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Results 201 - 250 of 367
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Olstad Dana Lee - - 2012
Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines ...
Dean Wesley R - - 2012
BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article ...
Daugherty Bethany L - - 2012
The development of a mobile telephone food record has the potential to ameliorate much of the burden associated with current methods of dietary assessment. When using the mobile telephone food record, respondents capture an image of their foods and beverages before and after eating. Methods of image analysis and volume ...
Nepusz Tamás - - 2012
The globalization of food supply necessitates continued advances in regulatory control measures to ensure that citizens enjoy safe and adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to extend previous reports on network analysis relating to food notifications by including an optional filter by type of notification and in cases ...
Aschemann-Witzel Jessica - - 2012
Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify ...
Cao Ying-Ting - - 2012
Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged ...
Ford James - - 2012
Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of ...
Gooze Rachel A - - 2012
Head Start is a federally funded early childhood education program that serves just over 900,000 US children, many of whom are at risk for obesity, are living in food insecure households, or both. The objective of this study was to describe Head Start practices related to assessing body mass index ...
Kim Jeeyon Janet - - 2012
Following the second Sahelian famine in 1984-1985, major investments were made to establish Early Warning Systems. These systems help to ensure that timely warnings and vulnerability information are available to decision makers to anticipate and avert food crises. In the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, alarming levels of ...
Kadoya Taku - - 2012
Quantitative description of food webs provides fundamental information for the understanding of population, community, and ecosystem dynamics. Recently, stable isotope mixing models have been widely used to quantify dietary proportions of different food resources to a focal consumer. Here we propose a novel mixing model (IsoWeb) that estimates diet proportions ...
Counil Émilie - - 2012
Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational ...
Mensink Fréderike - - 2012
The environment can exert a strong influence on people's food decisions. In order to facilitate students to make more healthy food choices and to develop healthy eating habits, it is important that the school food environment is healthy. The Healthy School Canteen programme of The Netherlands Nutrition Centre is an ...
Rothwell Joseph A - - 2012
Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only comprehensive web-based database on the content in foods of polyphenols, a major class of food bioactives that receive considerable attention due to their role in the prevention of diseases. Polyphenols are rarely absorbed and excreted in their ingested forms, but extensively metabolized in ...
Talley Theresa Sinicrope - - 2012
Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between ...
Gaudry Quentin - - 2012
The decision to feed is a complex task that requires making several small independent choices. Am I hungry? Where do I look for food? Is there something better I'd rather be doing? When should I stop? With all of these questions, it is no wonder that decisions about feeding depend ...
Gittelsohn Joel J Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Room W2041, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2012
Many small-store intervention trials have been conducted in the United States and other countries to improve the food environment and dietary behaviors associated with chronic disease risk. However, no systematic reviews of the methods and outcomes of these trials have been published. The objective of this study was to identify ...
Macdonald Alastair S AS School of Design, The Glasgow School of Art, UK. - - 2012
To date, a solution to the problem of hospital malnutrition in older patients in the UK has not been found through previous approaches using isolated interventions. To identify opportunities for, and to develop and prototype a new food and nutritional management system able to meet individual patients' daily requirements. Using ...
Ramadurai Vandhana V Department of Communication, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2012
This article indicates the need for health communication scholars to attend to the growing national problem of rural food insecurity. A review of the health communication literature reveals that food insecurity and rural health overall are research issues that have been overlooked. Using the Culture-Centered Approach ( Dutta, 2008 ), ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, ...
Miller Eric K EK Ecosystems Research Group, Ltd., PO Box 1227, Norwich, VT 05055, USA. - - 2012
Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in ...
Erinosho Temitope O - - 2012
Studies suggest that caregivers influence children's dietary behaviors through role modeling in child-care environments. However, few studies have examined role modeling by caregivers and child-care center policies. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between child-care center policies about staff eating practices and caregivers' eating behaviors during mealtime interactions with children. ...
Nichols Brent G BG Medical College of Wisconsin, United States. - - 2012
To evaluate parental knowledge regarding household food and non-food choking hazards. Cross Sectional Survey. Tertiary Care Children's Hospital. Parents presenting to a Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic with a child <4 years old. Parental survey asking which choking hazard foods (CHF) they allow their child to eat, previous instruction of CHF, knowledge ...
Syväranta J - - 2012
Evidence is provided from stable isotope analysis that aggregations of small ocean sunfish Mola mola (total length <1 m) feed broadly within coastal food webs and their classification as obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton requires revision.
Brambila-Macias Jose - - 2011
Unhealthy diets can lead to various diseases, which in turn can translate into a bigger burden for the state in the form of health services and lost production. Obesity alone has enormous costs and claims thousands of lives every year. Although diet quality in the European Union has improved across ...
Wellard Lyndal - - 2011
Nutrition information at the point-of-sale assists consumers to make informed fast food choices. This study provides a baseline measure of the availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in Australia, filling a gap in the literature. An in-store observational survey was conducted in 222 outlets of five ...
Baskerville Edward B - - 2011
Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This ...
Gellner Gabriel - - 2012
Abstract Despite attempts at reconciliation, the role of omnivory in food web stability remains unclear. Here we develop a novel community matrix approach that is analogous to the bifurcation method of modular food web theory to show that the stability of omnivorous food chains depends critically on interaction strength. We ...
Neve Melinda J - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. DESIGN: An ...
Honkanen Pirjo - - 2011
This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while ...
Schwabe Lars - - 2011
Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
1. Despite implications for top-down and bottom-up control and the stability of food webs, understanding the links between consumers and their diets remains difficult, particularly in remote tropical locations where food resources are usually abundant and variable and seasonal hydrology produces alternating patterns of connectivity and isolation. 2. We used a large ...
Stern Gary A - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have ...
Adams Douglas H - - 2011
Stable-isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on ...
Zhang Liang - - 2012
Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ...
Internicola Antonina I - - 2012
Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive ...
Eklöf Anna - - 2012
Explaining the structure of ecosystems is one of the great challenges of ecology. Simple models for food web structure aim at disentangling the complexity of ecological interaction networks and detect the main forces that are responsible for their shape. Trophic interactions are influenced by species traits, which in turn are ...
Visser André W - - 2012
We examine the effect of adaptive foraging behaviour within a tri-trophic food web with intra-guild predation. The intra-guild prey is allowed to adjust its foraging effort so as to achieve an optimal per capita growth rate in the face of realized feeding, predation risk and foraging cost. Adaptive fitness-seeking behaviour ...
Eckert Ester M - - 2011
The vernal successions of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and viruses in temperate lakes result in alternating dominance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the bacterial community. This may lead to asynchronous blooms of bacteria with different life strategies and affect the channelling of particular components of the dissolved organic matter ...
Hogsden Kristy L - - 2011
We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food ...
Pillai Pradeep - - 2011
Food webs are highly complex ecological networks, dynamic in both space and time. Metacommunity models are now at the core of unified theories of biodiversity, but to date they have not addressed food web complexity. Here we show that metacommunity theory can explain the emergence of species-rich food webs with ...
Aguirre-Macedo María Leopoldina - - 2011
In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). ...
Glanz Karen - - 2012
The Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) approach to eating uses the NRF Index, a nutrient profiling metric to help consumers choose foods that contain more vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients per kilocalorie. Research is needed to test the efficacy of dietary guidance using nutrient profiling systems to rank foods. To examine ...
Layman Craig A - - 2011
Stable isotope analysis has emerged as one of the primary means for examining the structure and dynamics of food webs, and numerous analytical approaches are now commonly used in the field. Techniques range from simple, qualitative inferences based on the isotopic niche, to Bayesian mixing models that can be used ...
Rundgren Shu-Nu Chang - - 2011
Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria ...
Emmerson Mark C - - 2011
[Formula: see text] [ The sap-feeding plant bug Lopidea media is a specialist on Solidago goldenrod plants. The study by Schmitz and Price compares the interaction strengths of this and several other sap-feeding and leaf- chewing insect herbivores in experimentally assembled food webs in a Connecticut USA meadow. Photo courtesy ...
Roach Katherine A - - 2011
Photoautotrophs are generally considered to be the base of food webs, and habitats that lack light, such as caves, frequently rely on surface-derived carbon. Here we show, based on analysis of gut contents and stable isotope ratios of tissues (13C:12C and 15N:14N), that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are directly consumed and assimilated ...
Hoekman David - - 2011
Aquatic insects are a common and important subsidy to terrestrial systems, yet little is known about how these inputs affect terrestrial food webs, especially around lakes. Mývatn, a lake in northern Iceland, has extraordinary midge (Chironomidae) emergences that result in large inputs of biomass and nutrients to terrestrial arthropod communities. ...
Upadhyay Atul A Department of Biochemistry and Applied Bioscience, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, - - 2012
Pineapple stem has been extensively used for bromelain extraction; however, almost no attention has been given to the waste obtained during bromelain manufacturing. In this regard, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitions against 15-lipoxygenase and advanced glycation end product formations by pineapple stem waste (PSW) obtained during bromelain manufacturing process were studied. ...
Spink John J Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Program (A-CAPPP), School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Mich. 48864, USA. - - 2011
Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create ...
Stephansen Diana A - - 2011
The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting of sediment, zooplankton, sprat, Atlantic salmon and anadromous brown trout. Lipid-normalized concentrations generally increased ...
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