Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 915
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Tisi Paul - - 2007
Varicose veins are caused by poorly functioning valves in the veins, and decreased elasticity of the vein wall, allowing pooling of blood within the veins, and their subsequent enlargement. Varicose veins affect up to 40% of adults, and are more common in obese people, and in women who have had ...
Porter Stephen R - - 2007
Most people with recurrent aphthous ulcers develop a few ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter, that heal after 5-14 days without scarring. The causes are unknown, but risks of recurrence may decrease if the person gives up smoking. Local physical trauma may trigger ulcers in susceptible people. In 10% ...
Struijs Peter - - 2007
Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one per 10,000 people a day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatment strategies ...
Bhatti Ahmad F - - 2007
Free-floating thrombus (FFT) of the carotid artery is an uncommon entity that usually presents as an acute emergency. Management is based on case reports and series because the natural history and optimal treatment are unknown. This study was conducted to systematically review the world literature in an attempt to better ...
Kim Sara - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about strategies for developing teaching cases and strategies for identifying design features that optimize a learner's interactions with Web-based cases. PURPOSES: We examined design features in Web cases that facilitated interactive and engaging learning. METHODS: Nine collaborators reviewed selected Web cases and documented the presence of ...
Taylor-Robinson David - - 2007
Malaria is a major health problem in the tropics, with 300-500 million new clinical cases annually, most of them cases of uncomplicated malaria. An estimated 1.1-2.7 million deaths occur annually as a result of severe falciparum malaria. Uncomplicated malaria can progress to severe malaria, become chronic, or resolve, depending on ...
Islam Niaz - - 2007
Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA-B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as ...
Sheikh Aziz - - 2007
Seasonal allergic rhinitis is found throughout the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that there is considerable geographical variation in its prevalence. Symptoms are caused by an IgE mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to air-borne allergens such as pollen or fungal spores, and may also cause eye, respiratory, and systemic problems. METHODS ...
McGuire William - - 2007
In resource-rich countries, the incidence of severe perinatal asphyxia (causing death or severe neurological impairment) is about 1/1000 live births. In resource-poor countries, perinatal asphyxia is probably much more common. Data from hospital-based studies in such settings suggest an incidence of 5-10/1000 live births. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a ...
Acuin Jose - - 2007
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common cause of hearing impairment, disability, and poor scholastic performance, and can occasionally lead to fatal intracranial infections and acute mastoiditis, especially in resource-poor countries. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are ...
W Buck Henry H - - 2007
External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50-60% of sexually active women aged 18-49 have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10-15% will have genital warts. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We ...
Nelson Rick - - 2007
Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain during, and for 1-2 hours after, defecation. The cause is not fully understood, but low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What ...
Murdoch David - - 2007
Up to half of people who ascend to heights above 2500 m may develop acute mountain sickness, pulmonary oedema, or cerebral oedema, with the risk being greater at higher altitudes, and with faster rates of ascent. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following ...
Brok Jesper - - 2007
AIM: To assess the agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines of a University Neonatology Department, to evaluate the reasons for potential disagreements and to ascertain whether Cochrane reviews were considered for the guidelines development. METHODS: The recommendations in the reviews and guidelines were compared and classified as ...
Nygaard Birte - - 2007
Hypothyroidism is six times more common in women, affecting up to 40/10,000 each year (compared with 6/10,000 men). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for clinical (overt) hypothyroidism and for subclinical hypothyroidism? We searched: ...
Delaney Brendan C - - 2007
Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are ...
Ahmedzai Sam H - - 2007
Constipation is reported in 52% of people with advanced malignancy. This figure rises to 87% in people who are terminally ill and taking opioids. Constipation may be the most common adverse effect of opioids. There is no reason to believe that people with chronic non-malignant disease who take opioids will ...
Kurjak Asim - - 2007
AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the published literature on the use of three-dimensional (3DUS) and four-dimensional (4DUS) ultrasound in perinatal medicine. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline through PubMED (January 2000-January 2006), including EMBASE/Excerpta Medica database as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ...
Manríquez Juan Jorge - - 2007
Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 1-3% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation involving T cells and complement. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 3094 complete reviews, 1707 protocols for reviews in production and 6817 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 495,000 randomized controlled trials, and 9458 cited papers in ...
Dalby-Payne Jacqueline R - - 2007
Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are ...
Nai-Ming Luk - - 2007
Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus, of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of ...
Cahoj Patricia A - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic literature review was to summarize information on the efficacy of percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) and the incorporation of physical therapy intervention following PVA for vertebral compression fractures (VCF). METHODS: Literature searches were completed using the Cochrane Library: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Reviews); ...
Keeley Paul W - - 2007
Delirium is common in the last weeks of life, occurring in 26-44% of people with advanced cancer in hospital, and in up to 88% of people with terminal illness in the last days of life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 2785 complete reviews, 1625 protocols of reviews and 5574 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 477,942 randomized controlled trials, 23 methodology reviews and 8408 cited papers ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 3009 complete reviews, 1668 protocols of reviews and 5931 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 489,167 randomized controlled trials, 22 methodology reviews and 9048 cited papers ...
Solomon Anthony - - 2007
Active trachoma is caused by chronic infection of the conjunctiva by Chlamydia trachomatis, and is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. Infection can lead to scarring of the tarsal conjunctiva, inversion of the eyelashes so that they abrade the cornea (trichiasis), and corneal opacity, leading to blindness. Trachoma is ...
Hind Daniel - - 2007
The Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) statement provides guidance for improving the quality of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To make the process of study selection transparent it recommends "a flow diagram providing information about the number of RCTs identified, included, and excluded and the reasons for excluding ...
Sheikh Lumaan - - 2007
In maternal medicine, research evidence is scattered making it difficult to access information for clinical decision making. Systematic reviews of good methodological quality are essential to provide valid inferences and to produce usable evidence summaries to guide management. This review assesses the methodological features of existing systematic reviews in maternal ...
Velázquez-Armenta Elvia Yadira EY PharmaREASONS. Toronto, Ontario, - - 2007
To describe the case of a woman exposed to angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the preconceptional period and to systematically review the literature on the safety of these drugs when used by pregnant women. The case was identified at the Korean Motherisk Program (Seoul). For the systematic review, we searched ...
Collier A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The Cochrane collaboration aims to produce high-quality systematic reviews. It is not known whether the methods used in producing Cochrane Skin Group (CSG) reviews result in higher quality reviews than other systematic reviews in dermatology. OBJECTIVES: To determine how the methodological quality of dermatological CSG reviews published in The ...
Thomas L - - 2006
Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted to identify level 1a evidence. So far the ENT group have published 24 reviews, while around 70 titles are in various stages of the review process. Only one review has been able to produce Ia evidence and the rest recommended further trials. The majority of ...
Marr Amy - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are many different confidence interval calculation methods, each providing different as well as in some cases inadequate interval estimates. Readers who know which method is used are better able to understand potentially significant limitations in study reports. OBJECTIVES: To quantify how often confidence interval calculation methods are disclosed ...
Mahid S S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Understanding of data-reporting methods is imperative for correct interpretation of the medical literature as well as for proper performance of future clinical research. Recent developments in biostatistics have greatly changed the types of statistical analyses used and the minimum quality standards that must be maintained. METHOD: Different types of ...
Jayaram P M - - 2006
We set out to determine the quality of existing systematic reviews on multiple pregnancies. We conducted an electronic search in MEDLINE (1951 - 2005), EMBASE (1974 - 2005) and the Cochrane Database for Systematic reviews (2005:2) and a hand-search of reference lists without any language restrictions to identify relevant reviews. ...
Maxwell Lara - - 2006
The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 50 groups of the not-for-profit international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. To enhance the quality and usability of systematic reviews, the CMSG has developed tailored methodological guidelines for authors of CMSG systematic reviews. Recommendations specific ...
Roposch Andreas A Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Institute of Child Health, University College London, Great Ormond St, London WC1N 3JH, England. - - 2006
To systematically review the quality of diagnostic accuracy reporting in studies on the use of ultrasonography (US) for the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). A systematic review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed by using a validated search strategy. Two independent reviewers ...
Jørgensen Anders W - - 2006
To compare the methodological quality and conclusions in Cochrane reviews with those in industry supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs. Systematic review comparing pairs of meta-analyses that studied the same two drugs in the same disease and were published within two years of each other. Cochrane Database ...
Sinha Mukesh K - - 2006
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often occupy the top of the hierarchy of evidence in support of evidence-based clinical practice. These studies commonly inform the formulation of clinical guidelines. Bias can intrude at several levels during the conduct of systematic reviews. The effect these various biases, in particular reporting bias, have ...
Lepore Stephen J - - 2006
We review a decade of review articles concerning psychosocial interventions for cancer patients. We find a distinct progression in the tone of interpretations of the literature, as better quality studies accumulate and the sophistication of reviews improves. The current literature does not make a compelling case for the value of ...
Ghosh Angaj - - 2006
A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether myringotomy is of value in cases of haemotympanum. In all, 205 papers were found in Medline and 105 in Cochrane using the reported searches. None presented any evidence to answer the clinical question. Hence, it is concluded that there is no ...
Mahady Gail B - - 2006
The purpose of this article is to assess recent data supporting the safety and efficacy of black cohosh products for the mitigation of menopause-related symptoms. Searches of the published literature in Napralert, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases were performed from 2003 to 2006. Information from drug regulatory agencies from five ...
Ferreira Lydia M - - 2006
The superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) is not included in the International Anatomic Terminology, although it is a fundamental anatomical structure in plastic surgeons. In the literature, the concept of the SMAS is not clear, leading to repercussions in the treatment of the SMAS via the various techniques for rhytidoplasty. This ...
Major Michael P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of systematic reviews are published each year, though little has been done to evaluate their search and selection methodology. METHODS: The authors searched dental systematic reviews published between Jan. 1, 2000, and July 14, 2005, for descriptions of how researchers used multiple electronic databases and secondary searches. ...
Leong S C L - - 2006
AIMS: To define the role of medical or surgical treatment in patients with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA syndrome). METHODS: A Medline search was performed using the terms PFAPA, periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, treatment. A systematic review of the English literature was performed. ...
Jacob Susan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To review the incidence, risk factors, mechanism, times of onset and resolution, and treatment of hyponatremia associated with selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-December 2005) using the search terms selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor, hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, ...
Flores-Mir Carlos - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: More systematic reviews related to orthodontic topics are published each year, although little has been done to evaluate their search and selection methodologies. METHODS: Systematic reviews related to orthodontics published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, were searched for their use of multiple electronic databases and secondary ...
Parkes Georgina - - 2006
In clinical practice, we have come across people with intellectual disability who have gender dysphoria and cross-dress. Here, we review the literature on this subject and present an illustrative case example. We searched databases, followed-up references from relevant articles, and contacted colleagues in the field. We found nine papers with ...
Mallett Susan - - 2006
To assess the methods and reporting of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests. Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, and five other databases identified reviews of tests used in patients with cancer. Of these, 89 satisfied our inclusion criteria of reporting accuracy of the test compared with a reference test, including an ...
Leroi Iracema - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical management of cognitive impairment and dementia related to Parkinson's disease (PD), with emphasis on pharmacologic intervention strategies such as cholinesterase inhibitors. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Collaboration search of English language literature from 1970 to 2004 was performed to identify reviews, studies, ...
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