Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 916
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Fischer Walker Christa L - - 2010
Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in all regions of the world and among all ages, yet little is known about the fraction of diarrhea episodes and deaths due to each pathogen. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify all papers reporting the proportion of diarrhea ...
Ono Shimpei - - 2010
In order to improve health care efficiency and effectiveness, treatments should provide disease improvement or resolution at a reasonable cost. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) published a guideline for treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in 2009 based on review of the literature up to April 6, 2007. ...
Pappalardo Elisa Maria - - 2010
Although prostaglandins are largely used and considered safe drugs to induce midtrimester abortion, the literature reports several cases of uterine rupture consequent to their administration. We report the second ever-described case of uterine rupture after administration of gemeprost and sulprostone for midtrimester abortion in a 45 years-old women with scarred ...
Wallace Byron C - - 2010
Systematic reviews address a specific clinical question by unbiasedly assessing and analyzing the pertinent literature. Citation screening is a time-consuming and critical step in systematic reviews. Typically, reviewers must evaluate thousands of citations to identify articles eligible for a given review. We explore the application of machine learning techniques to ...
Ahmad Nizar - - 2010
The purpose of the study was to evaluate systematic reviews of research into two public health priorities, tobacco consumption and HIV infection, in terms of the reporting of data related to the applicability of trial results (i.e., whether the results of a trial can be reasonably applied or generalized to ...
O'Connor Annette M - - 2010
A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June ...
Donegan Sarah - - 2010
The indirect comparison of two interventions can be valuable in many situations. However, the quality of an indirect comparison will depend on several factors including the chosen methodology and validity of underlying assumptions. Published indirect comparisons are increasingly more common in the medical literature, but as yet, there are no ...
Kirkham Jamie J JJ Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England. - - 2010
Adding, omitting or changing outcomes after a systematic review protocol is published can result in bias because it increases the potential for unacknowledged or post hoc revisions of the planned analyses. The main objective of this study was to look for discrepancies between primary outcomes listed in protocols and in ...
Kirkham Jamie J JJ Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 - - 2010
To examine the prevalence of outcome reporting bias-the selection for publication of a subset of the original recorded outcome variables on the basis of the results-and its impact on Cochrane reviews. A nine point classification system for missing outcome data in randomised trials was developed and applied to the trials ...
Poulsen Peter Bo PB Medical & Access, Pfizer ApS, Pfizer Denmark, Ballerup, Denmark. - - 2010
Tobacco smoke is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. A total of 50% of all smokers will die from a smoking-related disease with a major impact upon quality of life and health-care costs. Tobacco-controlling policies, including smoking cessation, have increasingly been implemented across European countries. Reported effectiveness ...
Mahmood Asif - - 2010
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a rare disorder with great clinical variability. We report the first case of triplets with the late infantile form of the disease and their systematic progression of symptoms. We reviewed the literature and identified all human studies that reported new cases since 1921. We analyzed survival by ...
Giuca M R - - 2009
This study explores the possibility that the celiac disease (CD) may be correlated with the insurgence of some oral signs, as based on a systematic review of the literature. Should this correlation be proven, any dentistry's screening would then be important to diagnose early celiac sprue pathogenesis. A literature survey ...
Hol A M - - 2010
The aim of this systematic review was to find evidence-based support in the literature to allow immediate unrestricted weight bearing after primary uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). Accelerated rehabilitation programs for THA are becoming increasingly popular to shorten hospital stay and to facilitate rapid restoration of function. The goals of ...
Mills Kathryn - - 2010
This article systematically reviews the available literature to improve our understanding of the physiological basis for orthoses under the kinematic, shock attenuation and neuromotor control paradigms. The propositions made under these three paradigms have not been systematically reviewed collectively, and as such, there is no single-point synthesis of this clinically ...
Bartoli Simona - - 2010
The paper provides a systematization of the scientific evidence on quality of life of patients affected by urinary incontinence (UI) and overactive bladder (OAB) through a systematic literature review. A single search strategy was performed through the databases and papers collected are reviewed by independent researchers finally, including 39 papers. ...
Glazebrook Mark A - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the literature to provide a comprehensive description of the Level of Evidence available to support the surgical technique of ankle arthroscopy for the current generally accepted indications and assign a grade of recommendation for each of them. METHODS: A comprehensive review ...
Emmanuel A V - - 2009
The approach of this review is to give a pragmatic approach to using laxatives, based on a combination of what is known about mechanism of action and the available literature on evidence.
Cornelius V R - - 2009
PURPOSE: There is a need for high quality evidence on the adverse effects of medical interventions to inform policy, practice and research. Methods to systematically review adverse effects have not been fully developed. We aimed to assess the current methods and reporting used by such reviews. METHODS: Survey of general ...
Marret Emmanuel - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dr. Scott Reuben allegedly fabricated data. The authors of the current article examined the impact of Reuben reports on conclusions of systematic reviews. METHODS: The authors searched in ISI Web of Knowledge systematic reviews citing Reuben reports. Systematic reviews were grouped into one of three categories: I, only cited ...
Lundh Andreas - - 2009
BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and ...
Zaina F - - 2009
AIM: Since 2007 we have been focusing our attention to EJPRM as the best available clinical evidence as offered by the Cochrane Collaboration. Due to the absence of a specific Rehabilitation Group (only a Field does exist), some reviews in the field of PRM are not easy to find. Consequently, ...
Neely J Gail - - 2010
A systematic review is a transparent and unbiased review of available information. The published systematic review must report the details of the conduct of the review as one might report the details of a primary research project. A meta-analysis is a powerful and rigorous statistical approach to synthesize data from ...
Roffey Darren M - - 2010
Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent and costly musculoskeletal disorder that often occurs in the working-age population. Although numerous physical activities have been implicated in its complex etiology, determining causation remains challenging and requires a methodologically rigorous approach. To conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature focused on ...
Lu Zhengwu - - 2010
To identify key challenges and propose technical considerations in designing electronic case report form (eCRF) for post-marketing studies, the author undertakes a comprehensive literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature to assess the key aspects, processes, standards, recommendations, and best practices in designing eCRFs based on industry experience in ...
Bell Margaret C - - 2009
Even though adverse event (AE) collection and official accounting are mandatory for clinical trials, there are limited detailed guidelines specifying how to summarize the event for reporting in a timely and expeditious manner. This article details the AE and serious adverse event (SAE) reporting summary developed for a large multi-center ...
Visser K - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on liver toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), as an evidence base for generating clinical practice recommendations for the management of MTX and the indication for a liver biopsy (LB) in case of elevated liver enzymes ...
Cleary Michelle - - 2009
Access to the most relevant articles with recent evidence is essential for writing peer-reviewed articles and informing clinical decision making. A clear method is needed to undertake a mental health literature review to ensure the topic is covered adequately. Choosing the right key words and search strategies and using appropriate ...
Fleischhacker W Wolfgang - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) represent an advance in the long-term management of schizophrenia. AIMS: To review the available evidence concerning SGA long-acting injections (LAIs). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed. RESULTS: Risperidone long-acting injection was the first licensed SGA-LAI compound and is effective in the ...
Macedo Cristiane Rufino - - 2009
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines are suggestions for clinical practice based on the best available scientific evidence. Nevertheless, in drafting such guidelines, existing systematic reviews are often ignored and are replaced by general consensuses. This ends up compromising the quality of the instructions through bias. Our objective was to investigate whether ...
Patelarou Evridiki - - 2009
We aimed to provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the association between adverse birth outcomes and the development of wheezing during the first two years of life. We carried out a systematic review of epidemiological studies within the MEDLINE database. Epidemiological studies on human subjects, published in ...
Pitrou Isabelle - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Reports of clinical trials usually emphasize efficacy results, especially when results are statistically significant. Poor safety reporting can lead to misinterpretation and inadequate conclusions about the interventions assessed. Our aim was to describe the reporting of harm-related results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database ...
Morin James G - - 2011
The luciferin of the ostracod Vargula hilgendorfii (formerly Cypridina hilgendorfii) is often termed Cypridina luciferin in the scientific literature, but, to avoid ambiguity and based on a review of the literature, is best referred to by the more inclusive term cypridinid luciferin. This situation exemplifies how new knowledge in systematics ...
Williams H C - - 2010
This review summarizes clinically important findings from systematic reviews indexed in bibliographical databases between August 2007 and August 2008 that dealt with disease prevention (six reviews) and treatment of atopic eczema (seven reviews). Regarding disease prevention, two independent systematic reviews found some clinical trial evidence that ingestion of probiotics by ...
Peters Alana - - 2010
This systematic review critically evaluates the quantification of soft tissue artifact (STA) in lower limb human motion analysis. It has a specific focus on assessing the quality of previous studies and comparing quantitative results. A specific search strategy identified 20 published articles or abstracts that fulfilled the selection criteria. The ...
Williams H C - - 2010
This review summarizes clinically important findings from nine systematic reviews indexed in bibliographical databases between August 2007 and August 2008, dealing with the definitions, causes and consequences of atopic eczema (AE). One review of diagnostic criteria found that out of 10 sets of criteria, only the UK refinement of the ...
Givens Carrie B - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding the potential interaction between tamoxifen and warfarin. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE from 1948 to August 20, 2009, was performed using the search terms tamoxifen, warfarin, drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 2C9. EMBASE was searched (1980-week 33, 2009), using the search terms tamoxifen ...
Pearson Mark - - 2010
AIM: To critically evaluate the methods utilized in the conduct of a systematic review in the field of substance misuse. DESIGN: Participant-observation in the review process, semi-structured interviews with review team members and management and structured observation of the process of guidance development. SETTING: An 'arm's-length' government body. PARTICIPANTS: Review ...
Clerici Carlo Alfredo - - 2009
Shocking news of robberies committed using hypnosis on bank cashiers, salespeople, or passers-by has sporadically been reported by the media in countries around the world. The first reported episode in Italy dates to the 1950s. Although the phenomenon has been reported in the papers more frequently in recent years, no ...
Baker W L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Meta-regression has grown in popularity in recent years, paralleling the increasing numbers of systematic reviews and meta-analysis published in the biomedical literature. However, many clinicians and decision-makers may be unfamiliar with the underlying principles and assumptions made within meta-regression leading to incorrect interpretation of their results. AIMS: This paper ...
Callcut Rachael A - - 2009
Review papers commonly summarize the current knowledge on a selected topic. These types of papers are considered narrative reviews. Narrative reviews rarely detail the methods used to select the literature included, nor do the authors typically report the purpose of the review. Narrative reviews may be biased due to inadequate ...
Eduardo Nigro C C Department of Otolaryngology, Sao Paulo University, Taubaté, Sao Paulo, Brazil. - - 2009
The graph obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry in most studies of normal adult Caucasian individuals clearly shows two notches at the beginning of the rhinogram. However, we found different opinions in the literature regarding the anatomical correlation of the anterior notches. The aim of this study was to identify and to ...
Blackmer Allison Beck - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To review the available literature addressing the role of fondaparinux in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). DATA SOURCES: Primary articles were identified by a MEDLINE search (2004-June 2009) of English-language literature using the MeSH headings fondaparinux, heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and thrombocytopenia. Relevant consensus guidelines (2006-June 2009) were also ...
Noordzij Marlies - - 2009
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly popular study designs in clinical research. A systematic review is a summary of the medical literature that uses explicit and reproducible methods for searching the literature and critical appraisal of individual studies; in contrast, a meta-analysis is a mathematical synthesis of the results of ...
Manchikanti Laxmaiah - - 2009
Observational studies provide an important source of information when randomized controlled trials (RCTs) cannot or should not be undertaken, provided that the data are analyzed and interpreted with special attention to bias. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) stresses the examination of evidence from clinical research and describes it as a shift in ...
Batra Pete S - - 2009
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The evidence-based medicine (EBM) schema advocates critical appraisal of the scientific literature for treatment of diseases. The objective of this review was to analyze the role of surgery for symptomatic adult inferior turbinate hypertrophy (ITH) by focusing on the following question: In adults with nasal airway obstruction (NAO) from ...
Wilczynski Nancy L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Systematic review articles support the advance of science and translation of research evidence into healthcare practice. Inaccurate retrieval from medline could limit access to reviews. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quality of indexing systematic reviews and meta-analyses in medline. METHODS: The Clinical Hedges Database, containing the results of a hand ...
Manheimer Eric - - 2009
The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. In order to detect ...
Dowd Jennifer B - - 2009
The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL). A search ...
Furlan Andrea D - - 2009
STUDY DESIGN: Method guidelines for systematic reviews of trials of treatments for neck and back pain. OBJECTIVE: To help review authors design, conduct and report systematic reviews of trials in this field. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 1997, the Cochrane Back Review Group published Method Guidelines for Systematic Reviews, which ...
Pagliaro L - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cochrane systematic reviews are of higher quality than reviews published in scientific journals, yet are used less than other sources for clinical decision-making. AIM: To assess whether the characteristics of the Cochrane systematic reviews can account for their scant use by physicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the 87 ...
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