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Arrizabalaga Juan José - - 2012
BACKGROUND: An epidemiologic survey showed in 1992 iodine deficiency and endemic goiter in schoolchildren from the Basque Country. OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine the percentage of homes of schoolchildren where iodized salt (IS) is used; 2) to assess iodine nutrition status in schoolchildren and to compare the data collected to those ...
Lenzen M - - 2012
Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade ...
Solntseva Svetlana - - 2012
Memory is destabilized during retrieval-induced reconsolidation and can therefore be disrupted or modified. In the present study, we examined the role of translation and transcription processes in long-term food aversion memory reconsolidation in the snail Helix lucorum. The administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin followed by a reminding procedure ...
Fernandes Meenakshi M - - 2012
As the largest federal food assistance program, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has potential to improve food choices among low-income populations. The program's impact on youth is important because they are represented in more than half of all SNAP households. This study estimates the impact of participation in SNAP, ...
Biedermann Maurus - - 2012
Mineral oil hydrocarbons are complex as well as varying mixtures and produce correspondingly complex chromatograms (on-line HPLC-GC-FID as described in Part 1): mostly humps of unresolved components are obtained, sometimes with sharp peaks on top. Chromatograms may also contain peaks of hydrocarbons from other sources which need to be subtracted ...
Overduin Joost - - 2012
Homeostatic eating cannot explain overconsumption of food and pathological weight gain. A more likely factor promoting excessive eating is food reward and its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). The anorectic hormones leptin and insulin reduce food reward and inhibit related CNS reward pathways. Conversely, the orexigenic gastrointestinal hormone ...
Buscemi Silvio - - 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Street food (SF) is defined as out-of-home food consumption, and generally consists of energy dense meals rich in saturated fats, and poor in fibers, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Though SF consumption may have unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular effects, its possible association with endothelial function has not been considered. ...
Wang De-Qing - - 2012
The investigation of biomagnification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and a new persistent organic pollutant, has been limited in freshwater food chains. The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels with focus on the sources and biomagnification of PAHs and OCPs ...
Rodríguez-Caturla M Y - - 2012
Ready-to-eat lettuce is a food commodity prone to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms if processing and distribution conditions as well as handling practices are not effective. A challenge testing protocol was applied to ready-to-eat iceberg-lettuce samples by inoculating different initial contamination levels (4.5, 3.5 and 2.5 log cfu/g) of Escherichia coli ...
Turner Lindsey - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the school food environment in public and ...
Freeland-Graves Jeanne H - - 2012
Consistent guidelines across the world for dietary standards of trace elements remain elusive. Harmonization of dietary standards has been suggested by international agencies to facilitate consistency in food and nutrition policies and international trade. Yet significant barriers exist to standardize recommendations on a global basis, such as vast differences in ...
Wang Qixia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that both family history and environmental factors may contribute to its development. METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 220 confirmed MM cases and 220 individually matched patient controls, by sex, age and hospital was carried out at ...
Andreyeva Tatiana - - 2012
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has important potential for preventing diet-related disease in low-income children. WIC food packages were recently revised to offer foods that better reflect dietary recommendations for Americans. This article reports on how implementation of the new healthier WIC food packages ...
Doidge James C - - 2012
Objective: To describe the pattern of dairy consumption in Australians aged 12 years and over, and assess the extent to which the population meets national recommendations. Methods: We developed a new method of combining quantitative data from a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire with semiquantitative data from a food frequency questionnaire ...
Sclafani Anthony - - 2012
Multiple hormonal and neural signals are generated by ingested nutrients that limit meal size and suppress postmeal eating. However, the availability of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods can override these satiation/satiety signals and lead to overeating and obesity. The palatable flavor of these foods is one factor that promotes overeating, but ...
Van Wyhe R C - - 2012
The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies ...
Castillo Darleen C - - 2012
Food insecurity is defined as limited or uncertain ability to acquire nutritionally adequate and safe foods in socially acceptable ways. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has divided food insecurity into two categories: low food security and very low food security. Low food security is characterized by irregular access ...
- - 2012
The misuse of antibiotics is not only a medical problem, but also a major agricultural one. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently shifted its focus to voluntary oversight.
De Groote Hugo - - 2012
New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they ...
Fox Nicole - - 2012
For decades, the concept of a neutropenic diet has implied a strict limitation of foods allowed for consumption, as a presumptive means of reducing the risk of infection in cancer patients. The rationale was to limit the introduction of potentially harmful bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract by the restriction of ...
Jiang Ding Guo - - 2012
The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass ...
Nishimura Azusa - - 2012
Abstract: Animals increase their feeding motivation under starved conditions. Here the authors test if the starvation-induced increase of feeding motivation is different among wild-derived strains of Drosophila melanogaster. In behavioral experiments comparing the feeding behaviors of the strains Mel6 and TW1, only TW1 exhibited a decreased feeding threshold to sucrose ...
Montowska Magdalena - - 2012
Authentication of regional and traditional food made of meat poses a significant challenge. It continues to be a very difficult task which requires employment of quite advanced analytical techniques. These products, despite a similar process of manufacturing, differ in taste and aroma. This happens due to the use of special ...
Chaparro M Pia - - 2012
Food insecurity has increased significantly among low-income Californians over the last decade. According to data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, 3.8 million adults in households with incomes at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) could not afford enough food at least once in the previous ...
Takeda Eiji - - 2012
Awareness of phosphorus intake is important because both phosphorus deficiency and overloading impair bone health and quality of life. Phosphorus consumption is increasing in many countries. Most dietary phosphorus is contained in protein-rich foods such as meat, milk, cheese, poultry, fish, and processed foods that contain phosphate-based additives to improve ...
Shiferaw Beletshachew - - 2012
Background. This analysis used data from the most recent Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) Population Survey (May 2006 through April 2007) to examine differences in the consumption of various types of foods between men and women. Methods. Participants were surveyed by telephone and asked whether or not they had consumed certain ...
Izumi Betty T - - 2012
Studies have shown that neighborhood food environments are important influences on dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. While instruments with high reliability have been developed to assess food availability, price, and quality, few measures to assess items associated with the physical and social features of food stores have ...
Shephard Roy J - - 2012
Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. ...
Veronezi Carolina Médici - - 2012
Seeds are considered to be agro-industrial residues, which can be used as source of macronutrients and/or raw material for extraction of vegetable oils, since they present great quantities of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the lipid fractions and the seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) varieties Nova Caravela, Mini ...
Jarvis Nathan - - 2012
In order to address the growing demand for more natural poultry products, alkaline phosphates commonly used in chicken breast meat marinades were replaced with plum ingredients and evaluated. For initial sensory evaluation, 200 consumers of chicken were served a small portion of the chicken breast on a plate and were ...
Beran Michael J - - 2012
Token exchange inherently introduces an element of delay between behavior and reward and so token studies may help us better understand delay of gratification and self-control. To examine this possibility, we presented three language-trained chimpanzees with repeated choices involving different foods that could be eaten immediately or lexigram (graphic symbol) ...
Jones Marc E H - - 2012
The New Zealand tuatara, Sphenodon, has a specialized feeding system in which the teeth of the lower jaw close between two upper tooth rows before sliding forward to slice food apart like a draw cut saw. This shearing action is unique amongst living amniotes but has been compared with the ...
Fierens T - - 2012
This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in raw cow's milk and feed from Belgian farms in order to determine their most relevant contamination pathways ...
Zuzarte M - - 2012
This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed ...
Fromentin Gilles - - 2012
The present review summarises current knowledge and recent findings on the modulation of appetite by dietary protein, via both peripheral and central mechanisms. Of the three macronutrients, proteins are recognised as the strongest inhibitor of food intake. The well-recognised poor palatability of proteins is not the principal mechanism explaining the ...
Koluman Ahmet - - 2012
Emerging foodborne pathogens are challenging subjects of food microbiology with their antibiotic resistance and their impact on public health. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp. and Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are significant emerging food pathogens, globally. The decrease in supply and increase in demand lead developed countries to produce animal products with ...
Kim Jinsol - - 2012
Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food. Since it ferments continuously during distribution and storage, the extension of shelf life by preventing over-acidification is a major concern in the kimchi industry. One of the most frequently attempted ways to delay fermentation is to add naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. Many researchers ...
Nicoletti Rosario - - 2012
Penicillium species are a widespread source of biologically active compounds and enzymes which are exploited in biotechnologies. The ongoing discovery of new species, their biochemical and molecular characterization, and the application of the new findings in diverse industrial processes stimulate an increasing interest of patentees worldwide. An Overview of the ...
Antunes Maria D - - 2012
Fresh fruit and vegetables consumption has increased in the past few years due to the enhanced awareness of consumers for healthy food. However, these products are highly perishable, and losses can be of great significance if postharvest correct management is not provided. Fresh-cut products are of increasing importance, since they ...
Knight Andrew J - - 2012
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food ...
Palmer Debra J - - 2012
The prevalence of food allergy has continued to rise over the last 10-15 years, with building concern over the underlying causes and the best strategies to reverse this. Although it is still not clear if infant feeding practices play any significant role in either the aetiology of this epidemic or in ...
Djuric Zora - - 2012
This study recruited persons at increased risk of colon cancer to an intensive dietary intervention study that required biopsies of the colon by flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and after six months of intervention. A total of 1314 individuals contacted the study, and only 16 individuals indicated that the sigmoidoscopy procedure ...
Koda Hiroki - - 2012
Heterospecific communication signals sometimes convey relevant information for animal survival. For example, animals use or eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls concerning common predators. Indeed, most observations have been reported regarding anti-predator strategies. Use of heterospecific signals has rarely been observed as part of a foraging strategy. Here, I report empirical ...
Ronteltap Amber - - 2012
Although many studies consider health and food, little is known about consumers' actual interpretation of healthy eating. This study aims to explore, operationalise, and test consumers' interpretation of healthy eating by using insights from construal level theory. In this exploratory research three consecutive studies were executed, applying focus group (n= ...
Linderholm Kersti K Department of Agrosystems, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden. - - 2012
Phosphorus flows in Swedish agriculture and food chain were studied by material flow analysis. The system studied included agriculture, food consumption, related waste and wastewater from private households and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Swedish farmland had net annual phosphorus inputs of ~12, 600 metric tons (4.1 kg P ha(-1)) in ...
Vazir Shahnaz S Behavioral Sciences Unit of Field Studies, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, India. - - 2013
Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and ...
Castillo Carlos - - 2012
Honey bees allocate tasks along reproductive and non-reproductive lines: the queen mates and lays eggs, whereas the workers nurse the brood and forage for food. Among workers, tasks are distributed according to age: young workers nurse and old workers fly out and forage. This task distribution in the colony is ...
Tieman Denise - - 2012
Although human perception of food flavors involves integration of multiple sensory inputs, the most salient sensations are taste and olfaction [1]. Ortho- and retronasal olfaction are particularly crucial to flavor because they provide the qualitative diversity so important to identify safe versus dangerous foods [2]. Historically, flavor research has prioritized aroma ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
Complex mechanisms have evolved that control feeding and energy homeostasis in mammals. Centrally, particularly in the hypothalamus, numerous neurotransmitters have been identified that regulate appetite and energy homeostasis. On the other hand, hormones released from the gut signal states of hunger and satiety to the brain. From the large number ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2012
There is considerable disagreement regarding what constitutes a healthy diet. Ever since the influential work of Cannon and Richter, it was debated whether the 'wisdom of the body' will automatically direct us to the foods we need for healthy lives or whether we must carefully learn to eat the right ...
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