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Casaer Michael P - - 2014
In the previous issue of Critical Care, Dr Bellomo and colleagues reported an observational study of the relationship between nutritional intake and survival in the RENAL randomized controlled trial. In summary, the total energy intake in a very large and severely ill patient population was low. Higher average daily caloric ...
Browne Amanda M AM Laboratory for Sensory Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences and J. P. Scott Center for Neuroscience Mind and Behavior, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403, USA, - - 2014
The widespread use of herbicides across the globe has increased the probability of synthetic chemicals entering freshwater habitats. On entering aquatic habitats, these chemicals target and disrupt both physiological and behavioral functioning in various aquatic organisms. Herbicides, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), can have negative impacts on chemoreception because these ...
Lüersen Kai K Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, - - 2014
Locomotion is crucial for the survival of living organisms, as it allows foraging, flight and mating behaviour. In response to environmental cues, many organisms switch between alternative forms of locomotion, referred to as gaits. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits two gaits: swimming in liquids and crawling on dense gels. The ...
Gardner Christopher D CD Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, - - 2014
The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart ...
Zou Zhuo Z iPack Vinn Excellence Center, School of Information and Communication Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), , Isafjordsgatan 39, 164 40 Kista, Stockholm, - - 2014
Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached ...
Malisch Rainer R EU Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Feed and Food, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food (CVUA), Bissierstrasse 5, D-79114 Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, ...
Muraro A A Department of Mother and Child Health, The Referral Centre for Food Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Veneto Region, University of Padua, Padua, - - 2014
Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature ...
Van Calcar Sandra C SC .Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The galactose-restricted diet is life-saving for infants with classic galactosemia. However, the benefit and extent of dietary galactose restriction required after infancy remain unclear and variation exists in practice. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to better standardize treatment for this disorder. This paper reviews the association between diet ...
Schnettler Morales Berta B Universidad de La - - 2014
Background: Eating is one of the most frequent human behaviors, but there are few studies that relate eating and subjective well-being. Typologies of people were distinguished and characterized according to their level of satisfaction with life and food in central Chile. Method: A survey was applied to a sample of ...
Heidenreich Barbara B Good Bird Inc, PO Box 150604, Austin, TX 78715, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food plays an important part in companion animal health, and also plays a significant role in influencing animal behavior. Avian and small mammal species show general trends in food preferences that can be used to reinforce desired behaviors. Motivation for food can be increased by various strategies. Nonfood reinforcers also ...
Greiner Allen K - - 2014
The human intestinal tract harbors a complex ecosystem of commensal bacteria that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their host. There is a general consensus that diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. In adults, diets that ...
Gerchow Lauren L Lauren Gerchow, BSN, RN, is Master of Science in Nursing Student, College of Nursing, New York University. Barbara Tagliaferro, BA, MA, is Research Coordinator, Section on Health Choice, Policy, and Evaluation, School of Medicine, Department of Population Health, New York University. Allison Squires, PhD, RN, is Assistant Professor and Director of International Education, College of Nursing, New York University. Joey Nicholson, MLIS, MPH, is Assistant Curator and Education and Curriculum Librarian, School of Medicine, New York University. Stella M. Savarimuthu, is Medical Student, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York. Damara Gutnick, MD, is Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, New York University. Melanie Jay, MD, MS, is Staff Physician and Clinician Investigator, Veterans Affairs Medical Center New York - - 2014
Obesity disproportionately affects Latinas living in the United States, and cultural food patterns contribute to this health concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the qualitative results of research regarding Latina food patterns in order to (a) identify common patterns across Latino culture and within Latino subcultures and ...
Lesorogol Carolyn C George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2014
To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One ...
Keet Corinne A - - 2014
Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach ...
Denton Sally-Ann SA Portsmouth Hospitals NHS - - 2014
In the UK, up to 6% of children are affected by food allergy. Accurate diagnosis, appropriate dietary management, family education, support and continuing follow up are essential to prevent further reactions and optimise the child's nutritional intake and growth. Setting up an improved, one- stop service to achieve these goals, ...
Dresser Rebecca - - 2014
In this issue, Paul Menzel and M. Colette Chandler-Cramer propose a novel advance directive. Besides giving competent people the opportunity to refuse future life-prolonging medical interventions, they say, advance directives should give people the opportunity to refuse ordinary food and water if they later experience severe dementia. This proposal is ...
- - 2014
A few years ago, I tried and failed to find a short essay arguing that, if there were tests that let physicians detect Alzheimer's disease well before symptoms appear, then at the very least, some very difficult questions about life planning would arise. That doctors will acquire that ability now ...
Gibney Michael J MJ Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; and School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Ulster, Northern Ireland - - 2014
In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies ...
Curtis Tanya Y TY Plant Biology and Crop Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United - - 2014
Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they ...
Barzegari Abolfazl A Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, - - 2014
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) revealed the significance of the gut microbiome in promoting health. Disruptions in microbiome composition are associated with the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The indigenous microflora has co-evolved with humans for millions of years and humans have preserved the inherited microbiomes through consumption of fermented foods ...
Baum Neil H - - 2014
All doctors and office staff go to restaurants and have men and women take our orders and deliver our food. These waiters and waitresses earn minimum wage and depend on tips for their income. Some of the best waiters and waitresses earn substantial incomes. This article will discuss the techniques ...
Gemeda Negero N Traditional & Modern Medicine Research Directorate, Ethiopian Health & Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, - - 2014
To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare ...
Kaml Craig - - 2014
A competency-based training curriculum framework for U.S. state food and feed testing laboratories personnel is being developed by the International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI) and three partners. The framework will help laboratories catalog existing training courses/modules, identify training gaps, inform training curricula, and create career-spanning professional development learning paths, ...
Crole Martina Rachel MR Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South - - 2014
Herbst corpuscles are widely distributed throughout the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu in contrast to the general situation in birds. Knowledge of the comparative distribution of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of these two commercially important ratite species may assist in a better understanding of their feeding habits. Tissue ...
de Pascual-Teresa Sonia S Department of Metabolism and Nutrition. Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Jose Antonio Novais 10, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28008, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anthocyanins are the main group of natural hydrosoluble pigments in plants. They introduce colouring to foods, with colours ranging from blue to red and orange. Nowadays, their importance for the Food and Pharmaceutical industries is mainly based in the existing scientific work evidencing their beneficial effects on the prevention of ...
Zamora-Ros Raul R Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (RZ-R, JAR, IR, and AS); the Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain (RZ-R); and the Cancer and Environment Unit, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France - - 2014
Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, ...
Ford Lara S LS Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, - - 2014
Food allergy and anaphylaxis occur most commonly in children under five, the majority of whom attend preschool and early childcare. Children under five differ significantly from school-aged children, as do their care environments, yet specific strategies for managing food allergies in early childcare settings are generally lacking in existing guidelines ...
Kemps Eva E a School of Psychology , Flinders University , Adelaide , - - 2014
Abstract Objective: This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. Design and Main Outcome Measures: We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment ...
Taylor John R N JR Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, South - - 2014
Sorghum and millet grains are generally rich in phytochemicals, particularly various types of phenolics. However, the types and amounts vary greatly between and within species. The food processing operations applied to these grains: dehulling and decortication, malting, fermentation and thermal processing dramatically affect the quantity of phenolics present, most generally ...
Varga János - - 2014
Abstract Black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri) are widely distributed in various habitats. They act as food spoilage organisms, human pathogens, and mycotoxin producers and are frequently encountered in indoor environments. Black Aspergilli, specifically A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius, produce different ochratoxins and fumonisins. Ochratoxins are known to induce ...
Hartmann Erica M EM CEA, DSV, IBEB, Lab Biochim System Perturb, Bagnols-sur-Cèze, F-30207, - - 2014
Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the ...
Amici Federica F Department of Comparative and Developmental Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany, - - 2014
Little evidence of calculated reciprocity has been found in non-human primates so far. In this study, we used a simple experimental set-up to test whether partners pulled a sliding table to altruistically provide food to each other in short-term interactions. We tested 46 dyads of chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, brown ...
Steensels Jan J Laboratory for Genetics and Genomics, Center of Microbial and Plant Genetics, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium and Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB, Bio-Incubator, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; email: - - 2014
Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent ...
Pearl Rebecca L RL a Department of Psychology . Yale University , New Haven , CT - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The objective of this research was to compare the effects of different causal attributions for overweight and obesity, among individuals with overweight and obesity, on weight-related beliefs, stigmatizing attitudes, and policy support. Design: In Study 1, an online sample of 95 U.S. adults rated the extent to which ...
Weaver Connie M CM Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, - - 2014
Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional ...
Scalbert Augustin A International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (AS); University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (LB); the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont-Ferrand, France (CM); Clermont University, Clermont-Ferrand, France (CM); the University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (CA-L); the University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark (LOD); Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom (JD); the University of California, Berkeley, CA (SMR); the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (JJJvdH); and the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada - - 2014
The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according to the diet. By its very nature ...
Marroquín-Cardona A G AG Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Escobedo, Nuevo León 66050, México. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision ...
Oehlke Kathleen K Max Rubner-Institut, Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. - - 2014
The development of engineered nanometre sized materials (ENM) produced with food-grade ingredients and designed as delivery systems for organic and inorganic materials has gained increasing interest. The major reason for this trend is the aim to overcome problems associated with the low bioavailability of many bioactive compounds (BC) which are ...
Vanheule Adriaan A Department of Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Crop Protection, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin ...
Cristino Luigia L Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, CNR, Pozzuoli, - - 2014
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a widespread intercellular signaling system that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, meant as the precise matching of caloric intake with energy expenditure which normally keeps body weight stable over time. Complex interactions between environmental and neurohormonal systems directly contribute to the balance of ...
Burger Kyle S KS Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically ...
Oliveira Cleber M CM Department of Entomology, Federal University of Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Campus Universitário, Viçosa, MG, 36570-000, - - 2014
One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the ...
Anderson Philip Sl - - 2014
Plasticity, i.e. non-heritable morphological variation, enables organisms to modify the shape of their skeletal tissues in response to varying environmental stimuli. Plastic variation may also allow individuals to survive in the face of new environmental conditions, enabling the evolution of heritable adaptive traits. However, it is uncertain whether such a ...
Ramaraj Rameshprabu R School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Algal community plays critical roles as the primary producer and as a major biotic component in the nutrient/energy cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The potential of fresh water algal biomass to mitigate global problems of food and energy and its significance as a carbon sink have been recognized. In this study, ...
van Bokhorst-van de Veen Hermien H Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The - - 2015
Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is still not fully understood. In this study, ...
Srinivasan Mandyam V MV Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia, - - 2014
Honeybees navigate to a food source using a sky-based compass to determine their travel direction, and an odometer to register how far they have travelled. The past 20 years have seen a renewed interest in understanding the nature of the odometer. Early work, pioneered by von Frisch and colleagues, hypothesized that ...
Halford Nigel G NG Department of Plant Biology and Crop Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, - - 2014
The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM ...
Mason Peri A PA University of Colorado Boulder, - - 2014
Advances in ecological immunity have illustrated that, like vertebrates, insects exhibit adaptive immunity, including induced changes in feeding behavior that aid the immune system. In particular, recent studies have pointed to the importance of protein intake in mounting an immune response. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the ...
Watson P P Addiction Development and Psychopathology (ADAPT) lab, Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Why do we indulge in food-seeking and eating behaviors at times when we are already fully sated? In the present study we investigated the hypothesis that food-associated cues in the environment can interfere with goal-directed action by eliciting food-seeking that is independent of the current desirability of the outcome. To ...
- - 2014
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify stair-climbing wheelchairs, a class III device, into class II (special controls) based on new information and subject to premarket notification, and further clarify the identification.
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