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DUVALL, Chris S.
Analysis of botanical data is presented from the standpoint of chimpanzee natural history. The Sudano-Guinean gallery forest type dominated by the tree Gilletiodendron glandulosum appears to be important habitat for chimpanzees due to vegetation structure, presence of permanent surface water, and particularly, abundance of diverse food plants throughout the year. ...
Varanda E M - - 2008
Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the ...
Kobayashi, Kent
Ti (ki in Hawaiian) is the common name for Cordyline fruticosa, which is found throughout tropical Asia, Australia, and the Pacific islands. Ti commonly grows in moist, semi-shaded areas in wet valleys and forests on all the major Hawaiian islands except Kaho‘olawe. It is the most popular Cordyline species as ...
Reinhardt Keith - - 2008
The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem [Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] of the southern Appalachian mountains, USA, is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65% of all days annually. We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, ...
Fitzgerald T D - - 2008
This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- ...
Vincenot Lucie - - 2008
Pyrola rotundifolia (Ericaceae, Pyroleae tribe) is an understorey subshrub that was recently demonstrated to receive considerable amount of carbon from its fungal mycorrhizal associates. So far, little is known of the identity of these fungi and the mycorrhizal anatomy in the Pyroleae. Using 140 mycorrhizal root fragments collected from two ...
McGrath Laura J - - 2009
1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we ...
Beikircher Barbara B Institut für Botanik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. - - 2008
Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water ...
Osbrink Weste L A - - 2008
Hurricane Katrina (2005) resulted in extensive flooding in the city of New Orleans, LA. Periodic sampling of monitors before the flood, and of different monitors in the same areas after the flood, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term flooding on populations of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki ...
West Brett J - - 2008
Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects of processing on the content of ...
Guo Songtao - - 2008
Habitat destruction is one of the greatest threats to primates worldwide. To understand the impact of forest logging on the habitat use of primates in temperate mixed forest, we compared the range, habitat used, population size, and diet of a troop (ERT) of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the ...
Hughes G L - - 2008
Fiji leaf gall (FLG) is caused by the Reovirus, Fiji disease virus (FDV), which is transmitted to sugarcane by planthoppers of the genus Perkinsiella. Low vector transmission rates and slow disease symptom development make experimentation within the FDV-Perkinsiella-sugarcane system inherently difficult. A laboratory-based technique was devised to rear the vector ...
Stanford Craig B - - 2008
Unlike nearly all other nonhuman primates, great apes build sleeping nests. In Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, chimpanzees build nests nightly and also build day nests. We investigated patterns of nest tree use by Bwindi chimpanzees to understand ecological influences on nest tree selection. We analyzed data on 3,414 chimpanzee ...
Zang Yun-Xiang - - 2008
Three Arabidopsis cDNAs, MAM1, CYP79F1, and CYP83A1, required for aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis were introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transgenic lines overexpressing MAM1 or CYP83A1 showed wild-type phenotypes. However, all the lines overexpressing CYP79F1 displayed phenotypes different from wild type with respect to the stem thickness as ...
Agrawal Arun - - 2008
Major features of contemporary forest governance include decentralization of forest management, logging concessions in publicly owned commercially valuable forests, and timber certification, primarily in temperate forests. Although a majority of forests continue to be owned formally by governments, the effectiveness of forest governance is increasingly independent of formal ownership. Growing ...
Fry Heidi R C - - 2008
Trees in an urban forest are highly valued because they have esthetic appeal, provide shade, and improve air quality. During the past 5 yr (2002-2006) in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, the elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has reached outbreak densities. Each year, hundreds of trees have ...
Yoshimoto Teppei - - 2008
The technical establishment of boar sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for effective breeding of the scarce Okinawan native pig Agu. The objective of the present study was to determine whether ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside (AA-2G), a stable ascorbate derivative, is capable of improving the quality of cryopreserved Agu spermatozoa. Ejaculated Agu sperm ...
André Frédéric - - 2008
The effects of meteorological variables and local canopy characteristics on throughfall chemistry were investigated within a mixed oak-beech stand during the leafed and the leafless seasons. Throughfall was collected after each rain event in 12 structural units delimited by three neighbouring trees each. For each investigated ion (H+, Mg2+, Ca2+, ...
Dominy Nathaniel J - - 2008
There has been little previous work on the toughness of the laminae of monocots in tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) despite the potential importance of greater toughness in inhibiting herbivory by invertebrates. Of 15 monocot families with >100 species in TLRF, eight have notably high densities of fibres in the ...
Veraart, Annelies J.
Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in February, ...
Maier Chris A - - 2008
We examined effects of a first nitrogen (N) fertilizer application on upper-canopy needle morphology and gas exchange in approximately 20-m-tall loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) for 9 years. Duke Forest free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) plots were split and half of each ring fertilized ...
de Magalhães Erismann Norma - - 2008
Photosynthetic limitations under moderate water deficit were evaluated in 'Valência' orange trees grafted on three different rootstocks, in pots. Net CO(2) assimilation rate (A (N)), stomatal conductance (g (s)), and photosystem II (PS II) operating efficiency (F'(q)/F'(m)) in response to changing intercellular CO(2 ) partial pressure (C (i)) were analyzed ...
Zug, George R
Bufo marinus was introduced into the New Guinea region in the late 1930s. Its present distribution in Papua New Guinea is mapped. In the Port Moresby area, the population of Bufo marinus is capable of reproduction at any time of the year. Sampling at a rain forest and a savanna ...
Moultrie Tom A - - 2008
Stalled fertility declines have been identified in several regions across the developing world, but the current conceptualization of a stalled fertility decline is poorly theorized and does not lend itself to objective measurement. We propose a more rigorous and statistically testable definition of stalled fertility decline that can be applied ...
Teixeira Diva C - - 2008
Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, ...
Funsani, S; ;
People living near Dzalanyama Forest Reserve in Lilongwe District of Central Malawi collect various forest products throughout the year. This paper quantifies the contribution of fuel wood as a non-timber forest product (NTFP) to income and food security of the households surrounding the Dzalanyama Forest Reserve. A sample of 150 ...
Degabriel Jane L - - 2008
Many regard the concentrations of nitrogen (N), tannins and plant cell wall constituents (fibre) as key indicators of food quality and habitat suitability for browsing herbivores; yet there is no method for measuring their combined effects. We have developed a simple in vitro assay for measuring the effects of tannins ...
Meinzer Frederick C - - 2008
The physiological mechanisms responsible for reduced extension growth as trees increase in height remain elusive. We evaluated biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Needle elongation rates, plastic and elastic extensibility, bulk leaf water (Psi(L)) and osmotic (Psi(pi)) potential, bulk tissue yield threshold and ...
Yee Wee L - - 2008
A study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential foods and the feeding substrates and behaviors of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in 2005, 2006, and 2007 in central Washington state. Aphid colonies with honeydew, a presumed food source for flies, were not seen ...
Ji Xiufeng - - 2008
Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are bioactive compounds occurring in many members of the Poaceae, likely at or near the surface of various organs. Here, we investigated AR localization within the cuticular wax layers of rye (Secale cereale) leaves. The total wax mixture from both sides of the leaves was found to contain ...
Waring, Richard H.
Structure and function of the Coniferous Forest Biome organization -- A systematic framework for modeling and studying the physiology of a coniferous forest ecosystem -- Nutrient cycling in 37- and 450-year-old Douglas-fir ecosystems -- Estimating evapotranspiration from forests by meteorological and lysimetric methods -- Canopy food chain in a coniferous ...
Hukkanen Anne - - 2008
The main arctic bramble ( Rubus arcticus) cultivars are susceptible to downy mildew ( Peronospora sparsa), which seriously threatens the cultivation. The efficiency of Aliette, Euparen M, phosphite-containing Phosfik, Phostrol, Farm-Fos-44, and Kaliumfosfiet, as well as Bion was evaluated in the greenhouse. Fewer symptoms and less Peronospora DNA were found ...
Warner J C - - 2008
Zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella can cause gastrointestinal illness if they are ingested with food. Foods such as salads pose a greater risk because they are consumed raw and have been the source of major outbreaks of disease from fresh produce. The novel light microscopy methods used in this study ...
I.S. Travlos
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the allelopathic potential of marama bean (<I>Tylosema esculentum</I> (Burch) A. Schreib), a drought-avoider legume of Africa, which produces seed and tubers with potential for use as human food and animal fodder. Fresh, senesced and decaying leaves from marama were evaluated for their ...
Broberg, Emilia
The wild boar is a reintroduced game species in Sweden which has become a problem species because of damage on crops and causing traffic accidents. This is a comparative study with the aim to answer the following questions: (i) which habitat sites are most frequently visited by wild boar (ii) ...
Bylesjö Max - - 2008
An increased understanding of leaf area development is important in a number of fields: in food and non-food crops, for example short rotation forestry as a biofuels feedstock, leaf area is intricately linked to biomass productivity; in paleontology leaf shape characteristics are used to reconstruct paleoclimate history. Such fields require ...
Jazy Hamid Dehghanzadeh - - 2007
An experiment was conducted during 2004-2006 at the Agricultural Research Station, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of irrigation regimes on growth indices of three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. A split plot layout with a randomized complete ...
Brown, Gregory G.
Thesis (M.S.)--Humboldt State University, Natural Resources: Wildlife, 2007
Straw N A - - 2007
A survey of 801 poplar trees in central east England in 1999 demonstrated a correlation between crown dieback and infestation by hornet clearwing moth (Sesia apiformis), induced by a period of drought in 1995-1996. To determine whether trees colonised by S. apiformis would subsequently deteriorate and die or whether they ...
Ponce Georgina - - 2008
Directed growth of roots in relation to a moisture gradient is called hydrotropism. The no hydrotropic response (nhr1) mutant of Arabidopsis lacks a hydrotropic response, and shows a stronger gravitropic response than that of wild type (wt) in a medium with an osmotic gradient. Local application of abscisic acid (ABA) ...
Burgess Kevin S - - 2008
Hybrid fertilizations can have negative demographic effects on taxa by usurping ovules that would otherwise give rise to nonhybrid offspring. The consequent reduction in conspecific matings may be exaggerated in rare taxa and constitutes a fertility cost that has rarely been quantified. Here, the effect of interspecific mating was estimated ...
Rodriguez Clara I - - 2007
Spermatogenesis in mammals necessitates an extensive remodeling and loss of many cellular organelles and proteins as the spermatozoa undergo maturation. The removal of proteins and organelles depends on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Herc4, though ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, is most highly expressed ...
Yang Fan - - 2007
The improvement of spinach growth is proved to relate to N2 fixation by nano-anatase TiO2 in this study. The results show that all spinach leaves kept green by nano-anatase TiO2 treatment and all old leaves of control turned yellow white under culture with N-deficient solution. And the fresh weight, dry ...
Pradhan Surendra K - - 2007
Human urine was used as a fertilizer in cabbage cultivation and compared with industrial fertilizer and nonfertilizer treatments. Urine achieved equal fertilizer value to industrial fertilizer when both were used at a dose of 180 kg N/ha. Growth, biomass, and levels of chloride were slightly higher in urine-fertilized cabbage than ...
Koch, Paul
The problems associated with habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are larely responsible for a decline in biodiversity around the world, yet there are relatively few studies targeting declining populations to determine which aspects of resource availability actually limit population size. The endangered south-eastern Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhychus banksii graptogyne is ...
Siritunga Dimuth - - 2007
For cassava to become a safe and acceptable crop, it is necessary to reduce the cyanogen levels in cassava foods. While this objective can be achieved by processing procedures, recent findings have shown that it is also possible to achieve it by suppression of cyanogen synthesis or by accelerating cyanogen ...
Bakker Jonathan D - - 2007
Long-term studies can broaden our ecological understanding and are particularly important when examining contingent effects that involve changes to dominance by long-lived species. Such a change occurred during the last century in Southwestern (USA) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. We used five livestock grazing exclosures established in 1912 to quantify ...
Wittig Victoria E - - 2007
The surface concentration of ozone ([O(3)]) has risen from less than 10 ppb prior to the industrial revolution to a day-time mean concentration of approximately 40 ppb over much of the northern temperate zone. If current global emission trends continue, surface [O(3)] is projected to rise a further 50% over ...
Sato, Takeaki
ABSTRACT I assessed the influence of microhabitat variables on the abundance and spatial structure of small mammals across three types of forest, deciduous (Colonial Point), hardwood-pine (the Burn Plots) and cedar swamp (Reese’s Swamp), at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS), in Cheboygan County, northern lower Michigan. Traps have ...
Kuemmerle Tobias - - 2007
Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest ...
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