Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 937
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Langenberg Christoph - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is the most common trigger of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients; understanding the structural changes associated with its occurrence is therefore important. Accordingly, we systematically reviewed the literature to assess current knowledge on the histopathology of septic AKI. METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE, ...
Walker Sarah L - - 2008
Cholangiocarcinoma is a serious but common complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) that is often difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study was to conduct an evidence based radiology review of the diagnostic modalities used to identify cholangiocarcinoma in patients with PSC. A systematic review of the current best ...
Pope Janet Elizabeth - - 2008
Raynaud's phenomenon is an episodic vasospasm of the peripheral arteries, causing pallor followed by cyanosis and redness with pain and sometimes paraesthesia. On rare occasions it can lead to ulceration of the fingers and toes (and in some cases of the ears or nose). This review focuses on primary (idiopathic) ...
Johnstone Prof Paul - - 2008
Scabies is a common public health problem, with an estimated prevalence of 300 million cases worldwide, the majority in resource-poor countries. In industrialised countries, it is most common in institutionalised communities. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the ...
Thilander B - - 2008
The aim was to give a systematic review of alternative orthodontic space closure and implant placement in young adults with missing teeth. A literary search was made in the MEDLINE (Pub Med) database from 1990 to 2007. Totally 146 articles were found. Only studies in the English language or other ...
Eastwood Sarah - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The literature regarding the management of factitious disorder (FD) is diverse and generally of case reports or case series. To date there has been no systematic review of the effectiveness of management techniques. METHODS: Systematic review of all evidence reporting the management and subsequent outcome in FD. Data were ...
Scully Cbe Crispian - - 2008
Halitosis can be caused by oral disease, or by respiratory tract conditions such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, and bronchiectasis, but an estimated 40% of affected individuals have no underlying organic disease. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects ...
Manríquez Juan Jorge - - 2008
Skin disorders associated with photodamage from ultraviolet light include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, tactile roughness, and telangiectasia, and are more common in people with white compared with other skin types. Wrinkles are also associated with aging, hormonal status, smoking, and intercurrent disease. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed ...
Sarma Dandapantula N - - 2008
Green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze] is the fourth most commonly used dietary supplement in the US. Recently, regulatory agencies in France and Spain suspended market authorization of a weight-loss product containing green tea extract because of hepatotoxicity concerns. This was followed by publication of adverse event case reports involving ...
Afshar K - - 2008
There are many ongoing controversies surrounding vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). These include variable aspects of this common congenital anomaly. Lack of evidence-based recommendations has prolonged the debate. Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analysis (MA) are considered high-level evidence. The purpose of this review article is to summarize and critically appraise the available ...
Ah-See Kim - - 2008
Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1-5% of the adult population each year ...
Bond Gary R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment for clients with severe mental illness has been described as a standardization of evidence-based supported employment. Although several reviews on the literature on its effectiveness have been conducted, the completion of several new studies suggests an updated review is ...
Herxheimer Andrew - - 2008
Jet lag affects most air travellers crossing five or more time zones; it tends to be worse on eastward than on westward flights. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of interventions to prevent or minimise jet ...
Tranulis Constantin - - 2008
Combination antipsychotic prescription is an increasingly common practice in clinical psychiatry. This clinical practice is at odds with clinical guidelines promoting antipsychotic monotherapy. Moreover, there has been increased concern over the safety profile of atypical antipsychotics in the last 10-15 years. We reviewed the literature on antipsychotic combinations with a ...
de Bruyn Guy - - 2008
An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the ...
Watt Amber - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This review assessed current practice in the preparation of rapid reviews by health technology assessment (HTA) organizations, both internationally and in the Australian context, and evaluated the available peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the methodology used in the preparation of these reviews. METHODS: A survey tool was developed and distributed ...
Purdy Sarah - - 2008
Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. METHODS AND ...
Herrick Ariane - - 2008
Raynaud's phenomenon is episodic vasospasm of the peripheral vessels, causing pallor followed by cyanosis and redness with pain and sometimes paraesthesia, and, rarely, ulceration of the fingers and toes. It presents as episodic colour changes of the digits, usually in response to cold exposure or stress. The classic triphasic colour ...
Dib Elie G - - 2008
Some of the earliest case reports describing individual patients afflicted with cancer can be traced all the way back to the papyrus records of Ancient Egyptian medicine of approximately 1600 B.C.. Throughout the centuries physicians have continued the practice of writing case reports. Case reporting has provided significant advances in ...
ten Hacken Nick - - 2008
Bronchiectasis is usually a complication of previous lower respiratory infection, and causes chronic cough and copious production of sputum, which is often purulent. Bronchiectasis may cause signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can also be associated with cystic fibrosis and other congenital disorders, foreign body inhalation, and other causes ...
Kok Marjolein - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical factors that influence the estimates of clinicians of the success of an external cephalic version(ECV), and the subsequent management decisions made by clinicians. DESIGN: We constructed 16 fictional vignettes of women with a term fetus in breech position eligible for ECV. Setting. Secondary and tertiary ...
Soll Roger F - - 2008
Maintaining updated systematic reviews is one of the key goals of the Cochrane Collaboration. Reviews are meant to be updated at an interval of no more than 2 years. The Cochrane Neonatal Review (CNRG) is one of the most productive contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration. However, this means that the ...
Hajioff Daniel - - 2008
Otitis externa is thought to affect 10% of people at some stage, and can present in acute, chronic, or necrotising forms. Otitis externa may be associated with eczema of the ear canal, and is more common in swimmers, humid environments, people with absence of ear wax or with narrow ear ...
Javadpour Mohsen - - 2008
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may arise spontaneously or as a result of trauma. Spontaneous SAH accounts for about 5% of all strokes. Ruptured aneurysms are the cause of 85% of spontaneous SAH. The most characteristic clinical feature is sudden-onset severe headache. Other features include vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficit or ...
Peinemann Frank - - 2008
Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) regarding their agreement in primary study selection. This retrospective analysis was conducted within the framework of a systematic ...
Potack Jonathan Z - - 2008
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is one of the most commonly performed gastrointestinal procedures, despite absence of benefit in many patients and risks associated with the procedure. Increased education of primary care physicians about the shortcomings of PEG may allow for better selection of patients to be referred for PEG placement. ...
Henry Kevin A - - 2008
To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a ...
Fesperman Susan F - - 2008
PURPOSE: We determined study characteristics, authorship and institutional origin of studies presented in abstract form at the Southeastern Section of the American Urological Association annual meetings and identified predictors of full text publication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All abstracts of poster and podium presentations from the Southeastern Section of the American ...
Hassan Y - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To highlight therapeutic controversies, and present a critical review of the most recent evidence on the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search from October 1996 until October 2006 was carried out. Pertinent literature was identified and other references identified from the bibliographic citations of the ...
Chinuck R S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The use of appetite stimulants in cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial because of doubts concerning efficacy and side-effects. The aim of the review was to establish whether appetite stimulants should be recommended in CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, AMED, British Nursing Index, Cinahl, Embase, The Cochrane Library, National Research ...
Tondeur Marianne - - 2008
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reproducibility in reporting on renal drainage obtained during (99m)Tc MAG3 renography in children, when already processed data are offered to the observers. METHODS: Because web site facilities were used for communication, 57 observers from five continents participated in the ...
Jackson, HD ; 2–6 ...
I undertook a review of evidence for the translocation of eggs and young by nightjars through a comprehensive search of the literature. I found that most of the evidence was based on hearsay, supposition, a misunderstanding of nightjar behaviour, or on the repetition of a story going back 200 years ...
Lai Timothy Y Y - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the reporting quality of key methodological items in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in four general clinical ophthalmology journals. METHODS: The reporting of 11 key methodological items in RCTs published in American Journal of Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology in the year 2005 ...
Remington Ruth - - 2007
Dehydration is a serious acute condition in older adults associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hypodermoclysis (HDC; the infusion of fluids into the subcutaneous tissue) can provide an alternative to intravenous (i.v.) rehydration of older adults. This article reviews the relevant literature on the use of HDC to treat mild ...
Golder Su S Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. - - 2008
Systematic reviews incorporating adverse effects are assuming increasing importance as questions raised extend beyond clinical effectiveness to all effects (beneficial and harmful). The aim of this study was to survey the methods used to identify relevant studies for systematic reviews of adverse effects. All records within the Database of Abstracts ...
Phillips J S - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES OF REVIEW: The use of aminoglycoside drops in the presence of a perforation/grommet is still a common practice amongst the UK ENT community, in spite of theoretical risk of ototoxicity. Mindful of the need to produce clinical guidelines based on the best available evidence, it was the ...
Junhua Zhang - - 2007
CONTEXT: Good systematic reviews/meta-analyses are important sources of information for clinicians, patients, government officials, and other decision makers. Now, there is an increasing number of systematic reviews/meta-analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Thus, it is necessary to assess the quality of these reviews. OBJECTIVE: To assess the methodology and reporting ...
Bonini Sergio - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A 1-year systematic review in the field of ocular allergy was carried out to select new information which may be useful for a practical approach to allergic conjunctivitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Out of the 56 articles listed by PubMed, 27 papers were included in the review following a ...
Woods P - - 2007
This paper reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to provide background for a small pilot study that introduced violence measurement instruments that was to assist the development of nursing practice on an acute psychiatric unit. Multiple databases were searched, focusing on publications since 1994: CINAHL, Ovid ...
Blackmore A M - - 2007
This systematic review examines the effects of casting, either alone or in combination with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), on equinus in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Comparisons are made between casting alone and no treatment, between casting alone and BTX-A alone, between combined casting and BTX-A and each treatment ...
Cincu Rafael - - 2007
Intramedullary epidermoid cysts of the spinal cord are rare tumors, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. About 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only seven cases have had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. We report two cases of spinal intramedullary epidermoid cysts with MR imaging. ...
Trujillo-Santos A Javier - - 2008
The term "economy-class syndrome" defines an infrequent episode of venous thromboembolism (VTED) related to a long travel, namely by plane. However, this relation has not clearly been demonstrated by investigators. We carried out a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cases-control studies that had studied this topic. We realised a ...
Moe Rikke H - - 2007
An increasing number of systematic reviews are available regarding nonpharmacological and nonsurgical interventions for hip osteoarthritis (OA). The objectives of this article are to identify high-quality systematic reviews on the effect of nonpharmacological and nonsurgical interventions for hip OA and to summarize available high-quality evidence for these treatment approaches. The ...
Huber Diane L - - 2007
This is the third of a 3-part series presenting 2 effective applications--acuity and dosage--that describe how the business case for case management (CM) can be made. In Part I, dosage and acuity concepts were explained as client need-severity, CM intervention-intensity, and CM activity-dose prescribed by amount, frequency, duration, and breadth ...
Schuler-Faccini Lavinia - - 2007
Thalidomide is the best known human teratogen. Although withdrawn from the market in 1961, thalidomide was remarketed after 1965 in several countries, for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Thalidomide has a potent immunomodulatory property and has now a number of approved and off-label uses in dermatologic, oncologic, infectious and ...
Lesaffre Emmanuel - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hujoel & Moulton previously questioned the reported quality of split-mouth studies. Since then, there has been little enquiry into the methodology of this study design. The aim was to conduct a systematic review of the reported methodology of clinical studies using a split-mouth design published in dental journals over ...
Haneline Michael T - - 2007
The objective of this review is to determine how frequently likelihood ratios (LRs) have been used or described in the chiropractic literature and to depict their appropriate use in the clinical setting. A literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE, Manual Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System, and Index to ...
Sismondo Sergio - - 2008
This article systematically reviews published studies of the association of pharmaceutical industry funding and clinical trial results, as well a few closely related studies. It reviews two earlier results, and surveys the recent literature. Results are clear: Pharmaceutical company sponsorship is strongly associated with results that favor the sponsors' interests.
Rivara Frederick P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare reviews done by editor-selected reviewers with reviews by author-suggested reviewers, examining the quality, timeliness, and recommendations of the 2 sets of reviewers. STUDY DESIGN: Comparison of reviews for 140 manuscripts submitted to a pediatric journal in 2005. For each manuscript, a review by an editor-selected reviewer was ...
Shojania Kaveh G KG Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Chalmers Research Group, and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. - - 2007
Systematic reviews are often advocated as the best source of evidence to guide clinical decisions and health care policy, yet we know little about the extent to which they require updating. To estimate the average time to changes in evidence that are sufficiently important to warrant updating systematic reviews. Survival ...
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