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Kemps Eva - - 2014
Objective: This paper reports two experiments designed to investigate and modify biased attentional processing of food cues in obesity. Experiment 1: Experiment 1 used a dot probe task to show a food-related attentional bias in 58 obese women, relative to a comparison sample of normal weight controls. Experiment 2: Experiment ...
Adrian Holliday H School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham. B15 2TT. Electronic address: - - 2014
Subjective appetite is commonly measured using an abstract visual analogue scale (VAS) technique, that provides no direct information about desired portion size or food choice, which are both key components of eating behaviour. The purpose of the current investigation was to develop and validate a user-friendly tool - the Visual ...
- - 2014
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that adopts, without change, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Establishment, Maintenance, and Availability of Records: Amendment to Record Availability Requirements.'' This final rule affirms the IFR's change to FDA's records access as required by the FDA Food Safety ...
Cone Jackson J JJ Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612 and Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois - - 2014
Brief, high-concentration (phasic) spikes in nucleus accumbens dopamine critically participate in aspects of food reward. Although physiological state (e.g., hunger, satiety) and associated hormones are known to affect dopamine tone in general, whether they modulate food-evoked, phasic dopamine specifically is unknown. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake, behaving ...
Furlong Teri M TM Brain and Mind Research Institute and School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2014
Access to highly palatable and calorically dense foods contributes to increasing rates of obesity worldwide. Some have made the controversial argument that consumption of such foods can lead to "food addiction," yet little is known about how long-term access to highly palatable foods might alter goal-directed learning and decision making. ...
Eiler William Ja WJ 2nd Departments of Neurology (WJAE, MD, KRC, and DAK), Radiology (MD and DAK), Medicine (RVC) (Endocrinology), and Psychiatry (DAK), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; the Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (CLHA and RDM); and the Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN - - 2014
Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese ...
Zentall Thomas R TR University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, - - 2014
When humans are asked to judge the value of a set of objects of excellent quality, they often give this set higher value than those same objects with the addition of some of lesser quality. This is an example of the affect heuristic, often referred to as the less-is-more effect. ...
Kirk Chelsea R CR Department of Psychology, Western University - - 2014
In 2 experiments, rats were trained to press a centrally located lever that delivered immediate food reinforcement and turned on a light signal that indicated the location of a further food reward. After rats learned to press the lever and use the light cue to find food, immediate reinforcement for ...
Culqui Dante R DR Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, - - 2014
The aim was to describe an outbreak of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in health care professionals. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 17 clients who dined at the same table in a restaurant in Barcelona in July 2012. The frequency, timing and severity of symptoms were analyzed, as ...
van Kleef Ellen E a Wageningen University , Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group , Hollandseweg 1, Wageningen , the - - 2014
Abstract In deciding how much to eat, people are influenced by environmental cues. The unit size of food (i.e. the number of units in which a given amount of food is divided) provides such a cue. Previous research showed that given equal caloric and volumetric content, smaller units of food ...
Short McKendree M G MG Department of Agricultural Economics, Kansas State University, Manhattan - - 2014
In order to address escalating concerns about livestock animal care and welfare it is necessary to better understand the factors that may predispose people to develop such concerns. It has been hypothesized that experiences with, beliefs about and emotional connections to animals may influence level of perceived obligation toward and ...
Paquereau Julie J Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, University Medical Center and University of Lille, Lille, - - 2014
Malnutrition is common in the first few months after stroke and contributes to a poor overall outcome. We analyzed long-term weight changes and their predictive factors. A total of 71 first-ever stroke patients were included in the study and examined (1) their weight on admission to the acute stroke unit ...
Yang Hui-Di HD State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Physiology, Basic Medical College, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehaote 010110, - - 2014
This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyic acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian ...
Wright Genevieve Spanjer GS Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals foraging in the dark are engaged simultaneously in prey pursuit, collision avoidance, and interactions with conspecifics, making efficient nonvisual communication essential. A variety of birds and mammals emit food-associated calls that inform, attract, or repel conspecifics (e.g., [1]). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are insectivorous aerial hawkers that may ...
Astur Robert S RS Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut. Electronic address: - - 2014
To extend a standard paradigm of conditioning in nonhumans to humans, we created a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference task, with real-life food rewards. Undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of 2 visually distinct rooms. On Day 1, participants underwent 6 pairing sessions in which they were ...
Castro Daniel C DC Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan - - 2014
A specialized cubic-millimeter hotspot in the rostrodorsal quadrant of medial shell in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats may mediate opioid enhancement of gustatory hedonic impact or "liking". Here, we selectively stimulated the three major subtypes of opioid receptors via agonist microinjections [mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE), or kappa (U50488H)] and constructed ...
Feuerbacher Erica N EN University of - - 2014
Previous research has indicated both petting (McIntire & Colley, 1967) and food (Feuerbacher & Wynne, 2012) have reinforcing effects on dog behavior and support social behavior towards humans (food: Elliot & King, 1960; social interaction: Brodbeck, 1954). Which type of interaction dogs prefer and which might produce the most social ...
Craig D D Chairman, Veterinary Residues Committee,c/o Residues Surveillance Unit, Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 - - 2014
In the first article in an occasional series for Veterinary Record, Dorothy Craig introduces the work of the Veterinary Residues Committee, the independent scientific advisory committee that advises government on the testing of foods from animals to look for residues of veterinary medicines and banned substances.
Cerro Luis L Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense ? UFF, Niterói, RJ, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of infection by T. gondii in cats, by examining serum and fecal samples from animals attended at veterinary clinics in the Metropolitan Region of Lima, Peru. We collected and analyzed 154 cat serum samples and 50 fecal samples, regardless of ...
Svaldi Jennifer J Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, - - 2014
To investigate behavioral inhibition in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) compared with overweight and obese individuals without BED (No-BED). Participants with BED (n = 31) and the weight-matched No-BED group (n = 29) completed an inhibitory control task (stop-signal task, SST) with food and neutral stimuli. The BED group ...
Gold Abby A University of Minnesota Extension, North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo, ND. Electronic address: - - 2014
To evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety map as an educational method with English language learners. English language learner community members (n = 73) were assigned randomly to participate in 1 of 3 experimental conditions: food safety map, cooking class, and control. Participants in the food safety map and cooking class ...
Scully P P The Children's Ark, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, - - 2014
Increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children in developed countries poses a substantial threat to long-term health. One well-described factor is the amount of time spent watching television, with exposure to food advertising a known influence on food preferences and consumption patterns. Following recent formulation of new rules regarding advertising ...
Magalhães Paula P University of Otago, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Persistence in a losing course of action due to prior investments of time, known as the sunk time effect, has seldom been studied in nonhuman animals. On every trial in the present study, pigeons were required to choose between two response keys. Responses on one key produced food after a ...
Santana Gisélia G Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE, - - 2014
The main goals of this study were to classify dams according to the level of voluntary physical activity before breeding, during pregnancy/lactation and to evaluate the effects on growth trajectory and reflex ontogenesis of offspring. Voluntary physical activity was ranked by travelled distance, time and daily estimated calorie burned. Thirty-five ...
Privitera Gregory J GJ St. Bonaventure University. Electronic address: - - 2014
The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity ...
Aizawa Kiyoharu K Department of Information and Communication Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan - - 2014
The health care field is focusing considerable attention on dietary control, which requires that individuals record what they eat. We have developed a novel smartphone application called FoodLog, a multimedia food recording tool that allows users to take photos of their meals and to produce textual food records. Unlike conventional ...
Fiegel Alexandra A Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, - - 2014
This study aimed to determine whether background music genre can alter food perception and acceptance, but also to determine how the effect of background music can vary as a function of type of food (emotional versus non-emotional foods) and source of music performer (single versus multiple performers). The music piece ...
Soria-Gómez Edgar E 1] INSERM, U862 NeuroCentre Magendie, Endocannabinoids and Neuroadaptation, Bordeaux, France. [2] University of Bordeaux, NeuroCentre Magendie U862, Bordeaux, France. - - 2014
Hunger arouses sensory perception, eventually leading to an increase in food intake, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors promote food intake in fasted mice by increasing odor detection. CB1 receptors were abundantly expressed on axon terminals of centrifugal cortical glutamatergic neurons that ...
Germano Jennifer J 1  Institute for Conservation Research, San Diego Zoo, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, California 92027, - - 2014
Abstract Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be mitigated as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This ...
Soares Fernando Lucas FL Nutrition Department, Health and Biosciences School, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, 1155 Imaculada Conceição Street, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Paraná, 80215-901, Brazil, - - 2014
Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the treatment of obesity, but lifestyle and diet should be monitored after this procedure to ensure success. The Bariatric Food Pyramid was created basing on long-term nutritional care that proposes a standard of healthy living and eating habits considering gastric capacity and specific ...
Revitsky A R - - 2014
Ghrelin is a gut-brain hormone that regulates energy balance through food consumption. While ghrelin is well known for its role in hypothalamic activation and homeostatic feeding, more recent evidence suggests that ghrelin also is involved in hedonic feeding through the dopaminergic reward pathway. This paper investigated how ghrelin administration (intraperitoneal, ...
Barosh Laurel L National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Australian Capital - - 2014
Objective: Climate change is affecting the ability of food systems to provide sufficient nutritious and affordable foods at all times. Healthy and sustainable (H&S) food choices are important contributions to health and climate change policy efforts. This paper presents empirical data on the affordability of a food basket that incorporates ...
Holland Peter C PC Department of Psychological and Brain - - 2014
Initially neutral conditioned stimuli (CSs) paired with food often acquire motivating properties. For example, CS presentations may enhance the rate of instrumental responding that normally earns that food reward (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer), or potentiate consumption of that food when the animal is food-sated. Recent evidence suggests that cues associated with the ...
Campbell James F - - 2014
Aerosol insecticides are commonly used for management of stored-product pests inside food facilities, but the physical complexity of the interior of most food facilities may influence the dispersal and deposition of droplets and create spatial variation in dosage. The spatial pattern in aerosol deposition was evaluated inside a flour mill ...
D'Souza Manoranjan S MS Department of Psychiatry, M/C 0603, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0603, - - 2014
Nicotine, a major psychoactive component of tobacco smoke, increases glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAcc shell and core subdivisions in nicotine-dependent behaviors has not been studied. The present study evaluated, in rats, the effects of bilateral administration ...
Overduin Joost J Weill Medical College, Cornell University, White Plains, NY 10605, USA; Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Office of Research and Development Medical Research Service, Seattle, WA 98108, USA; Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2014
Reduction of food intake by exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) has been demonstrated primarily for its short molecular form, CCK-8. Mounting evidence, however, implicates CCK-58 as a major physiologically active CCK form, with different neural and exocrine response profiles than CCK-8. In three studies, we compared meal-pattern effects of intraperitoneal injections CCK-8 ...
Correia Danielle C S DC 1 School of Medicine, University of Arizona , Tucson, - - 2014
Abstract Background: Vegetable consumption among preschool children is below recommended levels. New evidence-based approaches to increase preschoolers' vegetable intake, particularly in the child care setting, are needed. This study tests the effectiveness of two community-based randomized interventions to increase vegetable consumption and willingness to try vegetables: (1) the pairing of ...
Cameron Jameason D JD Children's Hospital of Eastern Research Institute Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2014
We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation ...
Sluik D D Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The - - 2014
Background/Objectives:The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands.Subjects/Methods:A total of 2100 men and women from the Dutch National Food Consumption ...
Geuzaine Annabelle A Département de Psychologie, Cognition et - - 2014
Chronic food restriction (FR) and maintenance of low body weight have long been known to increase the rewarding and motor-activating effects of addictive drugs. However, the neurobiological mechanisms through which FR potentiates drug reward remain largely unknown. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) signaling could be one of these mechanisms since this peptide ...
Gumma Murali Krishna MK International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502324, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This ...
Lu Zhe Z Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, - - 2014
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chiral signatures were measured in Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and their potential prey in arctic marine food webs from Canada (Cumberland Sound) and Europe (Svalbard) to assess temporal and spatial variation in PCB contamination at the stereoisomer level. Marine mammals had species-specific enantiomer fractions (EFs), likely due ...
Blechert Jens J Department for Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Heath Psychology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, - - 2014
Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after ...
Miller Jordan A JA Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology, Primate Behavioral Ecology Laboratory, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., - - 2014
Female space use can have important fitness consequences, which are likely due to differential access to food resources. Many studies have explored spatial competition in solitary species, but little is known about how individuals in social species compete over shared space. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of aggression ...
Marshall Christopher D CD Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University, Galveston, Texas, United States of America ; Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of - - 2014
The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted ...
Trabal Joan J Endocrinology and Nutrition Department. Hospital Clínic Universitari de Barcelona.. - - 2014
Introduction: Malnutrition is a cause for concern among many admitted elderly patients, being common at hospital admission and discharge. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess if diet enrichment with small servings of energy and protein dense foods, improves energy and nutrient intake in elderly patients at risk ...
Edwards Brian J BJ Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of - - 2014
We adapted a method from developmental psychology [1] to explore whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) would place objects on a "blicket detector" machine to diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward. Across five experiments, monkeys could place different objects on the machine and obtain evidence about the ...
Morgado Pedro P School of Health Sciences, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), University of Minho Braga, Portugal ; ICVS-3Bs PT Government Associate Laboratory Braga/Guimarães, - - 2014
This paper presents a novel rodent decision-making task that explores uncertainty, independently of expectation and predictability. Using a 5-hole operating box, adult male Wistar rats were given choices between a small certain (safe) food reward and a large uncertain (risk) food reward. We found that animals strongly preferred the safe ...
Selva Nuria N Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Mickiewicza, - - 2014
Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects ...
Wei Alfreda A Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI) increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE) prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if ...
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