Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 913
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Chung Mei M Tufts Evidence-Based Practice Center, Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2009
The quality of nutrition-related systematic reviews (SRs) is an unstudied but important factor affecting their usefulness. The objectives were to evaluate the reporting quality of published SRs and to identify areas of improvement. Descriptive and exploratory analyses of the reporting quality (7 nutrition items and 28 SR reporting items) of ...
Mokkink Lidwine B - - 2009
A systematic review of measurement properties of health-status instruments is a tool for evaluating the quality of instruments. Our aim was to appraise the quality of the review process, to describe how authors assess the methodological quality of primary studies of measurement properties, and to describe how authors evaluate results ...
Sampson Margaret - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Complex and highly sensitive electronic literature search strategies are required for systematic reviews; however, no guidelines exist for their peer review. Poor searches may fail to identify existing evidence because of inadequate recall (sensitivity) or increase the resource requirements of reviews as a result of inadequate precision. Our objective ...
Kastner Monika - - 2009
Systematic reviews of health care topics are valuable summaries of all pertinent studies on focused questions. However, finding all relevant primary studies for systematic reviews remains challenging. To determine the performance of the Clinical Queries sensitive search filter for diagnostic accuracy studies for retrieving studies for systematic reviews. We compared ...
Lee J G L - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual minorities in the US through a systematic review of literature from 1987 to May 2007. METHODS: Seven databases were searched for peer-reviewed research (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library via Wiley InterScience, Education Resources ...
Wall G Michael - - 2009
The objective of this article is to review the literature related to ciprofloxacin 0.3% and dexamethasone 0.1% sterile otic suspension. A systematic literature search utilizing Medline was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to safety and efficacy. A total of 47 publications were identified and reviewed herein. The literature supports ...
Patricio Madalena - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has experienced an explosion of use which has rarely been accompanied by systematic investigations on its validity, reliability and feasibility. A systematic review of OSCE was undertaken as part of Best Evidence Medical Education at the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine of the ...
Rüb U - - 2009
Recent progress in oculomotor research has enabled new insights into the functional neuroanatomy of the human premotor oculomotor brainstem network. In the present review, we provide an overview of its functional neuroanatomy and summarize the broad range of oculomotor dysfunctions that may occur in Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Although some ...
Seida Jennifer Krebs - - 2009
AIM: A wide range of psychosocial interventions for the treatment of individuals with autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been evaluated in systematic reviews. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for ASD. METHOD: Comprehensive searches were conducted in 25 bibliographic databases, relevant journals and ...
Hayden J A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Systematic reviews of prognostic factors for low back pain vary substantially in design and conduct. The objective of this study was to identify, describe, and synthesize systematic reviews of low back pain prognosis, and explore the potential impact of review methods on the conclusions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We ...
van Driel Mieke L - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of searching for unpublished data by exploring the extent to which Cochrane reviews include unpublished data and by evaluating the quality of unpublished trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We screened all 2,462 completed Cochrane reviews published since 2000 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
Tsirikos Athanasios I - - 2009
A review of the current literature demonstrates considerable debate regarding the pathogenesis, natural history and treatment of Scheuermann's kyphosis. Most of the views and recommendations provided in various reports are weakly supported by levels of evidence. In addition, prospective studies using validated questionnaire instruments and long-term follow-ups to assess clinical ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 4 for 2008 contains 3625 complete reviews, 1921 protocols for reviews in production, and 9025 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 549,000 randomized controlled trials, and 10,900 cited papers ...
Basiri Abbas - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review was performed to determine the clinical value of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the supine position in comparison with the convention of performing the procedure in the prone position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted searching for studies on percutaneous nephrolithotomy in ...
Yoshii Adriana - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions provides instructions for documenting a systematic review's electronic database search strategy, listing elements that should be in the description. Complete documentation of the search strategy allows readers to evaluate the search when critically appraising a review's quality. OBJECTIVE: The research analyzed ...
Taylor R S - - 2009
To explore the use of surrogate outcomes in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and provide a basis for guidance for their future use, validation and reporting. This report focuses on the role of surrogate outcomes in cost-effectiveness models (CEMs) within UK HTA Programme reports. Reports published in the UK HTA Programme ...
Lavis John N - - 2009
This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Systematic reviews are increasingly seen as a key source of information in policymaking, particularly in terms of assisting with descriptions of the impacts ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 2 2009 contains 3826 complete reviews, 1959 protocols for reviews in production, and 9964 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 576,000 randomized controlled trials, and 11,500 cited papers in ...
Agbabiaka Taofikat B - - 2009
Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens ...
Al Faleh Khalid - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG) has achieved a lot with limited resources in producing high quality systematic reviews to assist clinicians in evidence-based decision-making. A formal assessment of published CNRG systematic reviews has not been undertaken; we sought to provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of systematic ...
Frymark Tobi - - 2009
Evidence-based systematic reviews (EBSRs), in conjunction with clinical expertise and client values, are invaluable tools for speech-language pathologists and audiologists. This article provides an overview of the levels-of-evidence scheme used by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) to conduct systematic reviews. The goal of ASHA reviews is to provide a tool ...
Rabi Doreen M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis suggested the use of rosiglitazone was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Rosiglitazone remained available for use as more definitive safety trials were ongoing. This issue was reported in the lay media. OBJECTIVE: To review lay media articles to determine the extent of media ...
Reese George E - - 2009
Haemorrhoids are cushions of submucosal vascular tissue located in the anal canal starting just distal to the dentate line. Incidence is difficult to ascertain as many people with the condition will never consult with a medical practitioner, although one study found 10 million people in the USA complaining of the ...
Kawamoto Kensaku - - 2009
Prior to clinical use, pharmacogenetic tests should be systematically evaluated for their clinical validity and utility. Here, we evaluated whether the publicly available, online Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) could facilitate such assessments by efficiently identifying relevant peer-reviewed manuscripts. The search targets were 55 manuscripts regarding clinical validity and utility included ...
Cohen Joshua P - - 2009
With the inclusion of $US1.1 billion earmarked for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the recently enacted stimulus package, the US government indicated it will play an important role in informing prescribing and reimbursement decisions. However, this sizable investment does beg four important questions: what is the nature of CER data; ...
Walton David - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review the various definitions of recovery used in the prognostic whiplash literature to date, and to evaluate them from the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). METHODS: Reference lists of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the ...
Cahill David - - 2009
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is diagnosed in up to 10% of women attending gynaecology clinics, but the prevalence in the population as a whole is unclear. PCOS has been associated with hirsutism, infertility, acne, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted ...
Hashish Dena Ibrahim - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effects of lip bumper therapy on mandibular arch dimensions. METHODS: A literature survey of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (www.cochrane.org) was conducted from December 1968 to January 2007. Human studies, randomized clinical trials, prospective ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 2 2009 contains 3737 complete reviews, 1939 protocols for reviews in production, and 9403 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 564,000 randomized controlled trials, and 11,000 cited papers in ...
Whiting Lisa S - - 2009
Systematic reviews are a thorough and efficient method of appraising literature and providing an evidence base for practice. However, to ensure that they are undertaken in a structured and comprehensive manner, it is crucial that a systematic review protocol is first formulated. While resources such as the Cochrane Collaboration provide ...
Hildebrandt Mandy - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The number needed to treat (NNT) is a well-known effect measure for reporting the results of clinical trials. In the case of time-to-event outcomes, the calculation of NNTs is more difficult than in the case of binary data. The frequency of using NNTs to report results of randomised controlled ...
Jørgensen Karsten Juhl - - 2009
We discuss in this commentary a recent Cochrane review of 10 randomised trials aimed at testing the religious belief that praying to a god can help those who are prayed for. The review concluded that the available studies merit additional research. However, the review presented a scientifically unsound mixture of ...
Adachi Masanori - - 2009
The diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) is challenging, because both the osteodystrophy, such as brachydactyly and round face, and the symptomatic hypocalcemia usually develop beyond infancy. Although ectopic calcification may be an early sign of PHP1a, there are no systematic reviews regarding the time of its appearance. We here ...
Biyani Chandra Shekhar - - 2009
Varicocele is estimated to affect 10-15% of men and adolescent boys. It usually occurs only on the left side, and is often asymptomatic. There is little evidence that varicocele reduces male fertility, although it is found in 12% of male partners of couples presenting with infertility, and in 25% of ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue 3 2009 contains 3916 complete reviews, 1905 protocols for reviews in production, and 10,894 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 587,000 randomized controlled trials, and 11,800 cited papers in ...
Izzo Angelo A - - 2009
The concomitant use of herbal medicines and pharmacotherapy is wide spread. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between seven popular herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John's wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and conventional drugs. Literature searches were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE ...
O'Neill Julian - - 2009
DATA SOURCES: Searches were made using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, along with searches by hand of the following journals: Angle Orthodontist, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Journal of Orthodontics and European Journal of Orthodontics. STUDY SELECTION: ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2009
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. Issue Three for 2008 contains 3539 complete reviews, 1868 protocols for reviews in production, and 8349 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 540,000 randomized controlled trials, and 10,000 cited papers ...
Schneider Michael - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed nonarticular soft tissue conditions in all fields of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature for the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for FMS and to ...
Potting Carin - - 2009
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify and to assess the quality of evidence-based guidelines and systematic reviews we used in the case of oral mucositis, to apply general quality criteria for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both. ...
Ethgen Morgane - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Stents are commonly used to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, the quality of reporting internal and external validity data in published reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of stents has never been assessed.The objective of our study was to evaluate the quality of reporting internal and external ...
Carey John C - - 2009
The determination that an exposure is a human teratogen is a complex process involving the application of the principles of teratology, epidemiology, biology, and clinical medicine. Shepard suggested that the "rare exposure/rare defect" or "case report method", the astute clinician model, was one approach for establishing teratogenicity. The purpose of ...
Karunananthan Sathya - - 2009
Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging ...
Cundiff David Keith - - 2009
I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered ...
Ryan Rebecca E - - 2009
Systematic reviews have developed into a powerful method for summarising and synthesising evidence. The rise in systematic reviews creates a methodological opportunity and associated challenges and this is seen in the development of overviews, or reviews of systematic reviews. One of these challenges is how to summarise evidence from systematic ...
Newth Christopher J L - - 2009
A systematic review of weaning and extubation for pediatric patients on mechanical ventilation. Pediatric and adult literature, English language. Invited review. Literature review using National Library of Medicine PubMed from January 1972 until April 2008, earlier cross-referenced article citations, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Internet. Despite the ...
Keir L S LS Scottish Genital Anomaly Network, Yorkhill, Glasgow, UK. - - 2009
Late presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a 46,XX disorder of sex development due to 11-beta hydroxylase deficiency is uncommon. Such a case raises issues regarding appropriate investigation and management. A 5-year-old boy who had recently moved to the United Kingdom presented at the endocrinology clinic with recurrent abdominal pain. ...
Liberati Alessandro A Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, - - 2009
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarise evidence relating to efficacy and safety of healthcare interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, are not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of ...
Jackson Daniel L DL GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, Nightingales Lane, Chalfont St, Giles, Bucks, HP8 4SP, UK. - - 2009
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are generally sedated for prolonged periods. Over-sedation and under-sedation both have negative effects on patient safety and resource use. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to establish the incidence of sub-optimal sedation (both over- and under-sedation) in ICUs. We searched ...
Song Fujian F Faculty of Health, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ. - - 2009
To investigate basic assumptions and other methodological problems in the application of indirect comparison in systematic reviews of competing healthcare interventions. Survey of published systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria Systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2007 in which an indirect approach had been explicitly used. Identified reviews were assessed for comprehensiveness ...
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