Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 932
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Jørgensen Karsten Juhl - - 2009
We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically unsound mixture of ...
Adachi Masanori - - 2009
The diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) is challenging, because both the osteodystrophy, such as brachydactyly and round face, and the symptomatic hypocalcemia usually develop beyond infancy. Although ectopic calcification may be an early sign of PHP1a, there are no systematic reviews regarding the time of its appearance. We here ...
Biyani Chandra Shekhar - - 2009
Varicocele is estimated to affect 10-15% of men and adolescent boys. It usually occurs only on the left side, and is often asymptomatic. There is little evidence that varicocele reduces male fertility, although it is found in 12% of male partners of couples presenting with infertility, and in 25% of ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 3 2009 contains 3916 complete reviews, 1905 protocols for reviews in production, and 10,894 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 587,000 randomized controlled trials, and 11,800 cited papers in ...
Izzo Angelo A - - 2009
The concomitant use of herbal medicines and pharmacotherapy is wide spread. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between seven popular herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John's wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and conventional drugs. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE ...
O'Neill Julian - - 2009
DATA SOURCES: Searches were made using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, along with searches by hand of the following journals: Angle Orthodontist, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Journal of Orthodontics and European Journal of Orthodontics. STUDY SELECTION: ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue Three for 2008 contains 3539 complete reviews, 1868 protocols for reviews in production, and 8349 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 540,000 randomized controlled trials, and 10,000 cited papers ...
Schneider Michael - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed nonarticular soft tissue conditions in all fields of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature for the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for FMS and to ...
Potting Carin - - 2009
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify and to assess the quality of evidence-based guidelines and systematic reviews we used in the case of oral mucositis, to apply general quality criteria for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both. ...
Ethgen Morgane - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Stents are commonly used to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, the quality of reporting internal and external validity data in published reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of stents has never been assessed.The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of reporting internal and external ...
Carey John C - - 2009
The determination that an exposure is a human teratogen is a complex process involving the application of the principles of teratology, epidemiology, biology, and clinical medicine. Shepard suggested that the "rare exposure/rare defect" or "case report method", the astute clinician model, was one approach for establishing teratogenicity. The purpose of ...
Karunananthan Sathya - - 2009
Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging ...
Cundiff David Keith - - 2009
I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered ...
Ryan Rebecca E - - 2009
Systematic reviews have developed into a powerful method for summarising and synthesising evidence. The rise in systematic reviews creates a methodological opportunity and associated challenges and this is seen in the development of overviews, or reviews of systematic reviews. One of these challenges is how to summarise evidence from systematic ...
Newth Christopher J L - - 2009
A systematic review of weaning and extubation for pediatric patients on mechanical ventilation. Pediatric and adult literature, English language. Invited review. Literature review using National Library of Medicine PubMed from January 1972 until April 2008, earlier cross-referenced article citations, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Internet. Despite the ...
Keir L S LS Scottish Genital Anomaly Network, Yorkhill, Glasgow, UK. - - 2009
Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sex development due to 11-beta hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. ...
Liberati Alessandro A Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, - - 2009
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of ...
Jackson Daniel L DL GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, Nightingales Lane, Chalfont St, Giles, Bucks, HP8 4SP, UK. - - 2009
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are generally sedated for prolonged periods. Over-sedation and under-sedation both have negative effects on patient safety and resource use. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to establish the incidence of sub-optimal sedation (both over- and under-sedation) in ICUs. We searched ...
Song Fujian F Faculty of Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ. - - 2009
To investigate basic assumptions and other methodological problems in the application of indirect comparison in systematic reviews of competing healthcare interventions. Survey of published systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria Systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2007 in which an indirect approach had been explicitly used. Identified reviews were assessed for comprehensiveness ...
Little Carol - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There are currently a number of different methods available to obtain anaesthesia in minor dermatological procedures. Although intradermal infiltration of 1% lidocaine is the favoured method for anaesthesia induction in laceration repair, it can cause significant pain in itself. Topical anaesthesia has been investigated as an alternative to infiltration ...
Fung Anne E - - 2009
To evaluate the quality of reporting in the neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) literature by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement writing standards. CONSORT and STROBE impact analysis; literature review. Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ...
Mulhall John P - - 2009
PURPOSE: The contemporary literature pertaining to erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy was evaluated. The limitations of this literature are discussed and recommendations are made for the reporting of erectile function outcomes after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE literature search was conducted in February 2008 to review English language ...
Rubenstein L V - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Stakeholders in quality improvement agree on the need for augmenting and synthesising the scientific literature supporting it. The diversity of perspectives, approaches, and contexts critical to advancing quality improvement science, however, creates challenges. The paper explores the heterogeneity in clinical quality improvement intervention (QII) publications. METHODS: A preliminary classification ...
Lawrence D W - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess what is lost if only one literature database is searched for articles relevant to injury prevention and safety promotion (IPSP) topics. METHOD: Serial textword (keyword, free-text) searches using multiple synonym terms for five key IPSP topics (bicycle-related brain injuries, ethanol-impaired driving, house fires, road rage, and suicidal ...
Waksman Javier C - - 2008
Rosiglitazone is an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes although concerns have grown about the incidence of oedema and cardiovascular adverse events in patients treated with the drug. The following review was conducted to evaluate further and complement the evidence linking rosiglitazone with an increased risk for cardiovascular adverse events ...
Matzinger Oscar - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: EORTC trial 22991 was designed to evaluate the addition of concomitant and adjuvant short-term hormonal treatments to curative radiotherapy in terms of disease-free survival for patients with intermediate risk localized prostate cancer. In order to assess the compliance to the 3D conformal radiotherapy protocol guidelines, all participating centres were ...
Tseng Timothy Y - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To develop and apply a standardized evaluation form for assessing the methodological and reporting quality of observational studies of surgical interventions in urology. METHODS: An evaluation standard was developed using the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials statement and previously reported surgical reporting quality instruments. Consensus scoring among three reviewers ...
Roundtree Aimee Kendall - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of reviews about etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX), two biologic treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). STUDY DESIGN: A comprehensive, systematic review, including searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other electronic databases and hand-searches for published and unpublished literature. Two raters independently examined each article and identified ...
Mullan Rebecca J - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Author contact can enhance the quality of systematic reviews. We conducted a systematic review of the practice of author contact in recently published systematic reviews to characterize its prevalence, quality, and results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible studies were systematic reviews of efficacy published in 2005-2006 in the 25 ...
Smith Valerie V School of Nursing & Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. - - 2009
The aim of this paper is to identify reviews of interventions for preventing and treating preterm birth so that these could be appraised and the findings from good quality reviews highlighted. Reviews, rather than individual studies, are the basis for this systematic review because of the proliferation of reviews and ...
Wolf Dennis M - - 2009
To compare the citation indices of original articles and case reports in otolaryngology journals and thereby determine whether case reports are of less interest and possibly of academically inferior value to original articles. All articles in two reputable UK otolaryngology journals (Clinical Otolaryngology and Journal of Laryngology and Otology) for ...
Govender P - - 2008
AIMS: The purpose of this study online is to evaluate whether online submission of papers to a peer reviewed journal is more efficient than hard copy submission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study covering a 12-month period was performed. With the help of the editorial office of a selected radiologic ...
Pandurangi Anand K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the prevalence of polypharmacy with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in clinical practice, pharmacological reasons for such practice, and the evidence for and against such polypharmacy. METHODS: Clinical trial reports, case reports, and reviews were identified by a PubMed literature search from 1966 ...
Borrelli Francesca - - 2008
Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is used most often to treat symptoms that can occur during menopause. However, in the last years, several concerns regarding its safety have been voiced. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the clinical evidence for or against the safety of black cohosh. Systematic ...
Kelly Len - - 2008
ABSTRACTOBJECTIVETo describe the scope, content, and organization of commonly used medical databases and search strategies, using a search of the topic aboriginal to illustrate the various ways the topic is covered in each of the databases.DESIGNComparison of literature searches.METHODSeven common medical databases were searched using all the MeSH terms that ...
Koulaouzidis Anastasios - - 2008
The reported incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is 7-30% per annum in cirrhotic patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment is crucial to reduce mortality owing to this infection. Recently, leucocyte esterase reagent strips have been tested in the diagnosis of infection in the ascitic fluid. The objective was to evaluate ...
DasGupta Ranan - - 2009
The use of botulinum toxin in paediatric urology has become increasingly widespread during recent years; however, the evidence base for its clinical use has been from adult urology centres and trials. The mechanism of action of this potent neurotoxin is discussed and evidence for its efficacy and safety is reviewed ...
Yuan J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the difference in acupuncture treatment regimens for low back pain (LBP) among textbooks, clinical studies and clinical practice, and explore reasons for such differences. METHODS: A systematic review of textbooks, surveys, clinical studies (randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and case studies) published in English or Chinese, was conducted, ...
McClelland Shearwood S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Postoperative wound infection (PWI) after intracranial neurosurgery remains a significant worldwide problem, resulting in substantial morbidity/mortality if not combatted quickly and energetically. Although the danger of PWI is universally recognized, the reported incidence of PWI after intracranial neurosurgery remains variable, ranging from 1% to 8% in published series. The ...
Chou Roger - - 2010
Comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs) are systematic reviews that evaluate evidence on alternative interventions to help clinicians, policy makers, and patients make informed treatment choices. Reviews should assess harms and benefits to provide balanced assessments of alternative interventions. Identifying important harms of treatment and quantifying the magnitude of any risks require ...
Van Meter Woodford S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature to evaluate the safety of overnight orthokeratology (OOK) for the treatment of myopia. METHODS: Repeated searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted in PubMed (limited to the English language) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (no language limitations) for 2005, 2006, and 2007. ...
Ernst Edzard - - 2009
Many trials of acupuncture and numerous systematic reviews have recently become available. Their conclusions are far from uniform. In an attempt to find the most reliable type of evidence, this article provides an overview of Cochrane reviews of acupuncture. Such reviews were studied, their details extracted, and they were categorized ...
Tandon Sankalap - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used to diagnose masses presenting in the head and neck region. No systematic review of FNAC in this group has yet been performed. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature and meta-analysis of data extracted from the included studies were compared with a ...
Birknes John K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To review and define principles and features of treatment for adult degenerative scoliosis, the most common cause of adult spinal deformities. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature and our clinical experience. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline was conducted, including journal articles published in March ...
Palmer R M - - 2008
AIM: To review the scientific preclinical background and clinical studies of current methods of periodontal regeneration in the treatment of infrabony defects and soft tissue deficiencies. METHOD: Five commissioned review papers including two systematic reviews were scrutinized by a group of experts in order to derive consensus conclusions, clinical relevance/implications ...
Bender Ralf - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples. We provide guidance ...
Morgan A G - - 2008
To review recent dental child case reports to determine: 1 the main focus of the paper; 2 perceived contribution to the dental literature and, 3 involvement of the child. Systematic review. Case reports published between 2000 and 2005 were identified using Medline via Ovid and Embase databases. Papers were reviewed ...
Belsey J - - 2009
Background  Screening colonoscopy exposes healthy patients to the risk of serious adverse events associated with bowel preparation. Randomized controlled trials are not an effective method for evaluating this risk. Aim  To search published literature in order to characterize the risk of adverse events associated with oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) or ...
Lewiecki E Michael - - 2008
The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) periodically convenes Position Development Conferences (PDCs) in order to establish standards and guidelines for the assessment of skeletal health. The most recent Adult PDC was held July 20-22, 2007, in Lansdowne, Virginia, USA; the first Pediatric PDC was June 20-21, 2007 in Montreal, ...
Fernández Antonio B - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review all published case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting (FDA-AER) database to examine the relationship between statins and interstitial lung disease (ILD). DATA SOURCES: PubMed (1987 to September 2007) and the FDA-AER database (as of June 2007) were searched for reports ...
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