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Results 551 - 600 of 1504
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Mehta Kaye - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate marketing techniques used on the packaging of child-oriented products sold through supermarkets. DESIGN: Food and beverage products which met criteria for 'marketed to children' were recorded as child-oriented. The products were analysed for food categories, nutritional value, and type and extent of marketing techniques used. SETTING: A ...
Sibly Richard M - - 2012
Theoretical and empirical studies of life history aim to account for resource allocation to the different components of fitness: survival, growth, and reproduction. The pioneering evolutionary ecologist David Lack [(1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds (Methuen and Co., London)] suggested that reproductive output in birds reflects adaptation to environmental ...
Gomelsky Alex - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As more women undergo repairs of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), an ever-increasing scrutiny has been placed on repairs utilizing vaginal mesh. We aim to review the current literature regarding mesh POP repairs and discuss the Food and Drug Administration controversy. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence-based literature indicates that the ...
Cousin Fabien J - - 2012
Dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties which require high populations of live and metabolically active propionibacteria in the colon. In this context, the probiotic vector determines probiotic efficiency. Fermented dairy products protect propionibacteria against digestive stresses and generally contain a complex mixture of lactic and propionic acid bacteria. This does not ...
Mojska Hanna - - 2012
Acrylamide is a monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of Maillard reaction. The adverse effects of acrylamide in humans are neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Aim of our study was to determine acrylamide levels in the main categories of commercially made Polish baby food products and to ...
Guegan Thomas - - 2012
Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, ...
Bavaro Mary F - - 2012
It is estimated that there are approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the US each year attributed to foodborne outbreaks with a total cost of 10-83 billion US dollars a year. While the rates of foodborne disease have remained relatively constant over the last few years, ...
Rose Paul E - - 2012
The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor ...
Redwood Mark D - - 2012
An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% ...
Meule Adrian - - 2012
The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and ...
Reilly John - - 2012
Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature ...
Robine Jean-Marie - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, ...
Nahman Anton - - 2012
Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. ...
Edwards Jennifer E - - 2012
Since the 1800s, natural health products that contain hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) have been used in North America for the treatment of heart problems such as hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. Traditionally, Native American tribes used hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) to treat gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems, and consumed the ...
Zaineddin Aida Karina - - 2012
Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women was used to evaluate the association of phytoestrogen-rich foods and dietary lignans ...
Steinglass Joanna E JE Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA. - - 2012
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often characterized as possessing excessive self-control and are unusual in their ability to reduce or avoid the consumption of palatable foods. This behavior promotes potentially life-threatening weight loss and suggests disturbances in reward processing. We studied whether individuals with AN showed evidence of increased ...
Aggio Juan F - - 2012
Decapod crustaceans such as blue crabs possess a variety of chemoreceptors that control different stages of the feeding process. All these chemoreceptors are putative targets for feeding deterrents that cause animals to avoid or reject otherwise palatable food. As a first step towards characterizing the chemoreceptors that mediate the effect ...
de Graaf Cees - - 2012
One of the characteristics of the current obesogenic food supply is the large availability of foods that can be ingested quickly. Controlled nutrition intervention studies have shown that the ingestion of simple energy containing beverages, which are consumed very quickly, do not lead to a lower compensatory intake of other ...
Molenaar W N B - - 2012
Summary  Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental differences in ...
Simões Patrício M V - - 2012
Avoiding food that contains toxins is crucial for the survival of many animals, particularly herbivores, because many plants defend themselves with toxins. Some animals can learn to avoid food containing toxins not through its taste but by the toxins' effects following ingestion, though how they do so remains unclear. We ...
Nougadère Alexandre - - 2012
Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were ...
Piškur Jure - - 2012
The yeast Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis can cause enormous economic losses in wine industry due to production of phenolic off-flavor compounds. D. bruxellensis is a distant relative of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, these two yeasts are often found in the same habitats and share several food-related traits, such as production of ...
Meneses Montse - - 2012
Milk is a very important part of our diet, which is why there is a wide variety of packaging alternatives with considerable local variants on the market. This study assesses the environmental impact of the commonest packaging options on the Spanish market and evaluates (from the point of view of ...
Ayala Guadalupe X - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the impact of the 2009 food packages mandated by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on perceived sales, product selection and stocking habits of small, WIC-authorized food stores. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews with store managers/owners. SETTING: Small, ...
King Lesley - - 2012
To investigate consumers' understanding of terms commonly used to provide guidance about frequency and quantity of food consumption. A survey of 405 shoppers explored how frequently consumers thought food labeled with the terms "eat often," "eat moderately," "eat occasionally," "a sometimes food," and "an extra food" should be eaten. In ...
Bettina Cornwell T - - 2012
Adults and children are repeatedly exposed to the pairing of food and drink as found in meal deals and "combos." There may arise from this indoctrination, a contingent relationship between drink context and food preference. Our multi-method research examines food and drink combining. A survey-based study examines the food and ...
Tudoran Ana Alina - - 2012
In this paper we apply the principle of Regulatory Focus theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcome expectations on individuals' intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations with regard to the consumption of ...
Colasanti Kathryn J A - - 2012
This study investigated changes in Michigan school food service directors' farm to school (FTS) participation levels and perspectives since a 2004 survey and factors that would facilitate FTS expansion. Electronic survey census of all Michigan school food service directors. Michigan kindergarten-12th grade schools. Food service directors of National School Lunch ...
Jauch-Chara Kamila - - 2012
Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a ...
Howe Anna S - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing pressure for adolescents to be thin and this may not always be acted upon in healthy ways; for example, certain foods or food groups may be restricted or meals skipped. As foods are not eaten in isolation it is useful to examine dietary patterns and associated ...
Rao Qinchun - - 2012
In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects ...
Chu Yen Li - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between frequency of assisting with home meal preparation and fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for making healthier food choices among grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Children were asked how often they helped prepare food at home ...
Lamy Elsa - - 2012
Saliva is an extraordinary fluid in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. Its composition in electrolytes, hormones and especially its proteome contains information about feeding status, nutritional requirements and adaptations to diet and environment, and also about health status of animals. It is easy to collect on a non-invasive and ...
Benefice Eric - - 2012
Background: The high rates of rapid urban and economic growth occurring in Asia are bringing about parallel changes in both food consumption patterns and nutritional status. Aim: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of these changes on the nutritional and health status of mothers and their ...
Kelly Bridget - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine parents' and children's attitudes towards food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of elite and children's sports and the acceptability of policies and alternative funding models to limit this sponsorship. DESIGN: Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in February-May 2011. One child from each household was invited to complete ...
Tamayo-Ramos Juan Antonio - - 2012
Two novel phytases have been characterized from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The enzymes belong to a new subclass within the histidine acid phytases, are highly specific for the hydrolysis of phytate, and render myo-inositol triphosphate as the final hydrolysis product. They represent the first phytases characterized from ...
Black Katherine Elizabeth - - 2012
Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent and increasing numbers of athletes participating in sporting events have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, ...
Mu Wanmeng - - 2012
D: -Psicose is a hexoketose monosaccharide sweetener, which is a C-3 epimer of D: -fructose and is rarely found in nature. It has 70 % relative sweetness but 0.3 % energy of sucrose, and is suggested as an ideal sucrose substitute for food products. It shows important physiological functions, such as blood ...
Bradshaw Patrick T PT Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. - - 2012
Few studies have examined the associations between dietary patterns and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or whether they differ by race. This was evaluated using data from a population-based case-control study (2002-2006) including 1,176 cases of head and neck SCC and 1,317 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls from ...
Bellisle France - - 2012
Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. ...
Crago B - - 2012
Consumption of foods containing Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe gastro-intestinal illness. Given the fact that over the past decade, Canada has seen increasing rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage and infection, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA on foodborne illness ...
Vedder Oscar - - 2012
In seasonally reproducing organisms, timing reproduction to match food availability is key to individual fitness. Ambient temperature functions as an important cue for the timing of the food peak in temperate-zone birds. After laying start, individual birds may still improve synchrony between offspring hatching and food availability by adjusting the ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2012
The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 y. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary patterns due to changing lifestyles and ...
Hess Rebecca - - 2012
To compare the influence of a food guide's shape on its effectiveness and efficiency to convey nutritional information. A between-subjects experiment was conducted by manipulating the graph's shape (circle, pyramid, or rainbow). Nutrition tasks were used to assess the effectiveness and eye-movement data (number/duration of fixations) to examine the efficiency ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2012
Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet ...
Molyneux Nicholas N Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Comoro, Dili, Democratic Republic of Timor Leste. - - 2012
The climate in Timor Leste (East Timor) is predicted to become about 1.5 °C warmer and about 10 % wetter on average by 2050. By the same year, the population is expected to triple from 1 to 2.5-3 million. This article maps the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall and ...
Repp Kimberly K - - 2012
We investigated a norovirus outbreak (genotype GII.2) affecting 9 members of a soccer team. Illness was associated with touching a reusable grocery bag or consuming its packaged food contents (risk difference, 0.636; P < .01). By polymerase chain reaction, GII norovirus was recovered from the bag, which had been stored in a ...
Louzada Maria Laura da Costa - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of dietary counseling given to mothers during the first year of infants' lives on food consumption, nutritional status, and lipid profile of the children up to 7 to 8 years old.METHODS:The randomized trial was conducted with 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants with birth ...
Farahi R H - - 2012
The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the ...
Lee Chun-Lin - - 2012
Monascus species has been used as the traditional food fungus in Eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products are gradually developed as the popular functional food for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but we know that culture condition affects the hypolipidemic effect of Monascus-fermented product. In the past, the cholesterol-lowering ...
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