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Brind'amour Anik A IFREMER, Fisheries Ecology and Modelling Department, Ifremer, Nantes, - - 2013
Recently revisited, the concept of niche ecology has lead to the formalisation of functional and trophic niches using stable isotope ratios. Isotopic diversity indices (IDI) derived from a set of measures assessing the dispersion/distribution of points in the δ-space were recently suggested and increasingly used in the literature. However, three ...
Doi Hideyuki H Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University , Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai , Japan ; Institute for Sustainable Sciences and Development, Hiroshima University , Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima , - - 2013
Resources and organisms in food webs are distributed patchily. The spatial structure of food webs is important and critical to understanding their overall structure. However, there is little available information about the small-scale spatial structure of food webs. We investigated the spatial structure of food webs in a lake ecosystem ...
Nwaru Bright I BI School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. - - 2013
Emerging evidence questions current recommendations on the timing of infant feeding for the prevention of childhood allergies. The evidence for asthma is inconclusive. We sought to investigate the associations between the duration of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of complementary foods and the development of asthma and allergies by the ...
Gumiero Matteo - - 2013
A high density polyethylene (HDPE)/calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) film containing TiO(2) was prepared via blown film extrusion process. The photocatalytic properties of this film were evaluated by voltammetric, UV-Vis spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic measurements following the decomposition rate of suitably selected molecular probes, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and methylene blue. The ...
Belhoucine Latifa - - 2012
Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood ...
Lurgi Miguel - - 2012
The current distribution of climatic conditions will be rearranged on the globe. To survive, species will have to keep pace with climates as they move. Mountains are among the most affected regions owing to both climate and land-use change. Here, we explore the effects of climate change in the vertebrate ...
Harrison T D - - 2012
A comparative analysis of the fish trophic structure was undertaken on some 190 South African estuaries spanning three zoogeographic regions and incorporating three broad estuarine types. Fish biomass trophic guild compositions and biomass trophic spectrum profiles were analysed using multivariate statistical techniques and included both inter-regional (zoogeographic) and intra-regional (estuarine ...
Tunney Tyler D - - 2012
Macroscopic ecosystem properties, such as major material pathways and community biomass structure, underlie the ecosystem services on which humans rely. While ecologists have long sought to identify the determinants of the trophic height of food webs (food chain length), it is somewhat surprising how little research effort is invested in ...
Amundsen Per-Arne - - 2012
Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. ...
Thompson Ross M RM Australian Centre for Biodiversity and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia. - - 2012
The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these ...
Au Patrick - - 2012
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration applies regulatory flexibility to balance benefits and risks to subjects in cell-therapy clinical trials.
Wimp Gina M - - 2012
Multichannel omnivory by generalist predators, especially the use of both grazing and epigeic prey, has the potential to increase predator abundance and decrease herbivore populations. However, predator use of the epigeic web (soil surface detritus/microbe/algae consumers) varies considerably for reasons that are poorly understood. We therefore used a stable isotope ...
Mishra Suman - - 2012
Starchy foods of differing structure, including bakery products, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pulses were digested in vitro. Bakery products and processed breakfast cereals with little resilient structure yielded large amounts of rapidly available carbohydrate (RAC), less slowly digested starch (SDS) and little inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) (70:22:8%). Partially processed grains, ...
Eswara Amruta R AR Society for Energy, Environment and Development, Plot 81, Road 7, Jubilee Hills Society, Hyderabad, 500 033 - - 2013
Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used ...
Robinson Eric - - 2012
Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of ...
DiPatrizio Nicholas V - - 2012
The 'thrifty gene hypothesis' posits that evolution preferentially selects physiological mechanisms that optimize energy storage to increase survival under alternating conditions of abundance and scarcity of food. Recent experiments suggest that endocannabinoids - a class of lipid-derived mediators that activate cannabinoid receptors in many cells of the body - are ...
Maikhuri Rakesh K - - 2012
Nutritional and energy value of an underutilized wild edible Viburnum mullaha was determined. Vitamin analysis confirmed that the fruit contains high amounts of vitamin C (122.27 mg/100 g), vitamin B2 (0.14 mg/g), and vitamin E (13.47 mg/g). Macronutrient profile revealed that Viburnum mullaha is a rich source of carbohydrates (18.4 ...
Chapman Kathryn - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Food cost is an important factor influencing the consumption of nutritious foods and subsequent chronic disease risk. The present study compared the cost of branded food products with their generic equivalents across a range of food categories. SETTING: The survey was conducted within two major supermarket chains across six ...
Appelhans Bradley M BM Department of Preventive Medicine and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. - - 2012
The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. To investigate relationships ...
Watson Wendy L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate nutrition literacy among adult grocery buyers regarding energy-related labelling terms on food packaging. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys to determine shoppers' understanding of energy terms ('energy', 'calories' and 'kilojoules') and how energy terms affect perceptions of healthiness and intentions to purchase breakfast cereals, muesli bars and ...
Bevelander Kirsten E - - 2012
The present experimental study was the first to investigate the impact of a remote (non-existent) peer on children's food choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense food products. In a computer task, children (n 316; 50·3 % boys; mean age 7·13 (sd 0·75) years) were asked to choose between pictures of ...
Kac Gilberto - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether household food insecurity (HFI) is associated with a higher prevalence of excessive weight (EW) in a large random sample of Brazilian female adolescents. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional study. EW was the outcome variable (BMI ≥ 85th percentile of WHO reference for adolescents aged 15-18 years and ...
Corrigan Mandy - - 2012
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a common and life-threatening infectious complication of home parenteral nutrition (PN). CRBSI is associated with hospital admissions, morbidity, mortality, loss of venous access, and healthcare costs. Ethanol has bactericidal and fungicidal properties, making it an ideal locking solution for preventing CRBSI. The authors report 6 ...
Hartmann Andrea Sabrina - - 2012
To compare laboratory food intake, negative mood and trait impulsivity and their association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loss of control (LOC) eating in youth (middle childhood to early adolescence). Ninety 10-14year old youths with symptoms of ADHD, symptoms of LOC eating, and control participants took part in ...
Liang Guo - - 2012
Background: With recent improvements in living standards, people have been giving more consideration to the healthcare effects of foods. In this respect, allicin, which is the most important organosulfur compound in garlic and plays a key role in physiological function, has been receiving much attention. Results: Allicin obtained from garlic ...
Kopf-Bolanz Katrin A - - 2012
The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an ...
Garrec David A - - 2012
We report on how edible nano-emulsions can be designed and produced in order to remain stable on storage. Edible nano-emulsions can potentially be used to target and control delivery of micronutrients to the human gastrointestinal tract. A class of microstructures that offers enormous potential in foods is duplex (or double) ...
Tada Rui - - 2012
β-glucan prepared from mushrooms is used in both modern medicine and traditional oriental therapies because of its potent immunomodulatory properties. The effects of β-glucan depend on its structure and origin. Therefore, elucidating the structure and source of β-glucan is crucial for its use in food therapy and medicine. In this ...
Heidary Fatemeh - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. e3705 in vol. 3.].
Boaventura B C B - - 2012
Objective: To investigate the relationship between antioxidant biomarkers and food intake in elderly women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Recreation Center for the Elderly in the city of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Participants: 73 elderly women with an average age of 71 years, 93% caucasian, average body weight 68.7 ± 13.1 ...
Jeong Eun-Young - - 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the acaricidal activity of Periploca sepium oil and its active component against Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Based on its 50% lethal dose (LD(50) ) value, P. sepium oil (8.45 μg/cm(2)) was highly active against T. putrescentiae. The active constituent of P. sepium was isolated ...
Esmaeili Akbar - - 2012
Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives ...
Ozersky Ted - - 2012
We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis ...
van der Meulen Bernd M J - - 2012
Structural precaution refers to legal requirements by which food products (whether as ingredients, additives, genetically modified or innovative in some other form) are only admitted to the market after authorization by public authorities and till then are presumed unsafe. In the EU such authorization is granted after provision of conclusive ...
Tundis Rosa R Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende (CS), - - 2012
The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ...
Aliani Michel M Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. - - 2012
Bakery products containing flaxseed, a rich source of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), may provide health benefits. However, the effect of adding flaxseed, especially in the high amounts required for use as the food supplement in clinical trials (23% by weight of the raw ingredients), may affect the flavor characteristics and ...
Quinn Kevin - - 2011
ELND006 is a novel gamma secretase inhibitor previously under investigation for the oral treatment of Alzheimer's disease. ELND006 shows poor solubility and has moderate to high permeability, suggesting it is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class II compound. The poor absolute oral bioavailability of the compound in fasted dogs (F ∼11%) ...
Williams Jerome D - - 2011
Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead ...
Schmitz A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: While American Society of Anesthesiologists and European Society of Anaesthesiology guidelines recommend 6 h pre-anaesthetic fasting for food and non-clear fluids in children, some institutions allow shorter fasting times of 4 h. Aim of this pilot study was to compare weight-indexed residual gastric contents volumes (GCV(w) ) after 4 vs. 6 h ...
Song Ivy - - 2012
Healthy subjects received dolutegravir at 50 mg in a single-dose crossover study while they were in the fasted state or with low-, moderate-, or high-fat meals. Food increased dolutegravir exposure and reduced the rate of absorption. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) increased by ...
Cai Shengbao - - 2011
The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol and water subfraction, and compare ...
Ericson Jogsten I - - 2012
A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all ...
Rodríguez Beatriz A BA Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, - - 2012
A total of 14 Mexican honeys were screened for quality parameters including color, moisture, proline, and acidity. Antioxidant properties of complete honey and its methanolic extracts were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of complete honeys against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ...
Molin M - - 2011
Seafood is the predominant food source of several organoarsenic compounds. Some seafood species, like crustaceans and seaweed, also contain inorganic arsenic (iAs), a well-known toxicant. It is unclear whether human biotransformation of ingested organoarsenicals from seafood result in formation of arsenicals of health concern. The present controlled dietary study examined ...
Kim Sook-Bae - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to define a one-portion size of food frequently consumed by the Koreans aged 65 years or over. From the original 8,631 people who took part in the Forth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2) 2008, we analyzed the data on 1,458 ...
Lucantoni Leonardo - - 2011
Control of the mosquito vector population is the most effective strategy currently available for the prevention of dengue fever and the containment of outbreaks. Photo-activated oxidants may represent promising tools for developing effective, safe and ecofriendly novel larvicides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the ...
Ksouri Riadh - - 2011
Salt-tolerant plants grow in a wide variety of saline habitats, from coastal regions, salt marshes and mudflats to inland deserts, salt flats and steppes. Halophytes living in these extreme environments have to deal with frequent changes in salinity level. This can be done by developing adaptive responses including the synthesis ...
Duarte Sofia C - - 2011
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an important mycotoxin with potential to reach the human food chain through carry-over of contaminated, mostly cereal-based, feed into animal-derived products. Certain population groups, such as infants and children, are intensive and relatively restricted consumers of some animal-derived products, particularly milk and other dairy products, which ...
Najafian L - - 2011
Fishes are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the existence of peptides with biological activities and proteins derived from foods that might have beneficial effects for humans. Antioxidant and antimicrobial peptides isolated from fish sources may be used as functional ...
Botting Jennifer L - - 2011
Whilst the ability to follow human gaze has been demonstrated in monkeys and apes, there is little evidence that prosimians share this ability. The current study used a food choice paradigm to assess whether captive brown (Eulemur fulvus) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) use human gaze direction as a cue ...
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