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Results 301 - 350 of 368
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Pretlow Robert A - - 2011
An interactive, open-access website was launched as an overweight intervention for teens and preteens, and was generally unsuccessful. An understanding was needed of the reasons for weight loss failures versus successes in youth using the site. Bulletin board posts, chat room transcripts, and poll responses were prospectively gathered and qualitatively ...
Brooks Kathleen R - - 2011
In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered ...
Aizaki Hideo - - 2011
Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would ...
Conley J M - - 2011
Selenium effects in nature are mediated by the relatively large bioconcentration of aqueous Se by primary producers and smaller, yet critical, dietary transfers to primary consumers. These basal processes are then propagated through food webs to higher trophic levels. Here we quantified the movement of dissolved Se (as selenite) to ...
Lebersorger S - - 2011
Food waste has become an increasingly discussed topic in recent years. However, there is little authoritative data on food waste quantities and composition and systematic and comparable data are missing. Household waste composition analyses, which are often carried out routinely at regular or irregular intervals, provide an opportunity for obtaining ...
Tsui Martin Tsz Ki - - 2011
Stream ecosystems are widely contaminated by mercury (Hg) via atmospheric transport and deposition in watersheds. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is well-known to be the dominant ligand for aqueous methylmercury (MeHg), the bioaccumulative form of Hg in aquatic food webs. However, it is less clear if and how the concentration and ...
St Louis Vincent L - - 2011
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are being impacted by climate change and increased exposure to pollutants throughout their northern circumpolar range. In this study, we quantified concentrations of total mercury (THg) in the hair of polar bears from Canadian high- (southern Beaufort Sea, SBS) and sub- (western Hudson Bay, WHB) Arctic ...
Borgå Katrine - - 2011
Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the United Nations Environmental Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances using chemical properties such as octanol-water partitioning ...
Bastidas Navarro Marcela - - 2011
Mixotrophic nanoflagellates, that combine photosynthesis and phagotrophy, are important members of planktonic food webs in many aquatic environments depending on the balance among the different carbon and energy sources. We carried out field sampling and laboratory experiments with natural nanoflagellate assemblages from an Andean North-Patagonian lake exposing them or not ...
Carrasco Luis - - 2011
The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from ...
Loi Eva I H - - 2011
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, ...
Condon Robert H - - 2011
Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher ...
Drenner Ray W - - 2011
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg ...
De Laender F - - 2011
An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations ...
Dennisuk Lauren A - - 2011
Low-income, urban African-American youth are at higher risk for obesity and less likely to meet dietary recommendations than white, higher-income youth. Patterns of food purchasing among youth likely contribute to these disparities, but little published information is available. To investigate food purchasing behaviors of low-income, urban African-American youth. A total ...
Marcarelli Amy M - - 2011
Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework ...
Hall Carrie L - - 2011
Competition between scavengers and microorganisms for the nutrients within carrion is well documented. As a significant contributor to food web energetics, carrion serves not only as a food source for scavengers, but also as a reproductive resource for many insects. One example are the burying beetles of the Nicrophorus genus ...
Rochet M-J - - 2012
Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity ...
Massana Ramon - - 2011
The eukaryotic picoplankton is a heterogeneous collection of small protists 1 to 3 µm in size populating surface oceans at abundances of 10(2) to 10(4) cells ml(-1). Pigmented cells are important primary producers that are at the base of food webs. Colorless cells are mostly bacterivores and play key roles ...
Behera Shishir Kumar - - 2011
The current food waste leachate (FWL) disposal practice in Korea warrants urgent attention and necessary action to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy, which is both environmentally friendly and economically beneficial. In this study, methane production by FWL injection into a municipal solid waste landfill with landfill gas (LFG) ...
Yu Le-Huan - - 2011
As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in ...
Herrera H M - - 2011
We examined by parasitological tests (hemocultures and buffy coat) infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi in blood samples from Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous and domestic dogs. Besides, 25 T. cruzi isolates previously derived from feral pigs and small wild mammals were here characterized by miniexon gene and demonstrated to ...
Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S - - 2011
There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to ...
Solomon Christopher T - - 2011
Fluxes of organic matter across habitat boundaries are common in food webs. These fluxes may strongly influence community dynamics, depending on the extent to which they are used by consumers. Yet understanding of basal resource use by consumers is limited, because describing trophic pathways in complex food webs is difficult. ...
Rapaport Lisa G - - 2011
Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food ...
Rodewald Amanda D - - 2011
The extent to which resource subsidies affect food web dynamics is poorly understood in anthropogenic landscapes. To better understand how species interactions are influenced by subsidies, we studied breeding birds and nest predators along a rural-to-urban landscape gradient that varied in subsidies provided to generalist predators. We hypothesized that resource ...
Schmidt Stephanie N - - 2011
Anthropogenic activities have significantly altered freshwater fish communities. Extirpations of deepwater coregonines (Coregonus spp.), a diverse group of fish species, have left vast areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes devoid of a deepwater fish community. Currently, fisheries managers are considering restoring populations by reintroducing deepwater coregonines from Lake Superior and ...
Macfadyen Sarina - - 2011
Landscape management affects species interactions within a community, leading to alterations in the structure of networks. Modules are link-dense regions of the network where species interact more closely within the module than between modules of the network. Insufficient network resolution has meant that modules have proved difficult to identify, even ...
Marczak L B - - 2011
The shrub Iva frutescens, which occupies the terrestrial border of U.S. Atlantic Coast salt marshes, supports a food web that varies strongly across latitude. We tested whether latitudinal variation in plant quality (higher at high latitudes), consumption by omnivores (a crab, present only at low latitudes), consumption by mesopredators (ladybugs, ...
Konik Ewa A - - 2011
ABSTRACT In the European Union, the manufacturing of and the trade in herbs and dietary supplements are regulated by pharmaceutical and food laws. While dietary supplements are subject to food laws, provisions dealing with herbs are primarily to be found in pharmaceutical regulations. Having a basic understanding of the complexities ...
Ahn Yong-Yeol - - 2011
The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor ...
Kosa Katherine M - - 2011
The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of using Web-based and print materials for improving food safety practices to reduce the risk of foodborne illness among older adults. The study used a randomized controlled design, with participants assigned to an intervention group or control group. ...
Miyamoto Shin'ichi - - 2011
Megaesophagus resulting from achalasia is a rare but serious cause of acute airway obstruction. We treated achalasia in a 52-year-old woman with acute respiratory distress and stridor. Chest X-ray and endoscopy showed a marked dilatation of the cervical esophagus with a large amount of undigested food. Emergency suction of the ...
Bohan David A - - 2011
Networks of trophic links (food webs) are used to describe and understand mechanistic routes for translocation of energy (biomass) between species. However, a relatively low proportion of ecosystems have been studied using food web approaches due to difficulties in making observations on large numbers of species. In this paper we ...
Pires Mathias M - - 2011
Simple models inspired by processes shaping consumer-resource interactions have helped to establish the primary processes underlying the organization of food webs, networks of trophic interactions among species. Because other ecological interactions such as mutualisms between plants and their pollinators and seed dispersers are inherently based in consumer-resource relationships we hypothesize ...
Piwosz Kasia - - 2011
Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an ...
Anderson Tavis K - - 2011
Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity. This study uses quantitative metrics describing network structure to investigate the relationship between the topology of the host food web and parasite diversity. Food webs were constructed ...
Comeau André M - - 2011
Increasing global temperatures are having a profound impact in the Arctic, including the dramatic loss of multiyear sea ice in 2007 that has continued to the present. The majority of life in the Arctic is microbial and the consequences of climate-mediated changes on microbial marine food webs, which are responsible ...
Soureti Anastasia - - 2011
Forming specific health plans can help translate good intentions into action. Mobile text reminders can further enhance the effects of planning on behavior. Our aim was to explore the combined impact of a Web-based, fully automated planning tool and mobile text reminders on intention to change saturated fat intake, self-reported ...
Coll Marta - - 2011
Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been ...
McAuley Claire - - 2011
Food consumption advisories are often posted when industrial activities are expected to affect the quality and availability of traditional foods used by First Nations. We were recently involved in a project and asked to summarize details regarding the impacts of traditional food consumption advisories with respect to compliance, broader changes ...
Baiser Benjamin - - 2011
Ecological communities show great variation in species richness, composition and food web structure across similar and diverse ecosystems. Knowledge of how this biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning is important for understanding the maintenance of diversity and the potential effects of species losses and gains on ecosystems. While research often focuses ...
Gravel Dominique - - 2011
We are interested in understanding if metacommunity dynamics contribute to the persistence of complex spatial food webs subject to colonization-extinction dynamics. We study persistence as a measure of stability of communities within discrete patches, and ask how do species diversity, connectance, and topology influence it in spatially structured food webs. ...
Grami Boutheina - - 2011
This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear ...
Guariento Rafael D - - 2011
Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially ...
Smith M Alex - - 2011
The efficient and effective monitoring of individuals and populations is critically dependent on correct species identification. While this point may seem obvious, identifying the majority of the more than 100 natural enemies involved in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana--SBW) food web remains a non-trivial endeavor. Insect parasitoids play a major ...
Meule Adrian - - 2011
Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies ...
Brouard Olivier O LMGE, Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome et Environnement, Université Blaise Pascal, UMR CNRS 6023, Aubière, - - 2011
We assessed the occurrence of algae in five species of tank-bromeliads found in contrasting environmental sites in a Neotropical, primary rainforest around the Nouragues Research Station, French Guiana. The distributions of both algal abundance and biomass were examined based on physical parameters, the morphological characteristics of bromeliad species and with ...
Amakura Yoshiaki Y Division of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2011
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates toxicological effects by binding to agonists such as dioxins. We previously reported the presence of natural dioxin-like ligands in foods. To further characterise natural ligands with dioxin-like activity, we examined the influence of 50 kinds of commercial supplement ...
Chapman Eric G - - 2010
Molecular tools that characterize the structure of complex food webs and identify trophic connectedness in the field have become widely adopted in recent years. However, characterizing the intensity of predator-prey interactions can be prone to error. Maximizing collection success of small, fast-moving predators with vacuum suction samplers has the potential ...
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