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Results 201 - 250 of 350
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Ramadurai Vandhana V Department of Communication, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2012
This article indicates the need for health communication scholars to attend to the growing national problem of rural food insecurity. A review of the health communication literature reveals that food insecurity and rural health overall are research issues that have been overlooked. Using the Culture-Centered Approach ( Dutta, 2008 ), ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet-dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, ...
Miller Eric K EK Ecosystems Research Group, Ltd., PO Box 1227, Norwich, VT 05055, USA. - - 2012
Lake Champlain continues to experience mercury contamination resulting in public advisories to limit human consumption of top trophic level fish such as walleye. Prior research suggested that mercury levels in biota could be modified by differences in ecosystem productivity as well as mercury loadings. We investigated relationships between mercury in ...
Erinosho Temitope O - - 2012
Studies suggest that caregivers influence children's dietary behaviors through role modeling in child-care environments. However, few studies have examined role modeling by caregivers and child-care center policies. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between child-care center policies about staff eating practices and caregivers' eating behaviors during mealtime interactions with children. ...
Nichols Brent G BG Medical College of Wisconsin, United States. - - 2012
To evaluate parental knowledge regarding household food and non-food choking hazards. Cross Sectional Survey. Tertiary Care Children's Hospital. Parents presenting to a Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic with a child <4 years old. Parental survey asking which choking hazard foods (CHF) they allow their child to eat, previous instruction of CHF, knowledge ...
Syväranta J - - 2012
Evidence is provided from stable isotope analysis that aggregations of small ocean sunfish Mola mola (total length <1 m) feed broadly within coastal food webs and their classification as obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton requires revision.
Brambila-Macias Jose - - 2011
Unhealthy diets can lead to various diseases, which in turn can translate into a bigger burden for the state in the form of health services and lost production. Obesity alone has enormous costs and claims thousands of lives every year. Although diet quality in the European Union has improved across ...
Wellard Lyndal - - 2011
Nutrition information at the point-of-sale assists consumers to make informed fast food choices. This study provides a baseline measure of the availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in Australia, filling a gap in the literature. An in-store observational survey was conducted in 222 outlets of five ...
Baskerville Edward B - - 2011
Food webs, networks of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, provide fundamental insights into mechanisms that determine ecosystem stability and persistence. A standard approach in food-web analysis, and network analysis in general, has been to identify compartments, or modules, defined by many links within compartments and few links between them. This ...
Gellner Gabriel - - 2012
Abstract Despite attempts at reconciliation, the role of omnivory in food web stability remains unclear. Here we develop a novel community matrix approach that is analogous to the bifurcation method of modular food web theory to show that the stability of omnivorous food chains depends critically on interaction strength. We ...
Neve Melinda J - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. DESIGN: An ...
Honkanen Pirjo - - 2011
This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while ...
Schwabe Lars - - 2011
Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
1. Despite implications for top-down and bottom-up control and the stability of food webs, understanding the links between consumers and their diets remains difficult, particularly in remote tropical locations where food resources are usually abundant and variable and seasonal hydrology produces alternating patterns of connectivity and isolation. 2. We used a large ...
Stern Gary A - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have ...
Adams Douglas H - - 2011
Stable-isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on ...
Zhang Liang - - 2012
Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ...
Internicola Antonina I - - 2012
Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive ...
Eklöf Anna - - 2012
Explaining the structure of ecosystems is one of the great challenges of ecology. Simple models for food web structure aim at disentangling the complexity of ecological interaction networks and detect the main forces that are responsible for their shape. Trophic interactions are influenced by species traits, which in turn are ...
Visser André W - - 2012
We examine the effect of adaptive foraging behaviour within a tri-trophic food web with intra-guild predation. The intra-guild prey is allowed to adjust its foraging effort so as to achieve an optimal per capita growth rate in the face of realized feeding, predation risk and foraging cost. Adaptive fitness-seeking behaviour ...
Eckert Ester M - - 2011
The vernal successions of phytoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and viruses in temperate lakes result in alternating dominance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the bacterial community. This may lead to asynchronous blooms of bacteria with different life strategies and affect the channelling of particular components of the dissolved organic matter ...
Hogsden Kristy L - - 2011
We compared food web structure in 20 streams with either anthropogenic or natural sources of acidity and metals or circumneutral water chemistry in New Zealand. Community and diet analysis indicated that mining streams receiving anthropogenic inputs of acidic and metal-rich drainage had much simpler food webs (fewer species, shorter food ...
Pillai Pradeep - - 2011
Food webs are highly complex ecological networks, dynamic in both space and time. Metacommunity models are now at the core of unified theories of biodiversity, but to date they have not addressed food web complexity. Here we show that metacommunity theory can explain the emergence of species-rich food webs with ...
Aguirre-Macedo María Leopoldina - - 2011
In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). ...
Glanz Karen - - 2012
The Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) approach to eating uses the NRF Index, a nutrient profiling metric to help consumers choose foods that contain more vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients per kilocalorie. Research is needed to test the efficacy of dietary guidance using nutrient profiling systems to rank foods. To examine ...
Layman Craig A - - 2011
Stable isotope analysis has emerged as one of the primary means for examining the structure and dynamics of food webs, and numerous analytical approaches are now commonly used in the field. Techniques range from simple, qualitative inferences based on the isotopic niche, to Bayesian mixing models that can be used ...
Rundgren Shu-Nu Chang - - 2011
Based upon the goal of scientific literacy and the importance of socioscientific issues (SSIs), the purpose of this study was to investigate the Taiwanese public's awareness of, inclinations to buy/use, and their attitudes towards three attributes of SSIs including genetically modified food (GM food), organic food, and DDT and malaria ...
Emmerson Mark C - - 2011
[Formula: see text] [ The sap-feeding plant bug Lopidea media is a specialist on Solidago goldenrod plants. The study by Schmitz and Price compares the interaction strengths of this and several other sap-feeding and leaf- chewing insect herbivores in experimentally assembled food webs in a Connecticut USA meadow. Photo courtesy ...
Roach Katherine A - - 2011
Photoautotrophs are generally considered to be the base of food webs, and habitats that lack light, such as caves, frequently rely on surface-derived carbon. Here we show, based on analysis of gut contents and stable isotope ratios of tissues (13C:12C and 15N:14N), that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are directly consumed and assimilated ...
Hoekman David - - 2011
Aquatic insects are a common and important subsidy to terrestrial systems, yet little is known about how these inputs affect terrestrial food webs, especially around lakes. Mývatn, a lake in northern Iceland, has extraordinary midge (Chironomidae) emergences that result in large inputs of biomass and nutrients to terrestrial arthropod communities. ...
Upadhyay Atul - - 2012
Pineapple stem has been extensively used for bromelain extraction; however, almost no attention has been given to the waste obtained during bromelain manufacturing. In this regard, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitions against 15-lipoxygenase and advanced glycation end product formations by pineapple stem waste (PSW) obtained during bromelain manufacturing process were studied. ...
Spink John - - 2011
Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create ...
Stephansen Diana A - - 2011
The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting of sediment, zooplankton, sprat, Atlantic salmon and anadromous brown trout. Lipid-normalized concentrations generally increased ...
Altintas Hande - - 2011
Currently, filling, smoothing, or recontouring the face through the use of injectable fillers is one of the most popular forms of cosmetic surgery. Because these materials promise a more youthful appearance without anesthesia in a noninvasive way, various fillers have been used widely in different parts of the world. However, ...
Arab Lenore - - 2011
To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared ...
Saldanha Leila G - - 2012
Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing their ingredients in such databases. Differing approaches to classifying these products ...
Liu Bian - - 2012
We examined Hg biogeochemistry in Baihua Reservoir, a system affected by industrial wastewater containing mercury (Hg). As expected, we found high levels of total Hg (THg, 664-7421 ng g(-1)) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, 3-21 ng g(-1)) in the surface sediments (0-10 cm). In the water column, both THg and MMHg showed ...
Hightower Jane M - - 2011
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
High levels of hydrological connectivity during seasonal flooding provide significant opportunities for movements of fish between rivers and their floodplains, estuaries and the sea, possibly mediating food web subsidies among habitats. To determine the degree of utilisation of food sources from different habitats in a tropical river with a short ...
Scully Maree - - 2011
The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast ...
Bartels Pia - - 2011
Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy are ubiquitous. Aquatic ecosystems typically receive material that also includes organic matter from the surrounding catchment. Terrestrial-derived (allochthonous) organic matter can enter aquatic ecosystems in dissolved or particulate form. Several studies have highlighted the importance of dissolved organic carbon to aquatic consumers, but less ...
Deribe Ermias - - 2011
The concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in four fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia, representing 2-3 levels in the food chain of the lake. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorpyrifos were identified, with DDTs as the most predominant pesticide, with concentration ranging from ...
Rotheram-Borus Mary Jane MJ Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, - - 2011
The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were ...
Nfon Erick - - 2011
A dynamic combined fate and food web model was developed to estimate the food web transfer of chemicals in small aquatic ecosystems (i.e. ponds). A novel feature of the modeling approach is that aquatic macrophytes (submerged aquatic vegetation) were included in the fate model and were also a food item ...
Poulsen Anita H - - 2011
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been frequently measured throughout the Southern Ocean food web for which little information is available to assess the potential risks of POP exposure. The current study evaluated the toxicological sensitivity of a key Southern Ocean species, Antarctic krill, to aqueous exposure of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE). ...
Davenport Jon M - - 2011
1. Many taxa can be found in food webs that differ in trophic complexity, but it is unclear how trophic complexity affects the performance of particular taxa. In pond food webs, larvae of the salamander Ambystoma opacum occupy the intermediate predator trophic position in a partial intraguild predation (IGP) food web ...
Rooney Neil N School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. - - 2012
Given the unprecedented rate of species extinctions facing the planet, understanding the causes and consequences of species diversity in ecosystems is of paramount importance. Ecologists have investigated both the influence of environmental variables on species diversity and the influence of species diversity on ecosystem function and stability. These investigations have ...
Labonté M-È - - 2011
Background/Objectives:To assess the validity and the reproducibility of a newly developed web-based, self-administered food frequency questionnaire (web-FFQ).Subjects/Methods:A total of 74 healthy subjects (34 men and 40 women) from the Québec City metropolitan area were asked to complete, in random order, the web-FFQ, a validated interviewer-administered FFQ (IA-FFQ) and a 3-day ...
Viganò Luigi - - 2011
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), the primary constituent of a widely used flame retardant formulation, is present at relatively high levels in sediments and macroinvertebrates of the River Po. Since it was demonstrated that BDE-209 can be biotransformed to smaller and more toxic polybrominated dipheyl ethers (PBDEs), the main objective of this ...
Weiss Bernard - - 2012
The proposition that synthetic food colors can induce adverse behavioral effects in children was first enunciated in 1975 by Feingold [Why Your Child Is Hyperactive. New York:Random House (1975)], who asserted that elevated sensitivity to food additives underlies the signs of hyperactivity observed in some children. Although the evidence suggested ...
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