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Ranawana Viren - - 2012
Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-east Asia. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen ...
Meyer Rachel S - - 2012
CONTENTS: Summary  1 I. Introduction  2 II. Key concepts and definitions  2 III. Methods of review and analysis  7 IV. Trends identified from the review of 203 crops  9 V. Life cycle 10 VI. Ploidy level 12 VII. Reproductive strategies 12 VIII. The domestication syndrome 14 IX. Spatial and temporal ...
Pimentel Gustavo D - - 2012
Hypothalamic 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses intracellular metabolic stress, i.e., an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio, and integrates diverse hormonal and nutritional signals to restore energy balance. Recent evidence suggests that different nutrients can modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, thereby controlling weight gain through a leptin-independent mechanism. ...
Caroli M - - 2012
Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The ...
Shier V - - 2012
To examine the robustness of the relationship between neighbourhood food environment and youth body mass index (BMI) percentile using alternative measures of food environment and model specifications. Observational study using individual-level longitudinal survey data of children in fifth and eighth grades merged with food outlet data based on student residential ...
Xanthos Marino - - 2012
Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, ...
Keller Heather H - - 2012
ABSTRACT Ready-to-use modified-texture food (rMTF) products are commercially available and may have greater appeal than conventional in-house or commercial bulk modified-texture food (cMTF) products. A nine-month pilot study using a prospective interrupted time-series design where participants (n = 42) served as their own controls investigated the impact of cMTF + ...
Hull Sarah - - 2012
Polydextrose (Litesse®, DuPont) is a polysaccharide that is partially fermented in the colon. Evidence suggests that polydextrose increases satiety when consumed over several weeks; however studies assessing its acute effects on satiety are lacking. This study therefore aimed to assess the impact of different doses of polydextrose on satiety and ...
Oelofse Suzanna Hh - - 2012
Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2012
Greater variety of energy-dense foods increases intake in meals composed of several courses. Little research has examined the effect of variety in low-energy-dense foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). This study examined the effect of fruit variety on fruit intake during a four-course snack. Twenty unrestrained eaters (50% female, 100% White ...
Faulkner G P - - 2012
Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on ...
Chen Kuan-I - - 2012
Soybean products (soyfoods), reported as potential functional foods, are implicated in several health-enhancing properties, such as easing the symptoms of postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of osteoporosis, preventing cardiovascular disease, and antimutagenic effects. Isoflavone, for example, is one of the most important compounds abundantly found in soybean, mainly accounting for ...
Brindal E - - 2012
Background/Objectives:The effect of Glycaemic Index (GI) and Load (GL) of breakfasts on satiety and aspects of cognitive function in children is inconclusive. We aimed to assess if isocaloric breakfasts differing in GL (by replacing high-GI carbohydrate foods with dairy protein foods) acutely alter cognitive function and satiety in 10- to ...
Korkalo Liisa - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent girls in Mozambique. The study was carried out in preparation for the larger ZANE study, which used the 24 h dietary recall method. DESIGN: Life-sized photographs of three portion sizes of two staple foods and three ...
Ziska Lewis H - - 2012
Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently needed to ensure both the stability and continued increase of the global ...
Rayner Mike - - 2012
This paper gives a definition of 'nutrient profiling' and outlines the scope 'marketing of foods to children' and it's 'regulation' for the purposes of the paper. It then points out that nutrient profiling has many other purposes besides the regulation of marketing of foods to children. It briefly outlines the ...
Vavouraki Aikaterini Ioannis - - 2012
Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) in Greece consist mainly of fermentable organic material such as food scraps (∼50%) and paper residuals (∼20%). The aim of this work was to study the thermo-chemical pretreatment of the kitchen waste (KW) fraction of MSW focusing on biotechnological exploitation of pretreated wastes for biofuel production. ...
Takaaki Kato - - 2012
This study provides a detailed description of food residue collection by swine breeders in Da Nang, Viet Nam. In January 2011, the study surveyed 30 swine breeders in two villages with respect to locations, methods, prices, quantities, and prospects for food residue collection. The sampled swine breeders regularly visited 55 ...
Pravosudov V V - - 2012
Food-caching birds rely on stored food to survive the winter, and spatial memory has been shown to be critical in successful cache recovery. Both spatial memory and the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory, exhibit significant geographic variation linked to climate-based environmental harshness and the potential ...
Lawson Elizabeth A - - 2012
Animal data suggest that oxytocin is a satiety hormone. We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a disorder characterized by food restriction, low weight, and hypoleptinemia, is associated with decreased nocturnal oxytocin secretion. We have also reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) hypoactivation in anorexia in brain regions involved in ...
Hobbs Nicholas J - - 2012
Proceptive behaviours are used by animals to indicate interest in opposite-sex conspecifics. These behaviours can be affected by an individual's nutritional status. Two mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to account for the effects of food availability on reproduction. These are the metabolic fuels hypothesis and the reproduction at all ...
Konttinen Hanna - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: A low socio-economic status (SES) is related to less healthy dietary habits, but the reasons for this remain unclear. We examined whether the absolute or relative importance of various food choice motives contributed to SES disparities in vegetable/fruit and energy-dense food intake. DESIGN: We analysed cross-sectional data from the ...
Yasuda Masaaki - - 2012
Red koji or red mold rice is prepared by growing a genus Monascus on steamed rice. For centuries, it has been used in Asia for the production of fermented foods including red rice wine and fermented tofu. Although red koji is an important source of various hydrolytic enzymes critical for ...
Dietrich Marcelo O - - 2012
Current anti-obesity drugs aim to reduce food intake by either curbing appetite or suppressing the craving for food. However, many of these agents have been associated with severe psychiatric and/or cardiovascular side effects, highlighting the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Emerging knowledge on the role of the hypothalamus in enabling ...
Rossiter Melissa D - - 2012
This study evaluated the eating behaviours of students in grade six and, three years later when they were in grade nine, relative to the recommendations of Canada's 2007 Food Guide. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire on eating behaviours in 2002 (n = 647) and again in 2005 (n = 520) ...
Holman B W B - - 2012
Summary Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and ...
Reed Thomas E - - 2012
Populations are shifting their phenology in response to climate change, but these shifts are often asynchronous among interacting species. Resulting phenological mismatches can drive simultaneous changes in natural selection and population demography, but the links between these interacting processes are poorly understood. Here we analyse 37 years of data from an ...
Zhang Xiaolan - - 2012
Synthetic musks are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic environments. As hydrophobic chemicals, they can accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Investigations into the bioaccumulation of these chemicals in aquatic ecosystem have, however, been limited, and previous results were inconsistent among species and ecosystem. Studies on this topic have been carried out ...
Smith D J - - 2012
For over 100 yr, scientists have explored uses of sodium chlorate in agricultural applications. Sodium chlorate is a strong oxidizer, and thus can be very hazardous when not handled accordingly. Nevertheless, late 19th century agriculturists and scientists attempted to exploit the chemical properties of sodium chlorate as an herbicide and ...
Neumann Charlotte G - - 2012
The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic ...
Vianna P C B - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of CO(2) to raw milk on UHT milk quality during storage. Control milk (without CO(2) addition) and treated milk (with CO(2) addition up to pH 6.2) were stored in bulk tanks at 4°C for 6d. After storage, both ...
Rubio-Aliaga Isabel - - 2012
Personalized nutrition has been traditionally based on the adjustment of food and diet according to individual needs and preferences. At present, this concept is being reinforced through the application of state-of-the-art high-throughput technologies to help understand the molecular mechanisms underlying a healthy state. This knowledge could enable the adjustment of ...
Brown J Lynne - - 2012
Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white ...
Fitridge Isla - - 2012
Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental ...
Mouchtouri Varavara - - 2012
The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. ...
Sims Steven R - - 2012
Commercial baits containing boric acid, hydramethynon, and indoxacarb were tested against the firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard), and silverfish, Lepisma saccharina L. (both Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), under laboratory conditions. Three boric acid baits were consumed in significantly smaller amounts than untreated control food and did not effectively control either species. Baits containing ...
Cloetens Lieselotte - - 2012
The present review examines the evidence regarding the effect of β-glucan on variables linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including appetite control, glucose control, hypertension, and gut microbiota composition. Appetite control can indirectly influence MetS by inducing a decreased energy intake, and promising results for a β-glucan intake to decrease ...
Martín Aida - - 2012
From 2008 to date, basically, single-cross microchip electrophoresis (ME) design has been used for food analysis with electrochemicaland laser-induced fluorescencedetection being the most commonprinciples coupled. In the last 4 years, the main outlines were: (i) the exploration of new analytes such as heavy metals, nitrite, micotoxins, microorganisms, and allergens; (ii) ...
Sherzai Ayesha - - 2012
Stroke is the fourth leading cause of mortality in the United States, yet it is 80% preventable by addressing lifestyle factors including nutrition. Evaluating the impact of nutrition at the food group and dietary pattern level will provide greater insight into the role of nutrition in stroke. For this purpose, ...
Howard Hj - - 2012
Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
Dervilly-Pinel Gaud - - 2012
Metabolomics is a science of interest in food analysis to describe and predict properties of food products and processes. It includes the development of analytical methods with the ultimate goal being the identification of so-called 'quality markers', (i.e. sets of metabolites that correlate with, for example, quality, safety, taste, or ...
Macdiarmid Jennie I - - 2012
Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health. We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health. A database was created that linked ...
Sheen Shiowshuh - - 2012
Microwave (MW) heating using continuous power output with feedback control and a modified ingredient formulation may provide better and consistent cooking of foods. Currently, household units with build-in inverter power supply units are available. These new generation MW ovens provide continuous, adjustable output and cooking, in contrast to the traditional ...
Sylvetsky Allison C - - 2012
Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in ...
Bezerra Ilana Nogueira - - 2012
The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary ...
Abramovitch Sharona L - - 2012
It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. ...
Behie Alison M - - 2012
As plants may contain low levels of some minerals including sodium, copper, and phosphorous, herbivores may become deficient in these nutrients. In 2001, Hurricane Iris hit the Monkey River Forest in Belize causing substantial damage to the food supply of the black howler monkey population (Alouatta pigra) living there. This ...
Britten Patricia - - 2012
The US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns were updated for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to meet new nutrition goals and incorporate results of food pattern modeling requested by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used and changes in the ...
Romano A - - 2012
In altricial species, offspring competing for access to limiting parental resources (e.g. food) are selected to achieve an optimal balance between the costs of scrambling for food, the benefits of being fed and the indirect costs of subtracting food to relatives. As the marginal benefits of acquiring additional food decrease ...
Cullon Donna L - - 2012
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biomagnification was characterized in a harbor seal food web in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for PCBs averaged 3.6, with a range of 0.7 to 9.4. The TMFs for individual congeners correlated with log K(ow) (r(2)  = 0.56, p < 0.001), reflecting the role ...
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