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Results 451 - 500 of 1675
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Moco Sofia - - 2012
Health is influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and diet determinants, therefore nutrition plays an essential role in health management. Still, the substantiation of nutritional health benefits is challenged by the intrinsic macro- and micronutrient complexity of foods and individuals' responses. Evidence of healthy effects of food requires not only new strategies ...
Roffman Itai - - 2012
Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical ...
Lutter C K - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To describe growth patterns of young children in Latin America and the Caribbean, the types of nationally representative data available on complementary feeding practices and complementary feeding practices. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on growth, timing of introduction of liquids and foods, and complementary feeding practices were abstracted ...
Michels Nathalie - - 2012
Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in ...
Jonsson Bror - - 2012
The reaction norm between growth rate, age and size at maturity in ectotherms is widely debated in ecological literature. It has been proposed that the effect depends on whether growth is affected by food quality or temperature (called the Berrigan-Charnov puzzle). The present experiment tested this for Atlantic salmon (Salmo ...
Britten Patricia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns, released as part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are designed to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy requirements. They identify amounts to consume from each food group and recommend that nutrient-dense forms-lean or low-fat, without added sugars or salt-be ...
Sinopoli Dominique A - - 2012
  As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant ...
Flannery Brenna M BM Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, - - 2012
Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested ...
Hartmann Christina - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an ...
El-Fadel Mutasem - - 2012
This study attempts to quantify climate-induced increases in morbidity rates associated with food- and water-borne illnesses in the context of an urban coastal city, taking Beirut-Lebanon as a study area. A Poisson generalized linear model was developed to assess the impacts of temperature on the morbidity rate. The model was ...
Grant Wyn - - 2012
Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on ...
Jiao Junfeng J Department of Urban Planning, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, USA. - - 2012
We explored new ways to identify food deserts. We estimated physical and economic access to supermarkets for 5 low-income groups in Seattle-King County, Washington. We used geographic information system data to measure physical access: service areas around each supermarket were delineated by ability to walk, bicycle, ride transit, or drive ...
Fernandez-Raudales Dina D Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, - - 2012
The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome ...
Dannefer Rachel R New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NY, USA. - - 2012
We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of ...
Asensio Claudia M CM Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, IMBIV-CONICET, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina. - - 2012
Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,""Cordobes,""Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the ...
Fokidis H Bobby - - 2012
Environments often vary with regard to their temporal resource availability, but little is understood concerning how resource predictability impacts animals. The adaptive regulation hypothesis suggests that organisms act to conserve their current energetic state during periods of diminished food access and recuperate their energetic reserves (fat and muscle) during periods ...
Al-Salameen Fadila F Biotechnology Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait. - - 2012
Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human ...
Ranawana Viren - - 2012
Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-east Asia. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen ...
Meyer Rachel S - - 2012
CONTENTS: Summary  1 I. Introduction  2 II. Key concepts and definitions  2 III. Methods of review and analysis  7 IV. Trends identified from the review of 203 crops  9 V. Life cycle 10 VI. Ploidy level 12 VII. Reproductive strategies 12 VIII. The domestication syndrome 14 IX. Spatial and temporal ...
Pimentel Gustavo D - - 2012
Hypothalamic 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses intracellular metabolic stress, i.e., an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio, and integrates diverse hormonal and nutritional signals to restore energy balance. Recent evidence suggests that different nutrients can modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, thereby controlling weight gain through a leptin-independent mechanism. ...
Caroli M - - 2012
Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The ...
Shier V - - 2012
To examine the robustness of the relationship between neighbourhood food environment and youth body mass index (BMI) percentile using alternative measures of food environment and model specifications. Observational study using individual-level longitudinal survey data of children in fifth and eighth grades merged with food outlet data based on student residential ...
Xanthos Marino - - 2012
Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, ...
Keller Heather H - - 2012
ABSTRACT Ready-to-use modified-texture food (rMTF) products are commercially available and may have greater appeal than conventional in-house or commercial bulk modified-texture food (cMTF) products. A nine-month pilot study using a prospective interrupted time-series design where participants (n = 42) served as their own controls investigated the impact of cMTF + ...
Hull Sarah - - 2012
Polydextrose (Litesse®, DuPont) is a polysaccharide that is partially fermented in the colon. Evidence suggests that polydextrose increases satiety when consumed over several weeks; however studies assessing its acute effects on satiety are lacking. This study therefore aimed to assess the impact of different doses of polydextrose on satiety and ...
Oelofse Suzanna Hh - - 2012
Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2012
Greater variety of energy-dense foods increases intake in meals composed of several courses. Little research has examined the effect of variety in low-energy-dense foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). This study examined the effect of fruit variety on fruit intake during a four-course snack. Twenty unrestrained eaters (50% female, 100% White ...
Faulkner G P - - 2012
Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on ...
Chen Kuan-I - - 2012
Soybean products (soyfoods), reported as potential functional foods, are implicated in several health-enhancing properties, such as easing the symptoms of postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of osteoporosis, preventing cardiovascular disease, and antimutagenic effects. Isoflavone, for example, is one of the most important compounds abundantly found in soybean, mainly accounting for ...
Brindal E - - 2012
Background/Objectives:The effect of Glycaemic Index (GI) and Load (GL) of breakfasts on satiety and aspects of cognitive function in children is inconclusive. We aimed to assess if isocaloric breakfasts differing in GL (by replacing high-GI carbohydrate foods with dairy protein foods) acutely alter cognitive function and satiety in 10- to ...
Korkalo Liisa - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of food photographs in portion size estimation among adolescent girls in Mozambique. The study was carried out in preparation for the larger ZANE study, which used the 24 h dietary recall method. DESIGN: Life-sized photographs of three portion sizes of two staple foods and three ...
Ziska Lewis H - - 2012
Agricultural production is under increasing pressure by global anthropogenic changes, including rising population, diversion of cereals to biofuels, increased protein demands and climatic extremes. Because of the immediate and dynamic nature of these changes, adaptation measures are urgently needed to ensure both the stability and continued increase of the global ...
Rayner Mike - - 2012
This paper gives a definition of 'nutrient profiling' and outlines the scope 'marketing of foods to children' and it's 'regulation' for the purposes of the paper. It then points out that nutrient profiling has many other purposes besides the regulation of marketing of foods to children. It briefly outlines the ...
Vavouraki Aikaterini Ioannis - - 2012
Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) in Greece consist mainly of fermentable organic material such as food scraps (∼50%) and paper residuals (∼20%). The aim of this work was to study the thermo-chemical pretreatment of the kitchen waste (KW) fraction of MSW focusing on biotechnological exploitation of pretreated wastes for biofuel production. ...
Takaaki Kato - - 2012
This study provides a detailed description of food residue collection by swine breeders in Da Nang, Viet Nam. In January 2011, the study surveyed 30 swine breeders in two villages with respect to locations, methods, prices, quantities, and prospects for food residue collection. The sampled swine breeders regularly visited 55 ...
Pravosudov V V - - 2012
Food-caching birds rely on stored food to survive the winter, and spatial memory has been shown to be critical in successful cache recovery. Both spatial memory and the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial memory, exhibit significant geographic variation linked to climate-based environmental harshness and the potential ...
Lawson Elizabeth A - - 2012
Animal data suggest that oxytocin is a satiety hormone. We have demonstrated that anorexia nervosa (anorexia), a disorder characterized by food restriction, low weight, and hypoleptinemia, is associated with decreased nocturnal oxytocin secretion. We have also reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) hypoactivation in anorexia in brain regions involved in ...
Hobbs Nicholas J - - 2012
Proceptive behaviours are used by animals to indicate interest in opposite-sex conspecifics. These behaviours can be affected by an individual's nutritional status. Two mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to account for the effects of food availability on reproduction. These are the metabolic fuels hypothesis and the reproduction at all ...
Konttinen Hanna - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: A low socio-economic status (SES) is related to less healthy dietary habits, but the reasons for this remain unclear. We examined whether the absolute or relative importance of various food choice motives contributed to SES disparities in vegetable/fruit and energy-dense food intake. DESIGN: We analysed cross-sectional data from the ...
Yasuda Masaaki - - 2012
Red koji or red mold rice is prepared by growing a genus Monascus on steamed rice. For centuries, it has been used in Asia for the production of fermented foods including red rice wine and fermented tofu. Although red koji is an important source of various hydrolytic enzymes critical for ...
Dietrich Marcelo O - - 2012
Current anti-obesity drugs aim to reduce food intake by either curbing appetite or suppressing the craving for food. However, many of these agents have been associated with severe psychiatric and/or cardiovascular side effects, highlighting the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Emerging knowledge on the role of the hypothalamus in enabling ...
Rossiter Melissa D - - 2012
This study evaluated the eating behaviours of students in grade six and, three years later when they were in grade nine, relative to the recommendations of Canada's 2007 Food Guide. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire on eating behaviours in 2002 (n = 647) and again in 2005 (n = 520) ...
Holman B W B - - 2012
Summary Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and ...
Reed Thomas E - - 2012
Populations are shifting their phenology in response to climate change, but these shifts are often asynchronous among interacting species. Resulting phenological mismatches can drive simultaneous changes in natural selection and population demography, but the links between these interacting processes are poorly understood. Here we analyse 37 years of data from an ...
Zhang Xiaolan - - 2012
Synthetic musks are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic environments. As hydrophobic chemicals, they can accumulate in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Investigations into the bioaccumulation of these chemicals in aquatic ecosystem have, however, been limited, and previous results were inconsistent among species and ecosystem. Studies on this topic have been carried out ...
Smith D J - - 2012
For over 100 yr, scientists have explored uses of sodium chlorate in agricultural applications. Sodium chlorate is a strong oxidizer, and thus can be very hazardous when not handled accordingly. Nevertheless, late 19th century agriculturists and scientists attempted to exploit the chemical properties of sodium chlorate as an herbicide and ...
Neumann Charlotte G - - 2012
The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic ...
Vianna P C B - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of CO(2) to raw milk on UHT milk quality during storage. Control milk (without CO(2) addition) and treated milk (with CO(2) addition up to pH 6.2) were stored in bulk tanks at 4°C for 6d. After storage, both ...
Rubio-Aliaga Isabel - - 2012
Personalized nutrition has been traditionally based on the adjustment of food and diet according to individual needs and preferences. At present, this concept is being reinforced through the application of state-of-the-art high-throughput technologies to help understand the molecular mechanisms underlying a healthy state. This knowledge could enable the adjustment of ...
Brown J Lynne - - 2012
Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white ...
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