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Results 551 - 600 of 1675
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Gavassa Sat - - 2012
Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its ...
Luuk Hendrik - - 2012
The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) has been proposed as a candidate for the neural substrate of a food-entrainable oscillator. The existence of a food-entrainable oscillator in the mammalian nervous system was inferred previously from restricted feeding-induced behavioral rhythmicity in rodents with suprachiasmatic nucleus lesions. In the present study, we have ...
Houben Katrijn - - 2012
As the prevalence of obesity is increasing, many people resort to dieting to achieve a healthy body weight. Such dietary restraint has been suggested to cause counterproductive effects leading to disinhibited eating. However, it is more likely that dietary restraint is a by-product of previous difficulties in weight control and ...
Mercille Geneviève - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between the availability of residential-area food sources and dietary patterns among seniors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses. Individual-level data from the NuAge study on nutrition and healthy ageing were merged with geographic information system data on food store availability and area-level social composition. Two dietary patterns reflecting lower- ...
Yang Na - - 2012
Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six ...
Karl Jenni M JM Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge AB T1K 3M4, Canada. - - 2012
Preshaping the digits and orienting the hand when reaching to grasp a distal target is proposed to be optimal when guided by vision. A reach-to-grasp movement to an object in one's own mouth is a natural and commonly used movement, but there has been no previous description of how it ...
Manzi Pamela - - 2012
Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data ...
Lima G P P GP a Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) , Botucatu , São Paulo , - - 2012
Different parts of plant foods are generally discarded by consumers such as peel, stalk and leaves, which could however possess a nutritional value. However, few studies have analysed the composition of these marginal foods. The phenolic compound, flavonoid, polyamine, nitrate and pesticide contents of parts of vegetables that are usually ...
Thaler Jennifer S - - 2012
Most organisms face the problem of foraging and maintaining growth while avoiding predators. Typical animal responses to predator exposure include reduced feeding, elevated metabolism, and altered development rate, all of which can be beneficial in the presence of predators but detrimental in their absence. How then do animals balance growth ...
Helling R - - 2012
In consequent continuation of previous described studies, pre-characterised silicone materials were assessed for chemical and physical parameters during long-term usage. In a particular case study silicone moulds were used in a commercial pizza bakery on a daily basis up to 1700 times. Migration behaviour, uptake of fat, the amount of ...
Zeilfelder Bernd - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in food industries as probiotic agents. The aim of this study is to assess the potential health effects of airborne exposure to a mix of preblend (LAB and carbohydrate) and milk powder in workers. METHODS:: A medical questionnaire, lung function tests, and immunologic ...
Lawrence Natalia S - - 2012
Individuals have difficulty controlling their food consumption, which is due in part to the ubiquity of tempting food cues in the environment. Individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive (motivational) salience to and act on these cues may explain why some individuals eat more than others. Using fMRI in ...
Poonam - - 2012
Dairy propionibacteria are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status microorganisms which have been traditionally used for the manufacture of Swiss type cheeses. In the last two decades various added features and functionalities have been discovered and developed from these bacteria. Propionibacteria are robust organisms with remarkable adaptability to technological and ...
Saibi Walid - - 2012
Biomass utilization is increasingly considered as a practical way for sustainable energy supply and long-term environment care around the world. In concerns with food security, starch or sugar-based bioethanol and edible-oil-derived biodiesel are severely restricted for large scale production. Alternatively, conversion of lignocellulosic residues from food crops could be considered, ...
Howland Maryhope - - 2012
Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies ...
Krukowski Rebecca A - - 2012
Previous research indicates food store choice influences dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. However, there is limited knowledge about the reasons which prompt the choice of a primary food store, particularly among populations vulnerable to obesity and chronic diseases (e.g., individuals living in rural locations and African-Americans). Purposive ...
Trinidad Trinidad P - - 2012
Brown rice is a good source of dietary fibre (DF) and contains higher vitamins/minerals than milled rice. The study determined the effect of amylose content (AC) and DF on glucose response (GR) from different varieties of milled and brown rice. Milled and brown rice were used as test foods. They ...
Chen Yih-Fan - - 2012
Optofluidics is a rapidly advancing field that utilizes the integration of optics and microfluidics to provide a number of novel functionalities in microsystems. In this review, we discuss how this approach can potentially be applied to address some of the greatest challenges facing both the developing and developed world, including ...
Jaworowska Agnieszka - - 2012
High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in ...
Wan Chunpeng - - 2012
Blueberries have been extensively researched, but there are limited studies on other parts of the plant. Here we report the first phytochemical examination of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) flowers, which yielded 21 phenolics. The compounds were identified from extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses and included five caffeic acid (1-5), ...
Picot Cyndie - - 2012
Phycotoxins, secondary phytoplankton metabolites, are considered as an important food safety issue because their accumulation by shellfish may render them unfit for human consumption. However, the likely intakes of phycotoxins via shellfish consumption are almost unknown because both contamination and consumption data are very scarce. Thus, two 1-year surveys were ...
Burke Louise M - - 2012
We undertook two crossover-designed studies to characterise plasma AA responses to the intake of 20 g of protein. In study 1, fifteen untrained and overnight fasted subjects consumed 20 g protein from skim milk, soy milk, beef steak, boiled egg, and a liquid meal supplement. In study 2, 10 fasted ...
West Jessica S - - 2012
Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 ...
Carlsohn Anja - - 2012
The study was conducted to investigate the quantity and the main food sources of carbohydrate intake of junior elite triathletes during a short-term moderate (MOD; 12 km swimming, 100 km cycling, 30 km running per week) and intensive training period (INT; 23 km swimming, 200 km cycling, 45 km running ...
Luczak C - - 2012
A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time ...
García-Álvarez Javier - - 2012
Buffer rods can be used to perform non-destructive and on-line analysis of food and beverage products. These rods, usually solid cylinders, can be long and heavy for certain applications. In this paper, a resizing analytic procedure is described. Buffer rods designed following this new procedure can be several times shorter ...
de Oliveira Otto Marcia C - - 2012
Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of SF influence these relations may provide new insights. We ...
Lee Yee-Ying - - 2012
  Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a modified lipid containing medium- chain (C6-C12) and long-chain fatty acids (C14-C24) in the same triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule. It can be produced either through enzymatic (with 1,3 specific or nonspecific enzyme) or chemical methods. The specialty of this structured lipid is that it ...
Bragg Marie A - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Food marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and beverage products and (ii) assess each product's nutritional and marketing ...
Bakhotmah Balkees Abed - - 2012
Effective nutritional education programs are based on a proper understanding of many factors, including a population's nutritional knowledge, behavior, food preferences, and a desire to change these preferences. Our study examined these variables through a convenience sample (N = 151) of adult Saudi women living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results ...
Omuemu Vivian O - - 2012
Background: Food security is access at all times to adequate, safe and nutritious food for healthy and active life. In recent times food insecurity has been a global concern particularly in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out among households selected by multi-stage sampling method in ...
Jeon Ju-Hyun - - 2012
The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50) ) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ...
Leite Fernanda Helena Marrocos - - 2012
To assess the availability of food in relation to their degree of industrial processing and the types of food stores in the perimeters of elementary schools. This is a cross-sectional study. 82 food stores located within a 500 m radius buffer of three public schools located in three distinct regions ...
Jin Yiying - - 2012
To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus ...
Jones Marc E H - - 2012
The New Zealand tuatara, Sphenodon, has a specialized feeding system in which the teeth of the lower jaw close between two upper tooth rows before sliding forward to slice food apart like a draw cut saw. This shearing action is unique amongst living amniotes but has been compared with the ...
Zaborowska Zofia - - 2012
Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ...
Corcoran Michael P - - 2012
In our efforts to understand how various dietary factors can influence the risk and progression of chronic disease, much recent research has focused on phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are defined as nonessential nutrients found in plant-based food, many of which have been established as bioactive and thus may affect human health ( ...
Rioja-Lang F C - - 2012
The effect of proximity to a dominant cow on a low-ranking cow's willingness to feed was assessed using choice tests. The main aim of the experiment was to determine the feeding space allowance at which the majority of subordinate cows would choose to feed on high-palatability food (HPF) next to ...
Omar Alaa El-din K - - 2012
Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were ...
Bellanger Anne-Pauline - - 2012
In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: ...
Li Jih-Heng - - 2012
The May 23, 2011, plasticizer incident was one of the most serious food safety issues that ever occurred in Taiwan. Most, if not all, plasticizer-contaminated food items were due to malicious replacement of palm oil with phthalate plasticizer(s) in the cloudy-agent formulas by two upstream manufacturers. The incumbent agencies in ...
Bokulich Nicholas A - - 2012
Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawn of time and remain a prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance, many of these foods have been studied in detail using molecular tools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore, recent advances ...
Osawa Yoshimi - - 2012
This article examines the use of dashi stock as the most characteristic umami-yielding foodstuff in Japanese culinary practice. While umami is scientifically defined as a taste provided by umami substances (e.g., glutamate), the popular meanings attached to the term umami among Japanese is more complex. The article shows how glutamates ...
Holt Roberta R - - 2012
Advancing age is an independent major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-associated impairments in the control of inflammation, excessive oxidative stress, and reduced cellular repair can all contribute to the development and progression of CVD. Current recommendations for both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD promote lifestyle modifications ...
Nolin David A - - 2012
Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village ...
Barrett Jacqueline S - - 2012
Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and ...
Page Amanda J - - 2012
Interest in pharmacological treatments for obesity that act in the brain to reduce appetite has increased exponentially over recent years, but failures of clinical trials and withdrawals due to adverse effects have so far precluded any success. Treatments that do not act within the brain are, in contrast, a neglected ...
Dwyer Johanna T - - 2012
This paper, based on the symposium "Is 'Processed' a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations in the U.S." describes ongoing efforts and challenges at the nutrition-food science interface and public health; addresses misinformation about processed foods by showing that processed fruits and ...
Rascón Brenda - - 2012
Our interest in healthy aging and in evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of lifespan extension prompted us to investigate whether features of age-related decline in the honey bee could be attenuated with resveratrol. Resveratrol is regarded as a caloric restriction mimetic known to extend lifespan in some but not all model species. ...
Fuciños C C Biotechnology Group, Dept of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Univ of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain. - - 2012
We propose here a delivery drug-polymer system using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) nanohydrogels that enables pimaricin to be protected from hostile environments and allows the controlled release of the antifungal through environmental stimuli. We synthesized 2 nanohydrogels, 1 with 100% N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPA(5)) and 1 with 80% N-isopropylacrylamide copolymerized and 20% acrylic acid ...
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