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Results 551 - 600 of 1643
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Omuemu Vivian O - - 2012
Background: Food security is access at all times to adequate, safe and nutritious food for healthy and active life. In recent times food insecurity has been a global concern particularly in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out among households selected by multi-stage sampling method in ...
Jeon Ju-Hyun - - 2012
The acaricidal activities of materials derived from Pyrus ussuriensis fruits were evaluated against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). On the basis of the 50 % lethal dose (LD(50) ) values, the ethyl acetate fraction of the fractions obtained from an aqueous extract of P. ...
Leite Fernanda Helena Marrocos - - 2012
To assess the availability of food in relation to their degree of industrial processing and the types of food stores in the perimeters of elementary schools. This is a cross-sectional study. 82 food stores located within a 500 m radius buffer of three public schools located in three distinct regions ...
Jin Yiying - - 2012
To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus ...
Jones Marc E H - - 2012
The New Zealand tuatara, Sphenodon, has a specialized feeding system in which the teeth of the lower jaw close between two upper tooth rows before sliding forward to slice food apart like a draw cut saw. This shearing action is unique amongst living amniotes but has been compared with the ...
Zaborowska Zofia - - 2012
Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ...
Corcoran Michael P - - 2012
In our efforts to understand how various dietary factors can influence the risk and progression of chronic disease, much recent research has focused on phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are defined as nonessential nutrients found in plant-based food, many of which have been established as bioactive and thus may affect human health ( ...
Rioja-Lang F C - - 2012
The effect of proximity to a dominant cow on a low-ranking cow's willingness to feed was assessed using choice tests. The main aim of the experiment was to determine the feeding space allowance at which the majority of subordinate cows would choose to feed on high-palatability food (HPF) next to ...
Omar Alaa El-din K - - 2012
Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were ...
Bellanger Anne-Pauline - - 2012
In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: ...
Li Jih-Heng - - 2012
The May 23, 2011, plasticizer incident was one of the most serious food safety issues that ever occurred in Taiwan. Most, if not all, plasticizer-contaminated food items were due to malicious replacement of palm oil with phthalate plasticizer(s) in the cloudy-agent formulas by two upstream manufacturers. The incumbent agencies in ...
Bokulich Nicholas A - - 2012
Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawn of time and remain a prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance, many of these foods have been studied in detail using molecular tools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore, recent advances ...
Osawa Yoshimi - - 2012
This article examines the use of dashi stock as the most characteristic umami-yielding foodstuff in Japanese culinary practice. While umami is scientifically defined as a taste provided by umami substances (e.g., glutamate), the popular meanings attached to the term umami among Japanese is more complex. The article shows how glutamates ...
Holt Roberta R - - 2012
Advancing age is an independent major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Age-associated impairments in the control of inflammation, excessive oxidative stress, and reduced cellular repair can all contribute to the development and progression of CVD. Current recommendations for both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD promote lifestyle modifications ...
Nolin David A - - 2012
Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village ...
Barrett Jacqueline S - - 2012
Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and ...
Page Amanda J - - 2012
Interest in pharmacological treatments for obesity that act in the brain to reduce appetite has increased exponentially over recent years, but failures of clinical trials and withdrawals due to adverse effects have so far precluded any success. Treatments that do not act within the brain are, in contrast, a neglected ...
Dwyer Johanna T - - 2012
This paper, based on the symposium "Is 'Processed' a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations in the U.S." describes ongoing efforts and challenges at the nutrition-food science interface and public health; addresses misinformation about processed foods by showing that processed fruits and ...
Rascón Brenda - - 2012
Our interest in healthy aging and in evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of lifespan extension prompted us to investigate whether features of age-related decline in the honey bee could be attenuated with resveratrol. Resveratrol is regarded as a caloric restriction mimetic known to extend lifespan in some but not all model species. ...
Fuciños C C Biotechnology Group, Dept of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Univ of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain. - - 2012
We propose here a delivery drug-polymer system using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) nanohydrogels that enables pimaricin to be protected from hostile environments and allows the controlled release of the antifungal through environmental stimuli. We synthesized 2 nanohydrogels, 1 with 100% N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPA(5)) and 1 with 80% N-isopropylacrylamide copolymerized and 20% acrylic acid ...
Büsing Anne - - 2012
The aim of this study was to investigate the most important oxidation products of α-tocotrienol (α-T3) along with other tocochromanols in lipid matrices and tocotrienol-rich foods. For this purpose, we developed an efficient molecular distillation procedure for the extraction of analytes, and investigated α-T3 spiked and thermally oxidized natural lipids ...
Kobayashi Shinichi - - 2012
Sapovirus (SaV) is a common cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and SaV outbreaks have become more frequent in recent years. In January 2010, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to SaV occurred in Aichi, Gifu and Mie Prefectures, Japan. The illness was strongly associated with eating a delivered box ...
Obeid Rima - - 2012
An increase in folate intake before and during pregnancy can prevent many neural tube defects. This prompted over 50 countries worldwide to mandate fortification of breakfast cereals or staple foods with folic acid (FA), which is the synthetic oxidised form of the vitamin used in supplements and fortified foods. After ...
Barnes Sandra L - - 2012
This article reviews the patents that have been presented over the past two decades related to alternative functional use of the sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. The major categories of available patents include alternative food products such as sweetpotato chips and fries, sweetpotato ornamental products, and fuel ethanol production from ...
Pawar Samraat - - 2012
Trophic interactions govern biomass fluxes in ecosystems, and stability in food webs. Knowledge of how trophic interaction strengths are affected by differences among habitats is crucial for understanding variation in ecological systems. Here we show how substantial variation in consumption-rate data, and hence trophic interaction strengths, arises because consumers tend ...
Takata Miki - - 2012
In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in ...
Dahl Emma - - 2012
1. As size is tightly associated with fitness, compensatory strategies for growth loss can be vital for restoring individual fitness. However, immediate and delayed costs of compensatory responses may prevent their generalization, and the optimal strategy may depend on environmental conditions. Compensatory responses may be particularly important in high-latitude habitats ...
Van Der Fels-Klerx H J - - 2012
This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins. For these aims, analytical results ...
Sin Natalie Ling Yum - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the counter-regulation observed among preloaded restrained eaters is a result of motivated overeating. Restrained eaters (n = 58) and unrestrained eaters (n = 60) first consumed either a non-caloric drink or a high-calorie milkshake preload. Next, participants completed a food-reinforcement ...
Briffa Mark - - 2012
Exposure to pollution and environmental change can alter the behaviour of aquatic animals and here we review recent evidence that exposure to elevated CO(2) and reduced sea water pH alters the behaviour of tropical reef fish and hermit crabs. Three main routes through which behaviour might be altered are discussed; ...
Tania Nessy - - 2012
The dynamics of resource patches and species that exploit such patches are of interest to ecologists, conservation biologists, modelers, and mathematicians. Here we consider how social interactions can create unique, evolving patterns in space and time. Whereas simple prey taxis (with consumable prey) promotes spatial uniform distributions, here we show ...
Ahn-Jarvis Jennifer J Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2012
The role of food matrix and gender on soy isoflavone metabolism and biomarkers of activity were examined in twenty free-living adults (34.7 ± 11.5 years old) with hypercholesterolemia (221.9 ± 18.7mg dL(-1)). In a randomized crossover design study, participants consumed soy bread (3 wk) or a soy beverage (3 wk) ...
Laude Jennifer R - - 2012
Hungry animals will often choose suboptimally by being attracted to reliable signals for food that occur infrequently (they gamble) over less reliable signals for food that occur more often. That is, pigeons prefer an option that 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the appearance of ...
Wollrab Sabine - - 2012
Many human influences on the world's ecosystems have their largest direct impacts at either the top or the bottom of the food web. To predict their ecosystem-wide consequences we must understand how these impacts propagate. A long-standing, but so far elusive, problem in this endeavour is how to reduce food ...
Marañón E - - 2012
Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic ...
Bunin Greta R - - 2012
We conducted a case-control study of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma, which results from a new germline RB1 mutation, to investigate the role of parents' diet before their child's conception. Parents of 206 cases from nine North American institutions and 269 controls participated; of these, fathers of 184 cases and 223 controls ...
Ellis David I - - 2012
Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal ...
Martínez Airín D AD Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2013
Dietary changes among Latino immigrants are often attributed to acculturation. Acculturation-diet research typically assumes that migration to the US is necessary for negative dietary changes to occur in Latino immigrants' diets. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that extant acculturation research is not adequate in capturing changes in ...
Sumption Keith - - 2012
This month, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) are launching a new global strategy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease. Keith Sumption, Joseph Domenech and Giancarlo Ferrari describe how the strategy has been based on a progressive control ...
Degen Julia - - 2012
1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of ...
Cohen Deborah A - - 2012
Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls' dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than to ...
Nagler Eve M EM Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Center for Community-Based Research, Boston, MA 02115-5450, USA. - - 2013
The aim of this study was to compare and contrast correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in two blue-collar populations: construction laborers and motor freight workers. Cross-sectional data were collected from two groups of male workers: (1) construction laborers (n = 1,013; response rate = 44 %) randomly selected from ...
Ben-Shoshan Moshe - - 2012
This review summarizes studies discussing temporal trends in the prevalence of food allergy as well as potential factors associated with the development of food allergy. In addition, we will address the potential hypotheses accounting for the apparent increase in food allergy prevalence. Studies suggest increased prevalence of food allergy. However, ...
Seixas Tércia G - - 2012
This research investigated whether environmental conditions, biological fish characteristics and anthropogenic impacts influenced mercury (Hg) assimilation into the muscle tissue of two fish species from two Brazilian bays, Ilha Grande Bay and Guanabara Bay. Fish and superficial water were collected in different periods. Hg was determined by CV-AAS. Methylmercury (MeHg) ...
Badina Laura - - 2012
During the last decades the prevalence of food allergies has significantly increased among children and antigen avoidance still remains the standard care for the management of this condition. Most reactions are IgE-mediated with a high risk of anaphylaxis requiring emergency medications in case of inadvertent ingestion. Recent studies showed that ...
Dunne Julie - - 2012
In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found ...
Müller Markus Michael - - 2012
The demand for bio-based processes and materials in the petrochemical industry has significantly increased during the last decade because of the expected running out of petroleum. This trend can be ascribed to three main causes: (1) The increased use of renewable resources for chemical synthesis of already established product classes. ...
Benhaiem Sarah - - 2012
Within-brood or -litter dominance provides fitness-related benefits if dominant siblings selfishly skew access to food provided by parents in their favour. Models of facultative siblicide assume that dominants exert complete control over their subordinate sibling's access to food and that control is maintained, irrespective of the subordinate's hunger level. By ...
Kim Soyoung - - 2012
The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act ...
Staffileno Beth A - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Older Latinos represent a growing segment of our population, yet little is known about whether older Latinos are following the recommended Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan, which promotes certain food groups to reduce blood pressure (BP) over and above established strategies. Among Latinos, greater acculturation to ...
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