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Altaf Fadwa J FJ Departments of Pathology, and Plastic Surgery, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi - - 2014
: In the past, malignant melanoma (MM) is a diagnosis of unheard in children, but nowadays MM is a very rare malignancy in children. Its diagnosis requires careful interpretation of the pathological diagnostic criteria with clinical correlation of the findings. In this study, the authors are presenting a pigmented lesion ...
Amarasinghe S G SG Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK, - - 2014
Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are a more aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma. Over the last 14 years, there has been increasing evidence to suggest that these tumours are distinct pathological entities to pilocytic astrocytomas. Radiological features of these tumours are slowly emerging in the neuroradiological literature. We report a unique radiological appearance of ...
Yalamanchili Venkat V University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH, 43614, - - 2014
Vaginal bleeding in young girls is a distressing symptom. Due to the potential for malignancy, thorough investigation is needed. Though rare, Müllerian papillomas are a benign cause of such symptoms. We report the case of a 2-year-old female who presented with acute onset of vaginal bleeding. She had another episode ...
Fanous Andrew A AA Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York; - - 2014
Dermoid cysts are rare lesions of the CNS with a slow rate of growth. For this reason, they are rarely discovered during infancy. Although benign, these cysts may be associated with devastating complications due to mass effect or meningitis. The discovery of completely asymptomatic dermoid cysts in the pediatric population ...
Akesson Karin K Department of Pediatrics, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden; Futurum - Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council and Jönköping Academy for improvement of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, - - 2014
To explore the relationship between certain clinical variables and metabolic HbA1c at diagnosis correlated to HbA1c at follow-up (p < 0.001). There was a clear gender difference regarding HbA1c. Girls had higher values both at diagnosis and at follow-up (p < 0.001). Girls also had lower BMI and pH at diagnosis than boys (p < 0.001). ...
Tanaka Masataka M Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine , Suita, Osaka , - - 2014
We present a 9-year-old girl with an endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve in the left interpeduncular cistern, who had a history of left ptosis. We suggest that a cyst localized at the exit of the oculomotor nerve from the midbrain associated with oculomotor palsy may suggest this rare entity.
Ferrero Sunny L SL University of Florida, Physiological Sciences, Gainesville, Florida, United States ; - - 2014
Deficits in bladder function are complications following spinal cord injury (SCI), severely affecting quality of life. Normal voiding function requires coordinated contraction of bladder and urethral sphincter muscles dependent upon intact lumbosacral reflex arcs and the integration of descending/ascending spinal pathways. We previously reported, in electrophysiological recordings, that segmental reflex ...
Maka Vinayak V - - 2014
Introduction Primary central nervous system (CNS) involvement of Hodgkin's lymphoma is very uncommon. There are only a few previous reports of Hodgkin's lymphoma of nodular lymphocyte predominant histology involving the CNS concurrently with systemic disease. Case presentation A 12-year-old boy with a history of painless left inguinal swelling and acute ...
Zhang Yaxia Y Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA, - - 2014
Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. ...
Grasso Giovanni - - 2014
Cavernous angiomas of the spinal cord are rare vascular malformations, which account for approximately 5 to 12 percent of spinal cord vascular lesions. They usually originate in the vertebrae, with occasional extension into the extradural space, and intramedullary cavernomas, even if reported in the literature, are very rare. We report ...
Casteleijn Niek F NF Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the - - 2014
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic systemic disorder, which is associated with cyst formation in several organs, renal function decline and a higher prevalence of intracranial aneurysms. We report a 52-year-old, otherwise healthy, man with ADPKD who had asymptomatic, bilateral, multiple cysts in the choroid plexus, which ...
Markoullis Kyriaki K From the Neuroscience Laboratory (KM, IS, NS, KAK) and Neurology Clinics (KAK), The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; and Wolfson Neuroscience Laboratories, Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London, United Kingdom (FR, - - 2014
Gap junctions are essential for glial cell function and have been increasingly implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Because increasing cortical abnormalities correlate with disease progression and cognitive dysfunction, we examined the expression of oligodendrocytic connexin32 (Cx32) and Cx47 and their astrocytic partners Cx30 and Cx43 in cortical lesions and normal-appearing ...
Maggi Pietro P National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Department of Neurosciences, Drug Research, and Child's Health, University of Florence, Florence, - - 2014
Objective: Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset. Methods: At ...
Kushner David S DS Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, PO Box 016960 (D-461), Miami, FL 33101, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients should be assessed for a co-occurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) on admission to a rehabilitation program. Incidence of a dual diagnosis may approach 60% with certain risk factors. Diagnosis of mild-moderate severity TBIs may be missed during acute care hospitalizations of SCI. Neuropsychological symptoms of ...
Miller Brandon A BA Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta; - - 2014
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are typically considered congenital lesions, although there is growing evidence for de novo formation of these lesions as well. The authors present the case of an AVM in the same cerebral cortex that had been affected by a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) more than 6 years ...
Song Qing-Yun QY Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR - - 2014
A case of prenatal sonographic diagnosis of fetus in fetu is described. Postnatal laparotomy was performed and the diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Newman Nancy - - 2014
This review emphasizes the differential diagnosis of visual loss for the neurologist. As an expert on the CNS, of which the eye is a part, the neurologist is expected to be able to evaluate a patient's report of visual loss and provide at least a cursory examination of the ocular ...
Lu Yi Y Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) guided brain biopsy provides a real time visual feedback of the lesion that is sampled during surgery. The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic yield and safety profiles of ioMRI needle brain biopsy with two traditional brain biopsy methods: frame-based and frameless stereotactic brain ...
Tao Chuan-Yuan - - 2014
Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are quite rare and may spread along the craniospinal axis or extraneurally. However, simultaneous cerebrospinal dissemination and distal extraneural metastasis has seldom been reported. A 51-year-old woman presented with recurrent anaplastic meningioma in the trigone of right lateral ventricle over a 1.5-year period. Suggested radiotherapy was refused ...
Shon Kilhwan K Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
To evaluate patterns of macular retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with neurologic lesions mimicking glaucoma. We evaluated four patients with neurological lesions who showed characteristic patterns of RGC loss, as determined by ganglion cell thickness (GCT) mapping. Case 1 was a ...
Krishnan Pramod P Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, - - 2014
There are only a few studies describing the etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in children. This study reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathologic profile of 239 children (≤18 years of age) who have undergone nerve biopsy in a tertiary care centre for neurologic disorders and analyzed the etiologic spectrum ...
Gluf Wayne M - - 2014
Context Hemangioblastomas of the spinal cord are uncommon vascular tumors. Patients commonly present with subtle neurologic findings that are thought to represent growth of the lesion over time. Hemorrhage of an intramedullary hemangioblastoma presenting as acute neurologic deficit is an extremely rare occurrence. Although the cervical spine is the most ...
Gagliardo Anna A Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Via Volta 6, 56126, Pisa, - - 2014
The importance of the vertebrate hippocampus in spatial cognition is often related to its broad role in memory. However, in birds, the hippocampus appears to be more specifically involved in spatial processes. The maturing of GPS-tracking technology has enabled a revolution in navigation research, including the expanded possibility of studying ...
Zhang Yongsheng Y Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Lesion analysis is a classic approach to study brain functions. Because brain function is a result of coherent activations of a collection of functionally related voxels, lesion-symptom relations are generally contributed by multiple voxels simultaneously. Although voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) has made substantial contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, ...
Furuya Kazuhide K Departments of Neurosurgery - - 2014
The authors report the case of an 11-year-old immunocompetent boy with primary CNS CD30-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) that was also positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1. His initial clinical manifestation was acute meningitis of unknown etiology. Findings on CT scanning were normal. Although he received empirical treatment against infection, his ...
Raimbault A A General Radiology - Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Bretonneau Hospital, 2, boulevard Tonnellé, 37044 Tours cedex, - - 2014
Detecting a new area of contrast-enhancement at MRI after irradiation of malignant brain tumor arises the problem of differential diagnosis between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis induced by the treatment. The challenge for imaging is to distinguish the two diagnoses given: the prognostic and therapeutic issues. Various criteria have been ...
Hasegawa Mitsuhiro M Department of Neurosurgery, Fujita Health University Hospital, 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukak, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan, - - 2014
Neuroepithelial cyst is considered an unusual differential diagnosis for cysts in the posterior fossa. Here, we present a paediatric case with such a pathology and review the pertinent literature. A 12-year old girl with headache, vertigo and disturbed gait was diagnosed with a cystic lesion in the fourth ventricle after ...
Li Da D Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, - - 2014
Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was ...
Walong Edwin - - 2014
DiGeorge syndrome may manifest as severe immunodeficiency diagnosed at infancy. The diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency is based on characteristic clinical features, immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, molecular diagnostics and functional lymphocyte evaluation. At autopsy, gross evaluation, conventional histology and immunohistochemistry may be useful for the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency. This case ...
Arnold Douglas L DL NeuroRx Research, Montreal, QC, Canada, - - 2014
In the Phase 3 DEFINE study, delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) 240 mg twice (BID) and three times daily (TID) significantly reduced the mean number of new or enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions and gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion activity at 2 years in patients (MRI cohort; n = 540) with relapsing-remitting MS. The analyses described here expand on ...
García Cabezas Sonia S Department of Radiation Oncology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain, - - 2014
The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) is a rarely encountered tumour that has been included as a new entity in the 2007 edition of the "World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System". We describe a rather unusual case of multifocal cerebellar RGNT, located in the spinal ...
Orguc Sebnem S Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, - - 2014
Spinal tumors consist of a large spectrum of various histologic entities. Multiple spinal lesions frequently represent known metastatic disease or lymphoproliferative disease. In solitary lesions primary neoplasms of the spine should be considered. Primary spinal tumors may arise from the spinal cord, the surrounding leptomeninges, or the extradural soft tissues ...
Lemercier Pierre P 1 Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe, Bulevar Sur, Valencia, Spain - - 2014
OBJECTIVE. Glioblastoma and solitary metastatic lesions can be difficult to differentiate with conventional MRI. The use of diffusion-weighted MRI to better characterize peritumoral edema has been explored for this purpose, but the results have been conflicting. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the gradient of ...
Togral Guray G Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, - - 2014
Schwannomas are benign encapsulated tumors of Schwan cells that grow slowly along the peripheral myelin nerve fibers. Sacral spinal schwannomas are very rare, and the incidence of sacral schwannoma ranges from 1-5% of all spinal schwannomas, and only around 50 cases are reported in the literature. There are 3 defined ...
Salunke Pravin P Department of Neurosurgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, - - 2014
Olfactory region schwannomas are rare, but when they occur, they commonly arise from the meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve and may present without involvement of the olfaction. A 24 year old lady presented with hemifacial paraesthesias. Radiology revealed a large olfactory region enhancing lesion. She was operated through a ...
Sawada Jun J Division of Neurology, Asahikawa Medical University, Japan - - 2014
A woman with Sjögren syndrome manifesting as aphasia with a left deep cerebral white matter lesion tested positive for anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody. Open biopsy of the lesion revealed active demyelination with edematous changes and the preservation of most axons, indicating a non-necrotic demyelinating lesion. Immunostaining for AQP4 was diffusely ...
Petscavage-Thomas Jonelle M JM From the Departments of Radiology (J.M.P., E.A.W., D.M.D.) and Pathology (L.E.C.), Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Dr, Room HG300, Hershey, PA 17033; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md (E.A.W., M.D.M.); Musculoskeletal Section, American Institute for Radiologic Pathology, Silver Spring, Md (C.I.L., M.D.M.); and Department of Radiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Md - - 2014
Myxoid soft-tissue lesions are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors with an abundance of extracellular mucoid material. These lesions may mimic cysts on radiologic evaluation because of the high water content, and histopathologic features also overlap. Benign myxoid lesions include intramuscular myxoma, synovial cyst, bursa, ganglion, and ...
Jagadesan Venkatesan V Department of Psychiatry, Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, - - 2014
Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an ...
Hardy Todd A TA Neuroimmunology Clinic, Department of Neurology, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; MS Australia Clinic, Brain and Mind Research Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Baló's concentric sclerosis is often regarded as a rare variant of multiple sclerosis. Patients with this disorder present with acute or subacute neurological deterioration, with MRI showing one or more concentrically multilayered ring-like lesions usually in the cerebral white matter. Historically, Baló's concentric sclerosis was thought fatal in all cases. ...
Rajput Disha D Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ESI PGIMSR MGM Hospital , Parel, Mumbai, India - - 2014
Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, ...
Sebaaly Amer - - 2014
Pediatric ganglion cyst of the hand is a rare entity. Its incidence is even lower in those arising from the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint. We herein report the first known case of a ganglion cyst of the first MP joint in a 14-year-old boy. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
Thomas Jonathan G JG Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Intradural spinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are extremely rare, with only 20 adult patients reported to our knowledge, and only four primary tumors arising from the cauda equina. A 49-year-old man presented with back pain, constipation, and lower extremity weakness and was found to have a large intradural ...
Mah Yee-Haur YH 1 Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, WC1N 3BG, - - 2014
Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a ...
Laast Victoria A VA Nonclinical Safety Assessment, Covance Pharmaceutical R&D (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China - - 2014
Cystic degeneration of the adrenal cortex is a common age-related finding in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat strain occurring more frequently in females. Compression of the adjacent cortex, a common hallmark of benign adrenal cortical tumors, often accompanies foci of cystic degeneration, creating a diagnostic challenge. Accurately differentiating these relatively common ...
Aslan Gaffar - - 2014
Schwannoma is a benign, solitary, and slowly progressive encapsulated tumor originating from the sheath of myelinated nerve fibers. Schwannoma of the salivary gland is a particularly rare form of an extracranial neurogenic tumor. Here, we present an unusual case of a schwannoma of the submandibular gland in a 19-year-old man. ...
Saettele Megan R MR Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA, - - 2014
Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (cPACNS) is a rare and poorly understood immune-mediated vasculitis that preferentially affects blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS). It must be distinguished from other disorders to initiate prompt treatment and improve the patient's prognosis. The presentation of cPACNS is highly ...
Demir Mustafa Kemal MK Department of Radiology, Bahçe┼čehir University School of Medicine, Goztepe Medical Park Hospital, Istanbul/ Turkey. - - 2014
There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous ...
Yang Shaofeng S From the Department of Neurosurgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, - - 2014
Intracranial arachnoid cysts are rare cystic-appearing intracranial masses. In rarer cases, the arachnoid cysts originate from brain parenchyma, which is defined as intracerebral arachnoid cyst. Here, we present a patient younger than 2 years with massive intracranial arachnoid cysts (one of which was intracerebral arachnoid cyst), whose clinical symptoms included ...
Cefalo Maria Giuseppina - - 2014
Congenital cystic eye is an exceedingly rare ocular malformative disease, originated from the failure in the invagination of the optic vesicle during the fetal period and it can be associated with other ocular and non-ocular abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological features. We report a case of ...
Xu Jindong J Department of Neurology, University of Florida, - - 2014
A 75-year-old woman was transferred from a local hospital because of rapid progression to coma preceded by lower back pain and recurrent falls. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis at the local hospital revealed increased protein with a slightly elevated white blood cell count. Our imaging studies revealed multiple punctate foci with nodular ...
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