of 20 references was randomly selected from each of the 10 journals and each reference was checked for accuracy. Quotations ...
Mattosinho de Castro Ferraz Maria da Gloria Mda - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To verij5 the efficacy of the quality control (QC) program in a cytologic laboratwy with a rapid rescreening (RR) protocol. STUDY DESIGN: RR, according to the Turret RR method, of all samples initially screened as negative at the Laboratory of Cytology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, was performed. The slides were ...
Rapp John T - - 2005
In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement. Review of the treatment literature ...
Renshaw Andrew A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Multiple-slide, blinded review has been endorsed by several cytology and pathology organizations as the most appropriate method for the review of cervicovaginal specimens in the context of litigation. This process involves review of litigation slides in a blinded manner by multiple independent cytotechnologists and the comparison of those results ...
Gupta L - - 2005
An unusual case of a 6-year-old male child presenting with a history of bilateral nasal obstruction of 3 years duration is reported. Endoscopic surgery was performed and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The report revealed the surprise diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease. This case of isolated extranodal involvement (paranasal sinuses) ...
Martínez-Mares M - - 2005
Motivated by recent theoretical and experimental works, we study the statistical fluctuations of the parametric derivative of the transmission T and reflection R coefficients, T/deltaX and R/deltaX, respectively, in ballistic chaotic cavities in the presence of absorption. Analytical results for the variance of T/deltaX and R/deltaX, with and without time-reversal ...
Cooperberg Matthew R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether center to center discrepancies in the ability to locate sperm in infertile testes with abnormal histology stems in part from inconsistencies in pathologists' readings of testis biopsies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic male infertility practice. PATIENT(S): Consecutive series of azoospermic men referred with testis biopsy ...
Gallivan Steve - - 2005
When trying to assess surgical outcomes at a particular centre, it is important to take account of case mix in terms of the types of operation performed. This is because those centres that undertake a disproportionately high number of complex operations might well be expected to have higher mortality rates ...
Gong Yun - - 2005
Accurate determination of HER-2 status is important in the management of patients with breast cancer, especially in determining their eligibility for trastuzumab therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been regarded as the gold standard method for detecting HER-2 gene amplification. Recently, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), in which HER-2 ...
Fulmer Terry - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Elder neglect accounts for over 70% of all adult protective services reports in the nation annually, and it has been estimated that there are over 70,000 new cases each year. The purpose of this study was to conduct elder neglect research in the emergency department (ED), using a dyadic ...
Card Claire - - 2005
Morphologic assessment of spermatozoa is one of the most objective measures in a Breeding Soundness Examination of a stallion. There are different systems for morphologic assessment of spermatozoa. The objectives of this article are to review spermatogenesis, describe clinical sample preparation, discuss previous methods of morphologic classification and explain the ...
Coggon David - - 2005
Optimal case definition is important in epidemiological research, but can be problematic when no satisfactory gold standard is available. In particular, difficulties arise where the pathology underlying a disorder is unknown or cannot be reliably diagnosed. This problem can be overcome if diagnoses are viewed not necessarily as labels for ...
Wagner Dieter - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Validated or standardized self-report questionnaires used in research studies and clinical evaluation of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) generally focus on the assessment of fatigue. There are relatively few published questionnaires that evaluate case defining and other accompanying symptoms in CFS. This paper introduces the self-report CDC CFS Symptom Inventory ...
Bradley A J - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate whether uroradiographers trained to do so can interpret intravenous urograms as accurately as radiology specialist registrars (SpRs). METHODS: A total of 150 consecutive IVU examinations were prospectively assessed. The preliminary reporter (a uroradiographer, or an SpR in years 1 to 4) wrote a provisional report on each, ...
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