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Brown M W - - 2010
A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity and increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To enhance parasitism of the tufted apple ...
Green Leonard L Washington University, Department of Psychology, Saint Louis, MO 63130, USA. - - 2010
Pigeons' discounting of probabilistic and delayed food reinforcers was studied using adjusting-amount procedures. In the probability discounting conditions, pigeons chose between an adjusting number of food pellets contingent on a single key peck and a larger, fixed number of pellets contingent on completion of a variable-ratio schedule. In the delay ...
Charlebois Sylvain - - 2010
In 2008, Canada enacted its biggest-ever food recall in response to a Listeria crisis, stemming from a Maple Leaf Foods plant, that killed 22 Canadians. Afterwards, Maple Leaf's market share quickly returned to pre-crisis levels, but the long-term repercussions of the scare still reverberate in Maple Leaf's brand. In this ...
Rocha-Guzmán Nuria Elizabeth - - 2010
Quercus resinosa leaves are used in northern Mexico as a refreshing beverage rich in polyphenolic compounds. These leaves show astringency and hence need taste masking for incorporating in a food product. They also interact with many other food components and are not very stable to food processing environments, thus it ...
Amézquita Sandra - - 2010
Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests ...
Tulini F L - - 2010
Bacteriocins are ribosomally produced peptides useful for food biopreservation. An improved adsorption-desorption process is proposed for the partial purification of the bacteriocin produced by the fish isolate Carnobacterium maltaromaticum C2. Analyzis of extract by SDS-PAGE indicated this method may offer an alternative to improve the yield of purification of bacteriocins.
Kolind-Hansen Lotte - - 2010
BACKGROUND: A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels. RESULTS: Shops selling fresh cassava were shown ...
Thrush Simon F - - 2010
Modern fishing changes the ocean environment in many ways, including disturbing the sea floor, altering the food webs, and shifting many important ecosystem functions. Natural history, oceanographic, habitat, behavior, and ecological information must be integrated to implement meaningful ecosystem-based management. We discuss the urgent need to expand the concept of ...
Lavecchia Teresa - - 2010
The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. ...
Vergari Francesca - - 2010
Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related ...
Ribeiro Paulina de A Pde - - 2010
The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils ...
Gupta V - - 2010
Effect of cooking, fermentation, dehulling and the use of utensils on flavonoids (quercitin and pelargonidin) - antioxidants present in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) rabadi, along with proximate composition and sensory acceptability of the product were studied. Study revealed an increased ash and flavonoids and reduced crude fibre after cooking in ...
Giunta Roberto - - 2010
This chapter provides a short review of the main regulations concerning functional food and nutraceutical products set out by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and in the European Union by the European Commission. The directives are presented in chronological order with an overview on the reaction and feedback they ...
McCabe Margaret Sova MS Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, New Hampshire, - - 2010
In 2009, gluten-free foods were not only "hot" in the marketplace, several countries, including the United States, continued efforts to define gluten-free and appropriate labeling parameters. The regulatory process illuminates how difficult regulations based on safe scientific thresholds can be for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. This article analyzes the gluten-free ...
Sauther Michelle L - - 2009
Fallback foods are often viewed as central in shaping primate morphology, and influencing adaptive shifts in hominin and other primate evolution. Here we argue that fruit of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) qualifies as a fallback food of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar. ...
Clissold Fiona J - - 2009
Leaf biomechanical properties are thought to impose a significant obstacle to herbivores and as such influence patterns of herbivory more than leaf chemistry. However, evidence for the role of structural traits in influencing herbivore food choice and performance has come from correlative studies, whereas the underlying mechanisms have been given ...
Simpson Thomas S - - 2009
The work presented here indicates that people who have a tendency to develop kidney stones should avoid consuming regrowth and developed silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) leaves. Soluble oxalate contents of leaves range from 58% of the total oxalate for the mature leaves up to 89% for the regrowth ...
Chichoyan N - - 2009
Plant polysaccharides are widely used in the food and confectionary industries, as an emulsifier, flavour encapsulator, and thickening agent. The apricot tree has a gum that oozes out in the spring and it seems to be a lot like gum Arabic. Gums collected from apricot trees growing in Armenia (RA) ...
Mbora David N M - - 2009
We investigated the effects of anthropogenic habitat degradation on group size, ranging, fecundity, and parasite dynamics in four groups of the Tana River mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus). Two groups occupied a forest disturbed by human activities, while the other two occupied a forest with no human disturbance. We predicted that the ...
Penny Mary E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Coca leaves (Erythroxylum coca) have been promoted as a food that could address the dietary deficiencies of the Andean population, but this is based on nutrient analyses of a small sample of leaves. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the nutritional potential of eight samples of coca leaves grown in different regions ...
Dunn Jacob C - - 2009
The threat that forest fragmentation and habitat loss presents for several Alouatta taxa requires us to determine the key elements that may promote the persistence of howler monkeys in forest fragments and to evaluate how changes in the availability of these elements may affect their future conservation prospects. In this ...
Noser Rahel - - 2010
How do humans and animals travel between multiple destinations on a given foraging trip? This question is of theoretical and practical interest, yet few empirical data exist to date. We examined how a group of wild chacma baboons travelled among multiple, simultaneously fruiting mountain fig trees (Ficus glumosa). In the ...
Poulsen J R - - 2009
Unsustainable hunting of wildlife for food empties tropical forests of many species critical to forest maintenance and livelihoods of forest people. Extractive industries, including logging, can accelerate exploitation of wildlife by opening forests to hunters and creating markets for bushmeat. We monitored human demographics, bushmeat supply in markets, and household ...
Chadare F J - - 2009
Several authors have published about baobab food products. Data on macronutrients, micronutrients, amino acids, and fatty acids were collected from literature for pulp, leaves, seeds, and kernels of the baobab tree. The results show that baobab pulp is particularly rich in vitamin C; consumption of 40 g covers 84 to ...
Famaye, AO; ;
A field experiment to evaluate the effect of intercropping coffee with food crops was conducted at Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) Headquarters, Idi-Ayunre, Ibadan, Oyo State and substations located at Uhonmora Edo State and Kusuku Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State between 1996 and1998. Three food crops comprising of maize, cassava, ...
Suzuki Tatsuro - - 2009
Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), rutin, minor flavonoids (such as orientin), anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine (2HN) were quantified in the leaves of common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., respectively), at 14, 28, and 42 days after sowing (DAS). GABA and rutin concentrations peaked at 42 DAS, ...
LaFleur M - - 2009
In January 2005, a cyclone hit southern Madagascar, including the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of Tamarindus indica, leaving Lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. We studied two adjacent groups of L. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside ...
Hicks Thurston C - - 2009
Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of Grima with food, medicine, housing material, and other ...
Sawyer Sarah C - - 2009
Innovation, the invention of new behavior, has been observed in wild primates only infrequently. The processing of thistle (Cardus nyassanus) has previously been described as being one of the most complex food processing techniques used by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). We report a case of innovation in thistle leaf ...
Sabu Thomas K - - 2009
Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. ...
Spracklen Dominick V - - 2008
Previous studies have concluded that boreal forests warm the climate because the cooling from storage of carbon in vegetation and soils is cancelled out by the warming due to the absorption of the Sun's heat by the dark forest canopy. However, these studies ignored the impacts of forests on atmospheric ...
Kreft, Ivan; Biotechnical Faculty, ...
Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) are because of their phenolic substances content resistant to grazing by animals, pests, diseases, UV radiation and unfavourable soil conditions. Buckwheat is sensitive to application of mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers. Buckwheat is as a semi-wild plant suitable for growing without ...
Dulamsuren Choimaa - - 2009
Shoot water relations were studied in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) trees growing at the borderline between taiga and steppe in northern Mongolia. Larix sibirica is the main tree species in these forests covering 80% of Mongolia's forested area. Minimum shoot water potentials (Psi(m)) close to the point of zero ...
Brandeis Thomas J - - 2008
Quantification of the downed woody materials that comprise forest fuels has gained importance in Caribbean forest ecosystems due to the increasing incidence and severity of wildfires on island ecosystems. Because large-scale assessments of forest fuels have rarely been conducted for these ecosystems, forest fuels were assessed at 121 US Department ...
Gould William A - - 2008
Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, ...
TAKEDA, Jun
Food acquisition and consumption behavior of the Ngandu, who are a Bantu people living in the Zaire basin, is described. The utilization of plants and animals as foods is examined from food diaries recorded over a long period of time by two informants. The Ngandu are multi-subsistence strategists, utilizing widely ...
ANKEI, Takako
What do African women do to prepare their daily diet in rural environment? This article is an attempt to answer this question, based on an eight months' field survey among the Songola, a Bantu people living in the tropical rain forest of the Republic of Zaïre. In order to shed ...
Ganesh P Sankar - - 2009
Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at ...
ICHIKAWA, Mitsuo
The possibility of a hunting-dependent life by the Mbuti Pygmies in the Ituri Forest is examined, and ecological and sociological conditions of such a life are discussed. It is concluded that, without the symbiolic partners providing the Mbuti with farm foods, a hunting-dependent life in the Ituri Forest would be ...
YAMAGIWA, Juichi
Preliminary surveys were conducted to estimate primate densities and forest structure in the Petit Loango Reserve, Gabon. The tropical forest of the Reserve consisted mainly of primary vegetation characterized by poor Marantaceae or Zingiberaceae undergrowth, which are regarded to be important (keystone) foods for apes in other habitats. Despite the ...
DUVALL, Chris S.
Analysis of botanical data is presented from the standpoint of chimpanzee natural history. The Sudano-Guinean gallery forest type dominated by the tree Gilletiodendron glandulosum appears to be important habitat for chimpanzees due to vegetation structure, presence of permanent surface water, and particularly, abundance of diverse food plants throughout the year. ...
Varanda E M - - 2008
Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the ...
Kobayashi, Kent
Ti (ki in Hawaiian) is the common name for Cordyline fruticosa, which is found throughout tropical Asia, Australia, and the Pacific islands. Ti commonly grows in moist, semi-shaded areas in wet valleys and forests on all the major Hawaiian islands except Kaho‘olawe. It is the most popular Cordyline species as ...
Reinhardt Keith - - 2008
The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem [Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] of the southern Appalachian mountains, USA, is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30-40% of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65% of all days annually. We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, ...
Fitzgerald T D - - 2008
This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- ...
Vincenot Lucie - - 2008
Pyrola rotundifolia (Ericaceae, Pyroleae tribe) is an understorey subshrub that was recently demonstrated to receive considerable amount of carbon from its fungal mycorrhizal associates. So far, little is known of the identity of these fungi and the mycorrhizal anatomy in the Pyroleae. Using 140 mycorrhizal root fragments collected from two ...
McGrath Laura J - - 2009
1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we ...
Beikircher Barbara B Institut für Botanik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. - - 2008
Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water ...
Osbrink Weste L A - - 2008
Hurricane Katrina (2005) resulted in extensive flooding in the city of New Orleans, LA. Periodic sampling of monitors before the flood, and of different monitors in the same areas after the flood, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term flooding on populations of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki ...
West Brett J - - 2008
Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects of processing on the content of ...
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