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Keet Corinne A - - 2014
Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach ...
Denton Sally-Ann SA Portsmouth Hospitals NHS - - 2014
In the UK, up to 6% of children are affected by food allergy. Accurate diagnosis, appropriate dietary management, family education, support and continuing follow up are essential to prevent further reactions and optimise the child's nutritional intake and growth. Setting up an improved, one- stop service to achieve these goals, ...
Dresser Rebecca - - 2014
In this issue, Paul Menzel and M. Colette Chandler-Cramer propose a novel advance directive. Besides giving competent people the opportunity to refuse future life-prolonging medical interventions, they say, advance directives should give people the opportunity to refuse ordinary food and water if they later experience severe dementia. This proposal is ...
- - 2014
A few years ago, I tried and failed to find a short essay arguing that, if there were tests that let physicians detect Alzheimer's disease well before symptoms appear, then at the very least, some very difficult questions about life planning would arise. That doctors will acquire that ability now ...
Gibney Michael J MJ Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; and School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Ulster, Northern Ireland - - 2014
In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies ...
Curtis Tanya Y TY Plant Biology and Crop Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United - - 2014
Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they ...
Barzegari Abolfazl A Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, - - 2014
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) revealed the significance of the gut microbiome in promoting health. Disruptions in microbiome composition are associated with the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The indigenous microflora has co-evolved with humans for millions of years and humans have preserved the inherited microbiomes through consumption of fermented foods ...
Kaml Craig - - 2014
A competency-based training curriculum framework for U.S. state food and feed testing laboratories personnel is being developed by the International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI) and three partners. The framework will help laboratories catalog existing training courses/modules, identify training gaps, inform training curricula, and create career-spanning professional development learning paths, ...
Baum Neil H - - 2014
All doctors and office staff go to restaurants and have men and women take our orders and deliver our food. These waiters and waitresses earn minimum wage and depend on tips for their income. Some of the best waiters and waitresses earn substantial incomes. This article will discuss the techniques ...
Gemeda Negero N Traditional & Modern Medicine Research Directorate, Ethiopian Health & Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, - - 2014
To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare ...
Crole Martina Rachel MR Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South - - 2014
Herbst corpuscles are widely distributed throughout the oropharynx of the ostrich and emu in contrast to the general situation in birds. Knowledge of the comparative distribution of Herbst corpuscles in the oropharynx of these two commercially important ratite species may assist in a better understanding of their feeding habits. Tissue ...
de Pascual-Teresa Sonia S Department of Metabolism and Nutrition. Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Jose Antonio Novais 10, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28008, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Anthocyanins are the main group of natural hydrosoluble pigments in plants. They introduce colouring to foods, with colours ranging from blue to red and orange. Nowadays, their importance for the Food and Pharmaceutical industries is mainly based in the existing scientific work evidencing their beneficial effects on the prevention of ...
Zamora-Ros Raul R Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (RZ-R, JAR, IR, and AS); the Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain (RZ-R); and the Cancer and Environment Unit, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France - - 2014
Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, ...
Ford Lara S LS Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, - - 2014
Food allergy and anaphylaxis occur most commonly in children under five, the majority of whom attend preschool and early childcare. Children under five differ significantly from school-aged children, as do their care environments, yet specific strategies for managing food allergies in early childcare settings are generally lacking in existing guidelines ...
Kemps Eva E a School of Psychology , Flinders University , Adelaide , - - 2014
Abstract Objective: This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. Design and Main Outcome Measures: We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment ...
Taylor John R N JR Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, South - - 2014
Sorghum and millet grains are generally rich in phytochemicals, particularly various types of phenolics. However, the types and amounts vary greatly between and within species. The food processing operations applied to these grains: dehulling and decortication, malting, fermentation and thermal processing dramatically affect the quantity of phenolics present, most generally ...
Varga János - - 2014
Abstract Black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri) are widely distributed in various habitats. They act as food spoilage organisms, human pathogens, and mycotoxin producers and are frequently encountered in indoor environments. Black Aspergilli, specifically A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius, produce different ochratoxins and fumonisins. Ochratoxins are known to induce ...
Hartmann Erica M EM CEA, DSV, IBEB, Lab Biochim System Perturb, Bagnols-sur-Cèze, F-30207, - - 2014
Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the ...
Amici Federica F Department of Comparative and Developmental Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany, - - 2014
Little evidence of calculated reciprocity has been found in non-human primates so far. In this study, we used a simple experimental set-up to test whether partners pulled a sliding table to altruistically provide food to each other in short-term interactions. We tested 46 dyads of chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, brown ...
Steensels Jan J Laboratory for Genetics and Genomics, Center of Microbial and Plant Genetics, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium and Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB, Bio-Incubator, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; email: - - 2014
Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent ...
Pearl Rebecca L RL a Department of Psychology . Yale University , New Haven , CT - - 2014
Abstract Objective: The objective of this research was to compare the effects of different causal attributions for overweight and obesity, among individuals with overweight and obesity, on weight-related beliefs, stigmatizing attitudes, and policy support. Design: In Study 1, an online sample of 95 U.S. adults rated the extent to which ...
Weaver Connie M CM Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, - - 2014
Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional ...
Scalbert Augustin A International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France (AS); University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (LB); the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont-Ferrand, France (CM); Clermont University, Clermont-Ferrand, France (CM); the University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (CA-L); the University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark (LOD); Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom (JD); the University of California, Berkeley, CA (SMR); the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (JJJvdH); and the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada - - 2014
The food metabolome is defined as the part of the human metabolome directly derived from the digestion and biotransformation of foods and their constituents. With >25,000 compounds known in various foods, the food metabolome is extremely complex, with a composition varying widely according to the diet. By its very nature ...
Marroquín-Cardona A G AG Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Escobedo, Nuevo León 66050, México. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision ...
Oehlke Kathleen K Max Rubner-Institut, Department of Food Technology and Bioprocess Engineering, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. - - 2014
The development of engineered nanometre sized materials (ENM) produced with food-grade ingredients and designed as delivery systems for organic and inorganic materials has gained increasing interest. The major reason for this trend is the aim to overcome problems associated with the low bioavailability of many bioactive compounds (BC) which are ...
Vanheule Adriaan A Department of Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Crop Protection, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin ...
Cristino Luigia L Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, CNR, Pozzuoli, - - 2014
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a widespread intercellular signaling system that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, meant as the precise matching of caloric intake with energy expenditure which normally keeps body weight stable over time. Complex interactions between environmental and neurohormonal systems directly contribute to the balance of ...
Burger Kyle S KS Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically ...
Oliveira Cleber M CM Department of Entomology, Federal University of Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Campus Universitário, Viçosa, MG, 36570-000, - - 2014
One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the ...
Anderson Philip Sl - - 2014
Plasticity, i.e. non-heritable morphological variation, enables organisms to modify the shape of their skeletal tissues in response to varying environmental stimuli. Plastic variation may also allow individuals to survive in the face of new environmental conditions, enabling the evolution of heritable adaptive traits. However, it is uncertain whether such a ...
Ramaraj Rameshprabu R School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Sansai, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand. Electronic address: - - 2014
Algal community plays critical roles as the primary producer and as a major biotic component in the nutrient/energy cycle in aquatic ecosystems. The potential of fresh water algal biomass to mitigate global problems of food and energy and its significance as a carbon sink have been recognized. In this study, ...
Srinivasan Mandyam V MV Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia, - - 2014
Honeybees navigate to a food source using a sky-based compass to determine their travel direction, and an odometer to register how far they have travelled. The past 20 years have seen a renewed interest in understanding the nature of the odometer. Early work, pioneered by von Frisch and colleagues, hypothesized that ...
Halford Nigel G NG Department of Plant Biology and Crop Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, - - 2014
The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM ...
Mason Peri A PA University of Colorado Boulder, - - 2014
Advances in ecological immunity have illustrated that, like vertebrates, insects exhibit adaptive immunity, including induced changes in feeding behavior that aid the immune system. In particular, recent studies have pointed to the importance of protein intake in mounting an immune response. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the ...
Watson P P Addiction Development and Psychopathology (ADAPT) lab, Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, The - - 2014
Why do we indulge in food-seeking and eating behaviors at times when we are already fully sated? In the present study we investigated the hypothesis that food-associated cues in the environment can interfere with goal-directed action by eliciting food-seeking that is independent of the current desirability of the outcome. To ...
- - 2014
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify stair-climbing wheelchairs, a class III device, into class II (special controls) based on new information and subject to premarket notification, and further clarify the identification.
Jones Julie Miller - - 2014
A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, ...
Payne Collin R CR New Mexico State University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial ...
North Michelle L ML Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; Allergy Research Unit, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, - - 2014
To review recent evidence relating phthalate exposures to allergies and asthma and to provide an overview for clinicians interested in the relevance of environmental health research to allergy and who may encounter patients with concerns about phthalates from media reports. PubMed, TOXLINE, and Web of Science were searched using the ...
Zepeda Lydia L Department of Consumer Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1300 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706 USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The purpose of this research is to investigate whether mobile food markets may be effective in facilitating healthy food choices in food deserts. We investigate who does and does not use mobile food markets and why, and whether mobile markets have the potential to alter attitudes and food choices, and ...
Wilson Mark E ME Division of Developmental & Cognitive Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30322. Electronic address: - - 2014
This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms ...
Crespi Erica J EJ School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164. Electronic address: - - 2014
The development of neuroendocrine regulation of food intake during early life has been shaped by natural selection to allow for optimal growth and development rates needed for survival. In vertebrates, neonates or early larval forms typically exhibit "feeding drive," characterized by a developmental delay in 1) responsiveness of the hypothalmus ...
Olstad Dana Lee DL Centre for Health Promotion Studies, 3-300 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, 11405 - 87 Ave., University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, - - 2014
Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase obesity risk. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children's access to healthy food and beverage choices in recreational facilities. The purpose ...
Ronit K K Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, - - 2014
Objective:Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognised that the industry has a role in and hence needs to be involved in halting the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self-regulation regarding food ...
Davies Scott S School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The decision of when to breed is crucial to the reproductive success and fitness of seasonally breeding birds. The availability of food for adults prior to breeding has long been thought to play a critical role in timing the initiation of seasonal reproductive events, in particular laying. However, unequivocal evidence ...
Praticò Andrea D AD Unit of Pediatric Pneumoallergology and Cystic Fibrosis, University of Catania, Catania, - - 2014
Egg allergy is the second most frequent food allergy in children of the Western Countries, with an overall prevalence of 1-3%. Today strict avoidance diet is the only treatment, but its feasibility is difficult to obtain in childhood because of the large amount of egg proteins present in different foods. ...
Archer Will W Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of ...
Bauer S S Department of Bird Migration, Swiss Ornithological Institute, 6204 Sempach, - - 2014
Animal migrations span the globe, involving immense numbers of individuals from a wide range of taxa. Migrants transport nutrients, energy, and other organisms as they forage and are preyed upon throughout their journeys. These highly predictable, pulsed movements across large spatial scales render migration a potentially powerful yet underappreciated dimension ...
Araus Jose Luis JL University of Barcelona, Barcelona, - - 2014
Food security is a global concern in view of the ongoing global (social and climate) change. The challenges to food security from global climate change, sharply increasing food and feed demands, coupled with degradation and scarcity of natural resources, are indeed urgent and real (Prasanna et al. 2013). Crop production ...
Anna Claret C IRTA-Food Technology, XaRTA. Finca Camps i Armet, E-17121 Monells, - - 2014
Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the ...
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