Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 930
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Gebel Klaus K Centre for Physical Activity and Health, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. - - 2007
Over the last few years an increasing number of studies investigating the association between the physical environment and physical activity have been published. Many reviews have also summarized this emerging body of research, and such review papers are frequently used by public health policymakers and researchers themselves to inform decision ...
Smith Valerie V School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, 24 D'Olier Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. - - 2007
This systematic review aims to identify reviews of fetal fibronectin and transvaginal cervical length for predicting preterm birth, so that these could be appraised and the findings from good quality reviews highlighted. Reviews, rather than individual studies, are the basis for this systematic review because of the proliferation of reviews ...
Moher David - - 2007
Systematic reviews (SRs) have become increasingly popular to a wide range of stakeholders. We set out to capture a representative cross-sectional sample of published SRs and examine them in terms of a broad range of epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics, including emerging aspects not previously examined. We searched Medline for ...
Ma Irene W Y - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Methods of reporting of race/ethnicity in biomedical journals are largely unknown. We aimed to systematically examine the reporting practice of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) information in biomedical journals. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: All primary research articles that reported more than one racial/ethnic group, published between 1999 and 2003 ...
Snijders C C Dr C Snijders, Princess Amalia Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Isala Clinics, Sophia, PO Box 10400, 8000 GK Zwolle, The Netherlands. - - 2007
To examine the characteristics of incident reporting systems in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in relation to type, aetiology, outcome and preventability of incidents. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library. Included: relevant systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, observational studies and qualitative research. Excluded: non-systematic reviews, expert opinions, case reports and ...
McLean Rachael M - - 2007
Alopecia has previously been reported with the atypical antipsychotic medicines olanzapine and risperidone, but has not been described with quetiapine. Case reports of alopecia associated with quetiapine reported to the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme were reviewed. The World Health Organization international spontaneous reporting database was also searched for ...
Victorri-Vigneau Caroline - - 2007
To show that the nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic zolpidem has a higher abuse potential than previously documented. An official enquiry was carried out by the Nantes Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP). The authors made a review of literature and analysed French data corresponding to the drug's postmarketing period collected ...
Teasell Robert - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the rehabilitation literature of moderate to severe acquired brain injuries (ABI) from traumatic and non-traumatic causes. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted for studies looking at interventions in ABI rehabilitation. The methodological quality of each study was determined using the Downs ...
Krueger Courtney D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To review the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with bisphosphonates. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search (1966-January 2007) and a search of International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-January 2007) were conducted to identify relevant literature. Additional references were reviewed from selected articles. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles related to ...
Chinchilli Vernon M - - 2007
A systematic review attempts to summarize the scientific evidence related to treatment, causation, diagnosis, or prognosis of a specific disease. Meta-analysis refers to that portion of the systematic review that involves the statistical analysis. This perspective describes the appropriate steps in a systematic review and meta-analysis and critiques the recent ...
Cooper Jonathan M - - 2007
The orthopedic surgeon has little evidence-based literature to refer to when deciding when a patient is "safe" to drive a car. Current advice is derived from several empirical reports on soft-tissue and bone healing. Using the terms surgery and driving, I searched Pubmed and Medline to review the relevant English-language ...
Luther F - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To review how occlusion, facial growth, TM disc position and malocclusion may relate to TMD; to review clinical studies investigating TMD pre- and post-orthodontic treatment as well as other studies linking occlusal features with TMD highlighting their limitations; and to make suggestions for improved study designs in the future ...
Sieving Pamela C - - 2007
In this era of evidence-based practice, it is important for nurses in all settings to understand and have access to high-quality systematic reviews of published evidence. This paper introduces a premier resource, the Cochrane Collaboration, and reviews mechanisms for accessing its published systematic reviews from any practice setting.
Smith Lucinda - - 2007
The purpose of the present paper was to review the current state of evidence for types of case management, focusing on the last 10 years since publication of the Cochrane Systematic Reviews of case management and assertive community treatment. A literature review of electronic databases from 1995 to the present ...
Whitten Pamela - - 2007
We conducted a systematic review of 15 relevant databases for articles about telemedicine. After eliminating articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 1615 remained for analysis. Three raters coded the articles to assess various theoretical and methodological variables. Only 5% (n = 85) of the telemedicine articles made mention ...
Tisi Paul - - 2007
Varicose veins are caused by poorly functioning valves in the veins, and decreased elasticity of the vein wall, allowing pooling of blood within the veins, and their subsequent enlargement. Varicose veins affect up to 40% of adults, and are more common in obese people, and in women who have had ...
Porter Stephen R - - 2007
Most people with recurrent aphthous ulcers develop a few ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter, that heal after 5-14 days without scarring. The causes are unknown, but risks of recurrence may decrease if the person gives up smoking. Local physical trauma may trigger ulcers in susceptible people. In 10% ...
Struijs Peter - - 2007
Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one per 10,000 people a day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatment strategies ...
Bhatti Ahmad F - - 2007
Free-floating thrombus (FFT) of the carotid artery is an uncommon entity that usually presents as an acute emergency. Management is based on case reports and series because the natural history and optimal treatment are unknown. This study was conducted to systematically review the world literature in an attempt to better ...
Kim Sara - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about strategies for developing teaching cases and strategies for identifying design features that optimize a learner's interactions with Web-based cases. PURPOSES: We examined design features in Web cases that facilitated interactive and engaging learning. METHODS: Nine collaborators reviewed selected Web cases and documented the presence of ...
Taylor-Robinson David - - 2007
Malaria is a major health problem in the tropics, with 300-500 million new clinical cases annually, most of them cases of uncomplicated malaria. An estimated 1.1-2.7 million deaths occur annually as a result of severe falciparum malaria. Uncomplicated malaria can progress to severe malaria, become chronic, or resolve, depending on ...
Islam Niaz - - 2007
Anterior uveitis is rare, with an annual incidence of 12/100,000 population, although it is more common in Finland (annual incidence of 23/100,000), probably because of genetic factors, such as high frequency of HLA-B27 in the population. It is often self-limiting, but can, in some cases, lead to complications such as ...
Sheikh Aziz - - 2007
Seasonal allergic rhinitis is found throughout the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that there is considerable geographical variation in its prevalence. Symptoms are caused by an IgE mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to air-borne allergens such as pollen or fungal spores, and may also cause eye, respiratory, and systemic problems. METHODS ...
McGuire William - - 2007
In resource-rich countries, the incidence of severe perinatal asphyxia (causing death or severe neurological impairment) is about 1/1000 live births. In resource-poor countries, perinatal asphyxia is probably much more common. Data from hospital-based studies in such settings suggest an incidence of 5-10/1000 live births. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a ...
Acuin Jose - - 2007
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common cause of hearing impairment, disability, and poor scholastic performance, and can occasionally lead to fatal intracranial infections and acute mastoiditis, especially in resource-poor countries. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are ...
W Buck Henry H - - 2007
External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50-60% of sexually active women aged 18-49 have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10-15% will have genital warts. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We ...
Nelson Rick - - 2007
Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain during, and for 1-2 hours after, defecation. The cause is not fully understood, but low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What ...
Murdoch David - - 2007
Up to half of people who ascend to heights above 2500 m may develop acute mountain sickness, pulmonary oedema, or cerebral oedema, with the risk being greater at higher altitudes, and with faster rates of ascent. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following ...
Brok Jesper - - 2007
AIM: To assess the agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines of a University Neonatology Department, to evaluate the reasons for potential disagreements and to ascertain whether Cochrane reviews were considered for the guidelines development. METHODS: The recommendations in the reviews and guidelines were compared and classified as ...
Nygaard Birte - - 2007
Hypothyroidism is six times more common in women, affecting up to 40/10,000 each year (compared with 6/10,000 men). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for clinical (overt) hypothyroidism and for subclinical hypothyroidism? We searched: ...
Delaney Brendan C - - 2007
Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are ...
Ahmedzai Sam H - - 2007
Constipation is reported in 52% of people with advanced malignancy. This figure rises to 87% in people who are terminally ill and taking opioids. Constipation may be the most common adverse effect of opioids. There is no reason to believe that people with chronic non-malignant disease who take opioids will ...
Kurjak Asim - - 2007
AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the published literature on the use of three-dimensional (3DUS) and four-dimensional (4DUS) ultrasound in perinatal medicine. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline through PubMED (January 2000-January 2006), including EMBASE/Excerpta Medica database as well as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ...
Manríquez Juan Jorge - - 2007
Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 1-3% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation involving T cells and complement. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 3094 complete reviews, 1707 protocols for reviews in production and 6817 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 495,000 randomized controlled trials, and 9458 cited papers in ...
Dalby-Payne Jacqueline R - - 2007
Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are ...
Nai-Ming Luk - - 2007
Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus, of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of ...
Cahoj Patricia A - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic literature review was to summarize information on the efficacy of percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) and the incorporation of physical therapy intervention following PVA for vertebral compression fractures (VCF). METHODS: Literature searches were completed using the Cochrane Library: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Reviews); ...
Keeley Paul W - - 2007
Delirium is common in the last weeks of life, occurring in 26-44% of people with advanced cancer in hospital, and in up to 88% of people with terminal illness in the last days of life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 2785 complete reviews, 1625 protocols of reviews and 5574 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 477,942 randomized controlled trials, 23 methodology reviews and 8408 cited papers ...
Wiffen Philip J - - 2007
The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly. It now contains 3009 complete reviews, 1668 protocols of reviews and 5931 one page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition there are citations of 489,167 randomized controlled trials, 22 methodology reviews and 9048 cited papers ...
Solomon Anthony - - 2007
Active trachoma is caused by chronic infection of the conjunctiva by Chlamydia trachomatis, and is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. Infection can lead to scarring of the tarsal conjunctiva, inversion of the eyelashes so that they abrade the cornea (trichiasis), and corneal opacity, leading to blindness. Trachoma is ...
Hind Daniel - - 2007
The Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) statement provides guidance for improving the quality of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To make the process of study selection transparent it recommends "a flow diagram providing information about the number of RCTs identified, included, and excluded and the reasons for excluding ...
Sheikh Lumaan - - 2007
In maternal medicine, research evidence is scattered making it difficult to access information for clinical decision making. Systematic reviews of good methodological quality are essential to provide valid inferences and to produce usable evidence summaries to guide management. This review assesses the methodological features of existing systematic reviews in maternal ...
Velázquez-Armenta Elvia Yadira EY PharmaREASONS. Toronto, Ontario, - - 2007
To describe the case of a woman exposed to angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the preconceptional period and to systematically review the literature on the safety of these drugs when used by pregnant women. The case was identified at the Korean Motherisk Program (Seoul). For the systematic review, we searched ...
Collier A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The Cochrane collaboration aims to produce high-quality systematic reviews. It is not known whether the methods used in producing Cochrane Skin Group (CSG) reviews result in higher quality reviews than other systematic reviews in dermatology. OBJECTIVES: To determine how the methodological quality of dermatological CSG reviews published in The ...
Thomas L - - 2006
Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted to identify level 1a evidence. So far the ENT group have published 24 reviews, while around 70 titles are in various stages of the review process. Only one review has been able to produce Ia evidence and the rest recommended further trials. The majority of ...
Marr Amy - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There are many different confidence interval calculation methods, each providing different as well as in some cases inadequate interval estimates. Readers who know which method is used are better able to understand potentially significant limitations in study reports. OBJECTIVES: To quantify how often confidence interval calculation methods are disclosed ...
Mahid S S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Understanding of data-reporting methods is imperative for correct interpretation of the medical literature as well as for proper performance of future clinical research. Recent developments in biostatistics have greatly changed the types of statistical analyses used and the minimum quality standards that must be maintained. METHOD: Different types of ...
Jayaram P M - - 2006
We set out to determine the quality of existing systematic reviews on multiple pregnancies. We conducted an electronic search in MEDLINE (1951 - 2005), EMBASE (1974 - 2005) and the Cochrane Database for Systematic reviews (2005:2) and a hand-search of reference lists without any language restrictions to identify relevant reviews. ...
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