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Results 301 - 350 of 378
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Matuszak Anja - - 2011
Macrophytes are at the base of many lake food webs providing essential food resources for animals at higher trophic level, such as invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. However, data regarding the spatiotemporal variation in isotopic composition of macrophytes are generally missing. We measured the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of ...
Frank Kenneth T - - 2011
Overfishing of large-bodied benthic fishes and their subsequent population collapses on the Scotian Shelf of Canada's east coast and elsewhere resulted in restructuring of entire food webs now dominated by planktivorous, forage fish species and macroinvertebrates. Despite the imposition of strict management measures in force since the early 1990s, the ...
Wimp Gina M - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) ABSTRACT: Despite nearly 100 years of edge studies, there has been little effort to document how edge responses 'cascade' to impact multi-trophic food webs. We examined changes within two, four-tiered food webs located on opposite sides of a habitat edge. Based on a 'bottom-up' resource-based model, we predicted ...
Smith Anthony D M - - 2011
Low-trophic level species account for more than 30% of global fisheries production and contribute substantially to global food security. We used a range of ecosystem models to explore the effects of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems, including marine mammals and seabirds, and on other commercially important species. In ...
Tinnemann Peter - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The socio-economic gap and its associated health inequalities are increasing in Germany. Actions against poverty include the redistribution of foods through charities. One project supported by the main German food redistribution charity is offering fresh produce including mostly fruits, vegetables and bread to people receiving welfare in Berlin, Germany. ...
Bernstad Anna - - 2011
A system with property-close source-separation of thirteen different solid household waste fractions in a residential area in southern Sweden, including the implementation of new systems for source-separation of food waste, waste electric and electronic equipment, hazardous waste and fat, oils and grease was monitored over a 2-year period. Continuous weighing ...
Rolfhus Kristofer R - - 2011
While mercury is a health hazard to humans and wildlife, the biogeochemical processes responsible for its bioaccumulation in pelagic food webs are still being examined. Previous studies have indicated both "bottom-up" control of piscivorous fish Hg content through methylmercury.(MeHg) supply, as well as site-specific trophic factors. We evaluated ten studies ...
Kim Joon-Woo - - 2011
Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) used in plastic products, building materials and personal hygiene products were analyzed in fishes collected from Manila Bay, the Philippines. BUVSs were detected at ngg(-1) level in all the fish samples, indicating their ubiquitous contamination in coastal waters. Among the targeted eight BUVSs, UV-328 was predominantly ...
Langiano Elisa - - 2012
AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n = 1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate ...
García-Segovia P - - 2011
The food frequency questionnaires are widely used in epidemiological researches like dietary assessment method. Traditionally, they have been self-administered in paper but the use of information and communication technologies has led to develop Internet and computerized food frequency questionnaires. It is the objective of this article to offer a global ...
Pretlow Robert A - - 2011
An interactive, open-access website was launched as an overweight intervention for teens and preteens, and was generally unsuccessful. An understanding was needed of the reasons for weight loss failures versus successes in youth using the site. Bulletin board posts, chat room transcripts, and poll responses were prospectively gathered and qualitatively ...
Brooks Kathleen R - - 2011
In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered ...
Aizaki Hideo - - 2011
Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would ...
Conley J M - - 2011
Selenium effects in nature are mediated by the relatively large bioconcentration of aqueous Se by primary producers and smaller, yet critical, dietary transfers to primary consumers. These basal processes are then propagated through food webs to higher trophic levels. Here we quantified the movement of dissolved Se (as selenite) to ...
Lebersorger S - - 2011
Food waste has become an increasingly discussed topic in recent years. However, there is little authoritative data on food waste quantities and composition and systematic and comparable data are missing. Household waste composition analyses, which are often carried out routinely at regular or irregular intervals, provide an opportunity for obtaining ...
Tsui Martin Tsz Ki - - 2011
Stream ecosystems are widely contaminated by mercury (Hg) via atmospheric transport and deposition in watersheds. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is well-known to be the dominant ligand for aqueous methylmercury (MeHg), the bioaccumulative form of Hg in aquatic food webs. However, it is less clear if and how the concentration and ...
St Louis Vincent L - - 2011
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are being impacted by climate change and increased exposure to pollutants throughout their northern circumpolar range. In this study, we quantified concentrations of total mercury (THg) in the hair of polar bears from Canadian high- (southern Beaufort Sea, SBS) and sub- (western Hudson Bay, WHB) Arctic ...
Borgå Katrine - - 2011
Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the United Nations Environmental Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances using chemical properties such as octanol-water partitioning ...
Bastidas Navarro Marcela - - 2011
Mixotrophic nanoflagellates, that combine photosynthesis and phagotrophy, are important members of planktonic food webs in many aquatic environments depending on the balance among the different carbon and energy sources. We carried out field sampling and laboratory experiments with natural nanoflagellate assemblages from an Andean North-Patagonian lake exposing them or not ...
Carrasco Luis - - 2011
The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from ...
Loi Eva I H - - 2011
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are known to biomagnify in temperate and Arctic food webs, but little is known about their behavior in subtropical systems. The environmental distribution and biomagnification of PFCs, extractable organic fluorine (EOF), and total fluorine were investigated in a subtropical food web. Surface water, sediment, phytoplankton, zooplankton, gastropods, ...
Condon Robert H - - 2011
Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher ...
Drenner Ray W - - 2011
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is found in aquatic food webs and is hazardous to humans. An emerging conceptual model predicts that the areas of the landscape that have the potential to contain food webs with elevated concentrations of Hg are those that receive high amounts of Hg ...
De Laender F - - 2011
An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations ...
Dennisuk Lauren A - - 2011
Low-income, urban African-American youth are at higher risk for obesity and less likely to meet dietary recommendations than white, higher-income youth. Patterns of food purchasing among youth likely contribute to these disparities, but little published information is available. To investigate food purchasing behaviors of low-income, urban African-American youth. A total ...
Marcarelli Amy M - - 2011
Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework ...
Hall Carrie L - - 2011
Competition between scavengers and microorganisms for the nutrients within carrion is well documented. As a significant contributor to food web energetics, carrion serves not only as a food source for scavengers, but also as a reproductive resource for many insects. One example are the burying beetles of the Nicrophorus genus ...
Rochet M-J - - 2012
Fishing impacts on marine food webs are predicted by simulations of a size spectrum community model. In this model, predation is determined by predator and prey size and abundance, and drives predator growth and prey mortality. Fishing amplifies temporal oscillations in the biomass flow. Oscillations appear at lower fishing intensity ...
Massana Ramon - - 2011
The eukaryotic picoplankton is a heterogeneous collection of small protists 1 to 3 µm in size populating surface oceans at abundances of 10(2) to 10(4) cells ml(-1). Pigmented cells are important primary producers that are at the base of food webs. Colorless cells are mostly bacterivores and play key roles ...
Behera Shishir Kumar - - 2011
The current food waste leachate (FWL) disposal practice in Korea warrants urgent attention and necessary action to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy, which is both environmentally friendly and economically beneficial. In this study, methane production by FWL injection into a municipal solid waste landfill with landfill gas (LFG) ...
Yu Le-Huan - - 2011
As an important group of brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) persist in the wildlife food webs. However, the biomagnification of PBDEs has not been adequately studied in the terrestrial food webs. In this study, a terrestrial food web composed of common kestrels, sparrows, rats, grasshoppers, and dragonflies in ...
Herrera H M - - 2011
We examined by parasitological tests (hemocultures and buffy coat) infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi in blood samples from Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous and domestic dogs. Besides, 25 T. cruzi isolates previously derived from feral pigs and small wild mammals were here characterized by miniexon gene and demonstrated to ...
Grigsby-Toussaint Diana S - - 2011
There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to ...
Solomon Christopher T - - 2011
Fluxes of organic matter across habitat boundaries are common in food webs. These fluxes may strongly influence community dynamics, depending on the extent to which they are used by consumers. Yet understanding of basal resource use by consumers is limited, because describing trophic pathways in complex food webs is difficult. ...
Rapaport Lisa G - - 2011
Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food ...
Rodewald Amanda D - - 2011
The extent to which resource subsidies affect food web dynamics is poorly understood in anthropogenic landscapes. To better understand how species interactions are influenced by subsidies, we studied breeding birds and nest predators along a rural-to-urban landscape gradient that varied in subsidies provided to generalist predators. We hypothesized that resource ...
Schmidt Stephanie N - - 2011
Anthropogenic activities have significantly altered freshwater fish communities. Extirpations of deepwater coregonines (Coregonus spp.), a diverse group of fish species, have left vast areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes devoid of a deepwater fish community. Currently, fisheries managers are considering restoring populations by reintroducing deepwater coregonines from Lake Superior and ...
Macfadyen Sarina - - 2011
Landscape management affects species interactions within a community, leading to alterations in the structure of networks. Modules are link-dense regions of the network where species interact more closely within the module than between modules of the network. Insufficient network resolution has meant that modules have proved difficult to identify, even ...
Marczak L B - - 2011
The shrub Iva frutescens, which occupies the terrestrial border of U.S. Atlantic Coast salt marshes, supports a food web that varies strongly across latitude. We tested whether latitudinal variation in plant quality (higher at high latitudes), consumption by omnivores (a crab, present only at low latitudes), consumption by mesopredators (ladybugs, ...
Konik Ewa A - - 2011
ABSTRACT In the European Union, the manufacturing of and the trade in herbs and dietary supplements are regulated by pharmaceutical and food laws. While dietary supplements are subject to food laws, provisions dealing with herbs are primarily to be found in pharmaceutical regulations. Having a basic understanding of the complexities ...
Ahn Yong-Yeol - - 2011
The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor ...
Kosa Katherine M - - 2011
The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of using Web-based and print materials for improving food safety practices to reduce the risk of foodborne illness among older adults. The study used a randomized controlled design, with participants assigned to an intervention group or control group. ...
Miyamoto Shin'ichi - - 2011
Megaesophagus resulting from achalasia is a rare but serious cause of acute airway obstruction. We treated achalasia in a 52-year-old woman with acute respiratory distress and stridor. Chest X-ray and endoscopy showed a marked dilatation of the cervical esophagus with a large amount of undigested food. Emergency suction of the ...
Bohan David A - - 2011
Networks of trophic links (food webs) are used to describe and understand mechanistic routes for translocation of energy (biomass) between species. However, a relatively low proportion of ecosystems have been studied using food web approaches due to difficulties in making observations on large numbers of species. In this paper we ...
Pires Mathias M - - 2011
Simple models inspired by processes shaping consumer-resource interactions have helped to establish the primary processes underlying the organization of food webs, networks of trophic interactions among species. Because other ecological interactions such as mutualisms between plants and their pollinators and seed dispersers are inherently based in consumer-resource relationships we hypothesize ...
Piwosz Kasia - - 2011
Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an ...
Anderson Tavis K - - 2011
Parasites significantly alter topological metrics describing food web structure, yet few studies have explored the relationship between food web topology and parasite diversity. This study uses quantitative metrics describing network structure to investigate the relationship between the topology of the host food web and parasite diversity. Food webs were constructed ...
Comeau André M - - 2011
Increasing global temperatures are having a profound impact in the Arctic, including the dramatic loss of multiyear sea ice in 2007 that has continued to the present. The majority of life in the Arctic is microbial and the consequences of climate-mediated changes on microbial marine food webs, which are responsible ...
Soureti Anastasia - - 2011
Forming specific health plans can help translate good intentions into action. Mobile text reminders can further enhance the effects of planning on behavior. Our aim was to explore the combined impact of a Web-based, fully automated planning tool and mobile text reminders on intention to change saturated fat intake, self-reported ...
Coll Marta - - 2011
Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been ...
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